Chapter 11-12 AP

Each state has ___ senators elected every ___ years.
two, six
The U.S. Congress is bicameral, as is every American state legislature except ____, which has one house (unicameral).
The Constitutional Convention resulted in what form of legislature?
Partisan ___ occurs when members of both parties move away from the moderate middle and share increasingly less common ground.
In the House of Representatives, who is second in authority to the Speaker of the House?
majority leader
Members of Congress differ from the larger American population in they are disproportionately ____.
white, upper-middle-class, middle-aged, and make
_____ is a good example of Congressional casework.
assistance to a constituent in obtaining a Social Security check
“Pork” legislation may aid the district of a member of Congress by _____.
increasing jobs and revenue with federally funded projects
The English politician and philosopher Edmund Burke advocated the concept of legislators as ____.
trustees using their best judgement to make policy in the interests of the people
Congressional whips serve what main function?
persuade party members to toe the party line
______ is the only formal method for ending a filibuster and requires the approval of ____ senators.
cloture, sixty
Which incumbent advantage does Edwards say is more important in the Senate than in the House?
position taking
A ____ is introduced (in similar or identical versions) in both the House and the Senate at the same time.
companion bill
What best explains the overwhelming advantage incumbents possess in seeking reelection over opposition candidates?
name recognition, access to media, and franking privelage
No bill can be passed unless both House and Senate agree on it; each body can thus ___ the policies of the other.
Which statement is true of the House of Representatives?
members are elected every two years and apportioned to states based on population
Figure 11.1, The Incumbency Factor in Congressional Elections, demonstrates the rarity of an incumbent losing a seat in election. Which incumbent advantage involves service to individuals and the district?
credit claiming
Why are there currently 435 members in the House of Representatives?
the number is fixed at this limit by a statute
The ____ makes economic projections about the performance of the economy, the costs of proposed policies, and the economic effects of taxing and spending alternatives.
Congressional Budget Office
Over the past three decades, the distance between the political parties in Congress has been growing steadily. As the parties have pulled apart ideologically, they also have become more _____ internally.
A ____ is a group of members of Congress who share some interest or characteristic; their goal is to promote the interests around which they are formed.
_____ committees exist in both the House and Senate, may be temporary or permanent, and usually have a focused responsibility.
Party leaders form the two chambers of Congress sometimes use ____ legislation that addresses numerous and perhaps unrelated subjects, issues, and programs to create winning coalitions, forcing members to support the entire bill to obtain the individual parts.
The true leader of the Senate is the ___, elected by the majority party.
majority leader
Most of the real work of Congress goes on in ___, which dominate congressional policymaking in all its stages.
____ organize hearings, research legislative options, draft reports on bills, write legislation, and keep tabs on the activities of the executive branch.
committee staffers
In the Senate, and particularly in the House of Representatives, it takes a large shift in votes to affect the outcomes of most elections. To increase turnover in the membership of Congress, some reformers have proposed ___ for representatives and senators.
term limitations
Which of the following groups is most underrepresented in Congress?
The vice president’s only constitutionally defined job is to serve as ____ of the Senate.
Members of Congress are not typical or average Americans; thus, they cannot claim ____ representation- representing constituents by mirroring their personal, politically relevant characteristics. But they may engage in ____ representation- representing the interests of groups of which they themselves are not members.
descriptive; substantive
The ___ holds the only legislative office mandates by the Constitution.
Speaker of the House
Every bill goes to a ____, which holds the power to pass it or defeat it.
standing committee
In the House of Representatives, a bill goes to the Rules Committee _____.
after is is amended or rewritten in its full committee
What is the name given to federal projects, grants, and contracts available to state and local governments, businesses, colleges, and other institutions in a congressional district?
____ is defined as the activities of members of Congress that help constitutents as individuals, particularly by cutting through bureaucratic red tape.
Nearly one-half of House personal staff and nearly one-third of Senate personal staff work in Congressional members’ offices in ____; this makes it easier for people to make contact with the staff.
their state capitals
What is the typical process followed by a bill in the House of Representatives?
introduction, committee referral, subcommittee, full committee report, rules committee, full House vote, conference committee, send to president
A special joint committee created to reconcile differences in bills passed by the House and Senate is called a(n) ____ committee.
Fundamental flaws in the operations and management of FEMA became evident in its response to four hurricanes that hit Florida in 2004; yet by 2005, when Katrina hit the Gulf Coast, Congress had not yet held hearings to pinpoint and resolve FEMA’s problems. Similarly, Congress missed the fact that various agencies with responsibility for supervising the banking industry were negligent in identifying looming financial problems that led to the recession of 2008-2009. These incidents represent failures of ______.
The committee system in Congress is highly ____; thus, it is open to the appeals of a wide range of special interests represented by highly paid lobbyists. If Congress were more ____ and only those interests cleared by the leadership received hearings, special interests might be constrained-but then there would be a danger that only the interests reflecting the views of the leadership would be heard.
decentralized; centralized
Over the past thirty years, the parties have become increasingly polarized; at the core of the increased ideological distance between the parties have been increasingly divergent electoral coalitions. One important factor is that state legislatures have drawn the boundaries of House districts so that the partisan divisions in the constituencies of representatives have become _____.
more one-sided
There is some evidence that lobbying pays off, but efforts to change policy usually meet with resistance. Generally, when lobbying does succeed, which of the following patterns tends to hold true?
lobbying against change is more successful than lobbying for it
The House minority leader _____.
is the principal member of the minority party in the House
Charges with the responsibility to ____, the _______ is almost certainly the most powerful committee in either chamber of Congress.
grant and set procedural rules, House Rules Committee
This individual keeps close contact with all members of his or her party, counts votes for key legislation, prepares summaries of bills, and acts as a communications link within the party.
majority/minority whip
Which statement about incumbency is most accurate?
incumbents have a huge advantage in reelection
What does Morris Fiorina argue regarding policymaking?
incumbents’ policy positions can make enemies as well as friends
In the House of Representatives, more than ____ percent of incumbents.
Which example best demonstrates a legislator acting as a trustee of his or her constituency?
a legislator considers public opinion, refining it with information and careful thought
A lobbyist for the NRA would be most effective when targeting a legislator ____.
whose voting behavior supports gun control 1
Why is modern technology important to members of Congress seeking reelection?
it allows Congressional staffers to track constituents’ interests and opinions so the incumbent candidates can then engage voters on issues they care about
____ occurs when congresspersons help constituents as individuals-cutting through bureaucratic red tape to give people what they think they have a right to get.
The term ____ refers to federal projects, grants, and contracts available to state and local governments, businesses, colleges, and other institutions in a congressional district: it provides congresspersons with a means of servicing their constituencies.
pork barrel
In the 2009-2010 election cycle, congressional candidates and supporting party committees spent more than _____ to contest 435 House and 33 Senate seats.
$2 billion
How are committee chairs selected in the House?
interviews to determine party loyalty
The Constitution specifies that members of the House must be at least ____ years old and American citizens for ___ years.
Which response best reflects the dilemma of pork in legislation?
programmatic requests favor one district at the expense of all American taxpayers.
What best represents the trend of party polarization over the last three decades?
the parties have become more homogeneous internally as they have pulled apart ideologically.
Consider Boston’s “Big Dig” project pictured in this chapter. Congressional servicing of the constituency is best defines as ____.
casework and pork barrel spending
Which one of the powers listed below is a constitutional power that the president shares with the Senate?
making treaties
Which institutional resource is closest to the president?
white house staff
In which institutional resource are leaders both appointed by the president and approved by the Senate?
the cabinet
Which of these became an official presidential qualification in 1951?
a maximum of two terms
What is executive privilege?
the right to keep communications confidential to the presidency
Who has the role of breaking a tie in the Senate?
vice president
Historically, vice-presidential candidates are chosen to ____.
placate symbolic constituency
What does the Twenty-Second Amendment do?
requires that presidents serve only two terms
Presidents have to spend time leading the legislature in order to gain support for their initiatives because the American system is one of _____.
shared powers
Which presidential power is balanced by required approval of the Senate with a two-thirds vote?
negotiating treaties with other nations
Congress can remove a president through _____.
Whom did the Framers expect to be the first president of the United States?
What has to happen in Congress before the president can be impeached?
the House can impeach the president by a simple majority; the Senate needs a two-thirds majority
Which of these presidents is arguably the first modern president?
Franklin Delano Roosevelt
Throughout most of its history, which was considered an insignificant office?
vice president
Which presidential oversight includes the State of the Union address?
the president must inform and convene Congress
What was intended to give Congress a greater voice in the introduction of American troops into hostilities?
the War Powers Resolution
Based on the four points regarding impeachable offenses, which of the following might constitute an impeachable offense?
a president’s decision to invade a country solely to increase public support
How did Walter Mondale’s actions change expectations of service for the vice presidency?
Mondale became a close advisor to the president
Which of the following is an example of the rally-round-the-flag effect?
George W. Bush’s popularity was boosted following the 9/11 terrorist attacks.
The use of ___ in foreign matters is an example of the president acting as a global leader.
executive agreements
What is the purpose of the Council of Economic Advisers?
to advise the president on economic policy
Which best describes the president’s constitutional duty to Congress?
the president must give Congress an occasional update on the state of the union
Which is one of the reasons that power and responsibility of the presidency has grown?
the united states has increased prominence on the world stage.
American presidents have a variety of backgrounds. Who was the only political scientist to become president?
Woodrow Wilson
What role does a president play when celebrating a national holiday?
chief of state/head of state
Which reviews legislative proposals and assesses their budgetary implications?
Office of Management and Budget
Refer to Table 12.5. Which president exercised his veto power the most?
What did the Framers do to avoid anarchy or monarchy in the executive branch?
they included separation of powers in the Constitution
Refer to Table 12.3. Which of the president’s constitutional powers gives the president the ability to shape the federal courts far into the future?
The president can influence Congress through evidence of popular support, otherwise known as _____. It offers legitimacy and credibility to a recently elected president’s proposals.
an electoral mandate
Presidents with high levels of ____ have an easier time influencing Congress, while those with low levels find influencing Congress more difficult.
public approval
Which is a group of presidential advisers? This group is too large and too diverse to serve as a collective board.
the cabinet
The chief to staff, press secretary, and national security assistant are all members of which group?
White House staff
What is the role of the National Security Council?
to advise the president on national security
Which statement about the news is generally true?
the news is usually framed in themes
In which way do modern presidents differ from the original intentions of the Framers of the Constitution?
modern presidents are much more influential in the legislative process than the Framers originally intended.
How might presidents use their powers of persuasion in the legislative process?
in leading public opinion to support their policy agendas
Why does the perception of an electoral mandate matter in presidential politics?
because modern presidents are more dependent on the people for election and more involved in policy making than early presidents, they are prone to claim the mandate of the people when governing
In which capacity is a modern vice president particularly influential in American politics?
as an advisor in the policy-making process
Which of the following statements best characterizes the nature of the conflict between presidents and Congress?
the conflict is integral to the design of the Constitution, deliberately intended by the authors of the constitution
Which of the following statements best describes contemporary relationships between presidents and Congress?
they are generally antagonistic
How has the office of vice president changed over the years?
the vice president has been more involved in the policy-making process in recent years than in the past
Which of the following leadership abilities is critical to presidential success?
the ability to persuade members of Congress and the American public
How might rallying events affect presidential politics?
rallying events tend to temporarily increase presidential approval ratings, providing windows of opportunity to press to action on their agendas
When might citizens be particularly concerned about an expansion of presidential power?
when they oppose the president’s agenda
How do presidential elections affect the political dynamic of a president’s domestic political agenda?
presidential elections increase the legitimacy and credibility of a president’s proposals
According to the text, what is true about most of the presidents following Lyndon Johnson?
they opposed government growth
What distinguishes the modern/contemporary president from the institution originally envisioned by the Framers of the Constitution?
many presidents have enlarges the pwer of the presidency by expanding the president’s responsibilities and political resources.
Which word best describes the language used by the Framers to describe the office of the president?
What was the turning point that substantially increased presidential responsibilities?
the economic and social turmoil of the Great Depression
Why was it significant that George Washington was the first person elected to the presidency?
his early actions served to establish important precedents that greatly increased the political legitimacy of the office
What distinguishes contemporary presidents from early presidents?
contemporary presidents are much more active in the formulation of policy than early presidents
How does the White House staff differ from the president’s Cabinet?
the white house staff has greater access to and more influence on the president than the
Which of the following statements provides the best characterization of the members of the White House staff?
the white house staff is composed of individuals personally and politically close to the president chosen specifically to serve the president’s needs
Why was the Twenty-Fifth Amendment to the Constitution adopted?
to clear up ambiguities over the constitutional provisions surrounding the role of the vice president should the president die or become incapacitated
Which describes something the George W. Bush used which caused critics to charge that presidential powers threatened the constitutional balance of powers?
he withheld information from Congress under the doctrine of executive privilege
Which of the following statements has been identified as a potential problem associated with the role of the First Lady in American politics?
the public has no mechanism for holding First ladies accountable for their policy influence
Why was the Wars Powers Resolution (1973) adopted by Congress?
to reinvigorate the role of Congress in the conduct war
Refer to Figure 12.3. Which statement reflects the information displayed in the figure?
Barack Obama’s approval rating was lower in 2012 than when he took office

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