Chapter 10 (American Education)

Horace Mann
-normal schools
-value of women as teachers
Catherine Beecher
-teachers so civilize the west
-christian, female teachers
Issues as teachers
-couldn’t marry
-couldn’t be seen in public with men other than fathers or brothers
-paid less than male teachers
Willard Elsbree
-wrote The American Teacher: Evolution of a Profession in a Democracy
-claims the civil war caused the drop in male teaching
Responsibilities of teachers (past)
-fight over crowding, epidemics, drugs, and crime
-prepare students to work in a the modern factory
-loyalty oaths to the US
-shifts b/w cold war and war on poverty, guiding student to labor market
-19th century just had to take a test
-centralization of certification lead to an increase of normal schools and colleges of edu, state certification laws, etc
NCLB and the quality of teachers
-“teachers must be high-quality”
-causes issues for veterans, rural, and science teachers
-goal is to increase student achievement by improving teacher and principal quality
What is a high quality teacher?
The US DOE says:
1) bachelor’s degree or higher
2) full state certification
3) demonstrating knowledge in subjects taught
a) elementary teacher must pass state tests
b) middle/high must pass test or hold an academic major
c) veterans must meet competency by meeting requirements of new teacher or meeting state requirements
Third Annual Report
1) be established by state appropriate academic subject matter knowledge and teaching skills
2) be aligned with state content and standards
3) provide objective, coherent info about the teacher’s attainment of the knowledge
for veteran teachers to demonstrate competence
Rewards of teaching
-A Place Called School by John Goodland
-teachers make 200 decisions an hour
-financial (?)
-Ancillary rewards (vacations and tenure)
Working conditions
-average 45 hour work-week
-class size
-time pressure (sizer: book from the perspective of a teacher who cares about his work but has to compromise due to the realities of public teaching)
– in “High School” by **Boyer (teacher overwhelmed by course load, seeks outside employment, clerical and administrative chores, records, counseling, isolation, no permanent classroom, lack of public recognition)
Teacher Turn-over
-teachers at high-poverty schools are most likely to leave
-16.9% usually leave/transfer a year (21.1% in high-poverty)
Teacher Unions
-NEA (National Edu Association) and AFT (American Federation of Teachers)
-Margaret Haley: protect the interests of children, workers, and democracy (aft)
-Democrats are more towards unions
-both have full time lobbyists
-Failure to merge, but made NEAFT Partnership
-goal of nationalizing the work of state education associations
-1857 meeting in Philadelphia
-collective bargaining
-power decreased as federal increased
-2004 campaigned to amend NCLB, more flexibility and not just test scores for evaluation, discriminatory religious practices, funds to help teachers be “high-quality”, allow minors to count, extend time to improve.
-began with female grade-school teachers for adequate pensions laws in Illinois
-First was 1897 by Goggin and Haley
-under the umbrella of the AFL
-teacher welfare issues
-control started in 1944
-collective bargaining but a no-strike policy
-also criticizes NCLB
-all edu workers
Performance based pay
-usually based on qualifications and seniority
-should not be on test scores
-would have to consider: agreed-upon standards, support for professional development, incentives available to all, stable funding, etc
Assault of teachers unions’ collective bargaining rights
-restrict rights of teachers
-limited bargaining to salary
-NEA says no
Teacher’s rights
-academic freedom (can research what you want)
-protecting free speech
-3 major (1: speech and conduct in relations with administrators and school boards, 2: speech of teachers in the classroom, 3: rights outside school)
Pickering vs BOE of Township
-teacher fired for writing a criticizing letter to the superintendent about raising money
-facts were incorrect
-ruling: teacher could not be dismissed
Rights of teachers case in alabama
– teacher assigned “welcome to the monkey house”
-school said it was “literary garbage”
-ruling: denial of first amendment rights
-not proven or disturbing to class
Palmer vs BOE (1979)
-jehovas witness teacher didn’t want to talk about the flag
-ruling: 1st amendment doesn’t let teachers do whatever the want
Sheehan v St. Peters
-threw rocks at girl while teacher was absent
-school should have been watching
When are teachers liable?
1- if teacher injure or don’t protect
2- do not use due care
3- careless
4- when student sustain provable injuries

(probably should have insurance)

Alida Gebser
-sexual relations with teacher
-he was fired
-school system not responsible because they didn’t know
Adler v. BOE
-upheld the right of new york to use membership lists for not hiring or dismissal
-argued that had a right to devise reasonable terms of employment in the school system
Keyishain vs. BOE
-teacher refused to sign something that said he wasn’t a communist
-court decided that mere membership does not mean that someone is a complete communist who wants to over-throw the government
How can a teacher be dismissed for personal matters?
-if it interferes with their teaching
-not directly stated by the courts
-there should be some kind of agreement between the teachers and their schools
BOE v. James (1972)
teacher could not be dismissed for wearing a armband to protest the vietnam war because it doesn’t hinder learning