Chapter 10 Review

Robert Fulton
built the first paddle-wheel steamboat
James Watt
improved the steam engine
Giuseppe Garibaldi
leader in the struggle for Italian unification
romanticism
an intellectual movement noted for its appreciation of feelings and human emotion
Simon Bolivar
led revolts against Spanish rule in Venezuela, Colombia, and Ecuador
puddling
a process for removing impurities from crude iron
Miguel Hidalgo
Mexican priest who led native people in a revolt against Spanish rule
Compromise of 1867
created the dual monarchy of Austria-Hungary
Benito Juarez
initiated reforms in Mexican government, including redistribution of land to the poor
realism
the practice of representing real life without idealization and literature
the creation of the Second Empire
The 1848 revolution in France resulted in
German unification
The Frankfurt Assembly failed to achieve
emergence of the middle class and the working class
The social change brought by the Industrial Revolution was evident in the
destroy the Concert of Europe and leave Russia without allies
The effect of the Crimean War was to
nationalism
The revolutionary outbursts in Europe in the 1830s and the 1840s were sparked by attitudes of
workers had to work regular hours and perform repetitive tasks
The factory created a new labor system in which
a movement towards socialism
The harsh conditions created by the Industrial Revolution gave rise to
had a lot of money and natural resources
One reason Great Britain led the way in the Industrial Revolution was that it
slavery
The greatest threat to American unity in the mid-1800s was
draining raw materials from Latin American countries while keeping them dependent on manufactured goods
Foreign investors ensured their continued domination of the Latin American economy by
spinning jenny
invention that improved thread production
capital
supply of money
industrial capitalism
economic system based on industrial production
steam engine
machine powered by coal, making it possible to locate factories anywhere, including away from rivers
enclosure movement
the fencing of meadows and fields, which kept peasants from using them for grazing and forced many to move to towns for work
transportation and power
The Industrial Revolution started in Britain partly because its rivers provided
coal was needed to produce iron and to run steam engines
Why did coal production expand greatly during the Industrial Revolution?
goods could be moved faster from the factories to the places they would be sold
How did the railroads guarantee the success of the Industrial Revolution?
railroads
Industrialization spread rapidly in both Europe and the United States thanks to