Chapter 10: Sex and Gender

Sex
Biological classification based on genetic composition, anatomy, and hormones
? What is between your legs
Gender
Psychological and social phenomena associated with being feminine or masculine as these concepts are defined in given culture
? What is in your head
Why is the distinction between and the research on sex and gender important?
? Differences in health between sexes
? Every cell is sexed, every person is gendered
? How sex and gender work together to affect health and chronic illnesses and diseases
? There is evidence that there is are differences between the sexes behaviourally and socially
Hermaphrodites
? Ovarian AND testicular tissues (person has both of these)
? Women and men’s reproductive organs present though life
? We develop (very early on) with bi potential tissue and depending on genetic blue print and hormones the bi potential tissue into one of the sex organs? regular case
What are two examples of hermaphrodites?
? Flat worms ? battle to become male
? Evolutionarily wants to be male so they don’t have to worry about offspring as it is an issue especially in environments with reduced resources
? Clownfish
?Top leader is female and everyone else is male
?Strongest male is the only way that mates with the lead female and when this lead female dies the males becomes female
Leader? female
Second leader? male that mates with lead female and then becomes female and becomes the leader
Pseudohermaphrodites
? Possess two gonads of same kind, but external genitalia and secondary sex characteristics do not match chromosomal makeup
Pseudohermaphrodites: 5-alpha reductase deficiency
5-alpha reductase converts testosterone (T) to dihydrotestosterone (DHT)
? When the DHT is more potent than T it leads to being female morphology until puberty but at puberty conversion occurs to male
? Gender identity follows closely after this conversion

Genetic males develop as females for the first 13 years of their life but at puberty there is a spurt in hormones and the extra testosterone than pushes them to male? the bi tissue is still able to change
?matching gender identity

Genetic Inheritance
? Most basic determinant of whether individual is male or female
? 23rd pair of chromosomes determines person’s sex
? Male has X and Y chromosome
? Female has 2 X chromosomes
How is sex influenced or developed early in development?
? Bipotentiality: Human embryos have an undifferentiated, or all-purpose, gonad (sex gland) that can become either testis or ovary
? Presence of Y chromosome directs undifferentiated gonad to develop into testis
? Y chromosome leads to hormonal changes
? Blueprint of sexual development is female ? if everything was left alone then development would occur as female it is only when you add hormones to suppress or bring out other elements that male development occurs
Genetic abnormalities that occur at conception
? Can have major implications for later development
? Klinefelter’s syndrome (XXY)
? Phenotypically male
? Confused because there are female components
? X competes with Y
Gender differences
? Men are larger and stronger ? because testosterone builds muscle
? Estrogen leads to bone crystallization which reduces growth and that why man can grow more and become taller because they lack estrogen which inhibits the same for women
? Testosterone leads to greater risk seeking behaviour ? evolutionary adaptation
? Males more vulnerable than females to developmental disorders and certain fatal diseases
? Males have greater chance of experiencing developmental difficulties

Among the possible causes for the above gender differences are biological factors, social roles, differing stressors men and women face, gender differences in behavioural risk factors, and gender differences in personality

Sexual orientation
? Encompasses erotic and emotional feelings for same-sex or opposite-sex individuals
Males are usually attracted to females, and vice versa
Sexual orientation
Gender Identity
Most people have the deep inner conviction that they belong to the sex they possess
Anatomical Sex- How do males and females differ in their development of anatomical sex?
Initiated by action of hormones during embryonic and fetal stages and adolescence
Males:
? Increase in the level of testosterone at puberty
? Development and growth of penis, testes, growth of penis and scrotum, and secondary sex characteristics
Females:
? Increase in estrogen at puberty
? Growth of uterus, vagina, the first menstrual period, and development of secondary sex characteristics
Transgender
? Person who moves away from initially assigned gender
? Strong identification with the other sex
? Switch to be more in line with your sexual orientation
? Cross-dressing, hormones, surgery
Controversies:
?Transgender as a mental disorder
? DSM-VI-TR

** Sexual orientation or sexual identification can be ambiguous
? Researchers are interested in this community to compare behaviour, personality, and transition

Adrenogenital Syndrome
? Caused by exposure to excessive amounts of androgens (such as testosterone or DHT) during fetal period
? It can result in a female with genitals resembling those of males (due to the male drive hormones that are in excess)
Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome
LOOK FEMALE, THINK FEMALE, BUT GENETICALLY MALE

? Failure by male embryo to RESPOND to male hormones
? 5 alpha: you can respond to it but there is just not enough of that hormone
Pubertal feminization occurs:
? Individuals with AIS DO respond to estrogen
? The testis are a source of androgen, which is converted to estrogen
? Normal female secondary sex characteristics develop
Physical Indicators of AIS in adolescence:
?Amenorrhea: abnormal absence of menstruation
? No virilization (biological development of sex differences, changes that make a male body different from a female body; most changes produced by androgens) despite normal to high levels of circulating testosterone
? Absence of post-pubertal axillary hair
?Markedly decreased or absent pubic hair
Physical measurements in adulthood:
?Women with CAIS tend to be tall and experience normal feminization of secondary sexual characteristics
?Aside from lacking female-typical amounts of axillary and pubic hair, the external female genitalia of all participants appear normal

? Look female, think female, but genetically male:
? Testes are inside and the hormones bring them out and since they are missing those hormones (lacking receptors for testosterone and not the hormone) it is female characteristics that develop outwardly
? Tissue stays female because it missed hormone to develop into a penis
BECAUSE THE BLUEPRINT BIOLOGICALLY IS FEMALE
? Inside there is no other female organs
? Don’t need hormones to be female but need hormones to be male
? Gender identity: Identify as female ? so is identity external or biological?
When you discover what you are decide if you want to stay the way you are or switch to male?

Human Sexual Behaviour
? Complex interplay of genetic, prenatal, and environmental factors
? Men and women have measurable quantities of hormones estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone
? Gender differences in these hormones
? Instinctive: not a true instinct as in the end you decide to engage or not but two people isolated from everyone else will figure out how to reproduce
Parts of Sex Behaviour
Both men and women:
? Excitement
? Plateau
? Orgasm
? Resolution
Men: Refractory Period
Women: Estrus phase? attractivity, proceptivity, receptivity
Sexual Dysfunction
Persistent impairment of sexual interest or response that causes interpersonal difficulties or personal distress
Hypo(lacking)active Sexual Desire Disorder
Persistently or recurrently deficient (or absent) sexual fantasies and desire for sexual activity
Sexual Aversion Disorder
Active dislike and avoidance of genital contact with sexual partners
? Happens before puberty, however it is not considered a disorder @ that age, it is if it is still occurring after puberty that it can be diagnosed ? Brain in children is not receptive to these interests
Gender Identity in Children
Most children between ages of 2 and 3 can label themselves as boys or girls and classify other people as members of the same or other sex
Development of gender roles in children
Children learn how gender roles or behaviours are considered appropriate for males and females in a given culture, relate to clothing, games, tools, and toys
? It is learned from very on the concept of boys vs girls and constancy (girls will be girls, boys will be boys) and the association with specific behaviours and values
? Develop gender stereotypes @ the same time they develop gender identity
? One or the other: dramatic or natural response
? MAJOR gender stereotypes occur
? Hard to pin point how you acquire gender roles and identities
Observational Learning Theory
Children learn gender roles from parents (or other caregivers) through rewards and punishment, along with imitation and modeling
? Behaviour linked with operant and classical conditioning
Cognitive Developmental Theory
Cognitive factors give rise to gender identity, gender stability, and gender constancy
Stereotype
? Socially shared beliefs held about members of a particular group
? Can be limiting and can constitute form of social control
Gender stereotypes:
? Not limited to a set of adjectives
? Prescriptions for behaviours, occupations, and physical appearance
Development of gender stereotypes
? By the age of 5, most children around the world associate being aggressive and strong with males and being appreciative and soft-hearted with females
? By age 8, children have learned about concepts of masculinity and femininity
What are stereotyped male characteristics?
? Masculine
? Adventurous
? Achievement
? Assertiveness
? Independence
What are stereotyped feminine characteristics?
? Expressive
? Communal
? Emotional responses
? Interactions and relationships with other people
Androgynous
? High levels of characteristics associated with both males and females
What are some research found differences between males and females?
? Different hormones lead to difference in physical size and musculature
? Life expectancy
? Women outlive men
? Slight structural differences in brain
? Verbal ability
? Women better ? evolutionary advantage: women place a stronger emphasis on communication and if they stayed @ home with children they they would have a stronger emphasis on teaching which requires verbal ability (better development of it due to practice)
? Intellect: not a big bias for one sex or the other
? Spacial orientation and math
? Men better ? evolutionary advantage: navigation

HOWEVER Variation is greater WITHIN than BETWEEN

* The expectation that a test should lead to gender differences actually led for the output to produce gender differences

Gender differences in mathematical and spatial ability
? Males seem to perform better than females on tasks involving mathematical and spatial ability
? Difference in mathematical ability seems limited to non-classroom tests as in class girls obtain higher grades in mathematics than boys (other factors could be influencing these differences than mathematical and spatial ability. Ex. girls focus more in school)
? Gender stereotypes and differential opportunities may have an impact of differences in mathematical and spatial ability
? The expectation that a test should lead to gender differences actually led for the output to produce gender differences
Gender differences in communication style
? Men and women view communication differently
? For most women, communication is primary way to est and maintain relationships
? Men tend to view communication as way of exerting their control, preserving independence, and enhancing status
Difference in violence among males and females
? Vast majority of crimes are committed by men
? Gender accounts for small proportion of aggression in those research studies
Unprovoked situations: men are more aggressive than women
Provoked situations: gender differences are much smaller
In danger women will be similarly aggressive as men
Sexism
? Differential treatment of individual on basis of sex
? Can be applied to discriminate against men and women
How is careers influenced by gender and gender stereotypes?
? Gender stereotypes still influence job market
? During recent decades, increasing # of women entered workforce for personal and financial reasons
? Career choices influenced by a variety of factors, some of which can reduce influence of individual sexism
1758-1866
Women are barred from voting
1857
Women are allowed to divorce their husbands
1859
Women can own property (but still can’t sell it)
1867-1884
Women are not allowed to become elected
1875
Grace Lockhart is the first woman to receive a university degree in Canada
1888
First female students @ McGill graduate
1910
Annie Macleod becomes the first woman to earn a PhD @ Mcgill
1914
Alice Jamieson appointed the first female judge in Canada
1917
More women than men enrolled in the Faculty of Arts
1918
Women gain the right to vote in federal elections
1936
Maude Abott is the first woman to be admitted to the McGill Faculty Club