Chapter 1 Psychology

1. Psychology is defined as the scientific study of
a. behavior and mental processes.
b. diagnosing and treating behavioral disorders.
c. conscious and unconscious mental processes.
d. the mind
a. behavior and mental processes.
2. The difference between pure and applied research is the difference between
a. prediction and control.
b. practice and theory.
c. research for its own sake and research to solve specific problems.
d. application and adaptation.
c. research for its own sake and research to solve specific problems.
3. School psychologists are employed by school districts to
a. develop achievement and aptitude tests.
b. identify and assist students who have problems that interfere with their learning.
c. study hereditary and environmental influences on the development of students.
d. develop instructional methods for teachers to employ.
b. identify and assist students who have problems that interfere with their learning.
4. The first person to show how scientific methods could be used to investigate psychological phenomena was
a. Wilhelm Wundt. c. Charles Darwin.
b. William James. d. Gustav Fechner.
d. Gustav Fechner.
5. John B. Watson argued for a psychology based on the study of
a. stream of consciousness.
b. unconscious mental processes.
c. measurable behavior.
d. sensation, feelings, and mental images.
c. measurable behavior.
6. B. F. Skinner studied learning in lower animals by using
a. reinforcement. c. introspection.
b. insight. d. trial and error.
a. reinforcement.
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7. Gestalt psychologists believed that problem solving is not always accomplished by mechanical repetition but rather is accomplished by sudden ___________ in which a solution is found.
a. insight c. introspection
b. reinforcement d. evolution
a. insight
8. Neural processing is to the biological perspective as information processing is to the __________ perspective.
a. humanistic-existential c. learning
b. psychodynamic d. cognitive
d. cognitive
9. __________ psychologists take the position that learning is essential in describing, predicting, controlling, and explaining behavior.
a. Neoanalytic c. Humanistic-existential
b. Behavioral d. Biological
b. Behavioral
10. A(n) __________ is a specific statement about behavior or mental processes that is tested through research.
a. observation c. theory
b. scientific method d. hypothesis
d. hypothesis
11. In a __________, each member of a population has an equal chance of being selected to participate.
a. random sample c. stratified sample
b. selection sample d. free sample
a. random sample
12. A correlation coefficient is a number
a. indicating the percentile of a score.
b. representing a location on the normal curve.
c. that expresses the strength and direction of a relationship between two variables.
d. that presents the average relationship.
c. that expresses the strength and direction of a relationship between two variables.
13. If you were to conduct an experiment on the effects of temperature on aggressive behavior, temperature would be the __________ variable.
a. dependent c. hypothetical
b. independent d. correlated
b. independent
14. Theories allow psychologists to make __________, such as a client’s chance of recovery.
a. descriptions c. predictions
b. explanations d. beliefs
c. predictions
15. Diagnosing the severity of mental illness and behavior problems is usually the job of a(n) __________ psychologist.
a. clinical c. school
b. counseling d. educational
a. clinical
16. __________ psychologists focus on the influence of groups on behavior, while __________psychologists focus on the influence of an individual’s traits on behavior.
a. Personality: Social c. Social: Personality
b. School: Educational d. Educational: School
c. Social: Personality
17. How the group affects the individual and the effects of the individual on the group are the concerns of __________ psychologists.
a. clinical c. sport
b. consumer d. social
d. social
18. The design of the instrument layout of a new helicopter was carried out by industrial engineers in consultation with __________ psychologists.
a. consumer c. industrial
b. experimental d. human factors
d. human factors
19. Structuralism defined experience in terms of
a. behavioral tendencies and habits.
b. the continuity of consciousness and unconscious processes.
c. the functions of consciousness.
d. sensations, feelings, and mental images.
d. sensations, feelings, and mental images.
20. The school of psychology that emphasizes the purposes of mind and behavior and views consciousness as a continuous, not discrete, process is called
a. functionalism. c. structuralism.
b. behaviorism. d. psychoanalysis.
a. functionalism.
21. Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution predicted that organisms that survived and reproduced were __________ than those less fit.
a. more intelligent
b. better adapted to the environment
c. more conscious of their surroundings
d. better at problem solving
b. better adapted to the environment
22. In his research on problem solving in chimpanzees, Kohler concluded that the chimp suddenly solved a problem and reached the banana because of
a. intelligence. c. environmental clues.
b. reinforcement. d. insight.
d. insight.
23. The school of psychology that places unconscious impulses and desires at the center of human behavior is
a. psychoanalysis. c. functionalism.
b. structuralism d. Gestalt psychology.
a. psychoanalysis.
24. Which of the following statements distinguishes psychoanalysis from other schools of psychology?
a. Unconscious processes have the greatest impact on behavior.
b. Learning is the basis of behavior.
c. Humans are potentially good.
d. The sum of the parts is more important than the separate parts.
a. Unconscious processes have the greatest impact on behavior.
25. Psychologists with a biological perspective study the links between ______________ and behavior.
a. brain activity c. heredity
b. hormone activity d. all of these
d. all of these
26. The humanistic-existential perspective unites __________ and __________ as central principles to its approach.
a. brain: behavior
b. self-fulfillment: free choice
c. mental processes: consciousness
d. culture: values
b. self-fulfillment: free choice
27. The issues of ethnicity, gender, and socioeconomic status are the concerns of the __________ perspective.
a. sociocultural c. psychoanalytic
b. humanistic-existential d. social-cognitive
a. sociocultural
28. Membership in an ethnic group is defined by common features such as
a. attitudes, values, and religion.
b. cultural heritage, language, and common history.
c. genetic variables.
d. socioeconomic status and political identity.
b. cultural heritage, language, and common history.
29. Whose research on the negative effects of school segregation on African American children was cited by the United States Supreme Court when it overturned the “separate but equal” school doctrine in 1954?
a. The Watsons c. The Rumbaughs
b. The Clarks d. The Sherifs
b. The Clarks
30. Prior to becoming the first female president of the APA, Mary Whiton Calkins
a. was denied a doctorate at Harvard University because of her gender.
b. attended Harvard as a guest because they did not accept female students.
c. was offered, but declined, a doctorate at Radcliff college for women.
d. All of these are true.
d. All of these are true.
31. Critical thinking is associated with
a. skepticism. c. disbelief.
b. respect. d. opposition.
a. skepticism.
32. A ________ is a method of collecting information about individuals or small groups.
a. correlation c. survey
b. journal d. case study

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d. it is less subject to volunteer bias.
33. An advantage of survey research is that
a. it allows you to get in-depth information.
b. it allows you to have a large sample size.
c. it allows you to work in a lab.
d. it is less subject to volunteer bias.
b. it allows you to have a large sample size.
34. Jane Goodall studied chimpanzees by means of the __________ method.
a. case study c. survey
b. naturalistic observation d. experimental
b. naturalistic observation
35. Which of the following is reported as a negative correlation?
a. intelligence and academic achievement
b. stress and health
c. studying and academic achievement
d. studying and GPA
b. stress and health
36. Blind and double-blind procedures are one way to control for the effects of __________ in experimental research.
a. expectations c. chance factors
b. high costs d. confounding variables
a. expectations
37. The text makes an ethical critique of the Lang studies because the participants
a. electrically shocked a person with a heart condition.
b. lacked informed consent.
c. were deceived.
d. were not debriefed.
c. were deceived.