(Chapter 1) Nutrition: Everyday Choices

Nutrient
A substance in food that provides energy and structure to the body and regulates body processes.
Essential nutrient
A nutrient that must be consumed in the diet because it cannot be made by the body or cannot be made in sufficient quantities to maintain body functions.
Calorie
A unit of measure used to express the amount of energy provided by food.
Nutrient Density
A measure of the nutrients provided by a food relative to its calorie content.
Fortification
The addition of nutrients to foods.
Dietary Supplements
A product sold to supplement the diet; may include nutrients (vitamins, minerals, amino acids, fatty acids), enzymes, herbs, or other substances.
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Phytochemicals
A substance found in plant foods that is not an essential nutrient but may have health-promoting properties.
Functional Food
A food that has health-promoting properties beyond basic nutritional functions.
Designer Food or Nutraceutical
A food or supplement thought to have health benefits in addition to its nutritive value.
Zoochemical
A substance found in animal food (zoo means animal) that is not an essential nutrient but may have health-promoting properties.
Macronutrients
Nutrients needed by the body in large amounts. These include water and the energy-yielding nutrients carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins.
Micronutrients
Nutrients needed by the body in small amounts. These include vitamins and minerals.
Vitamin
An organic compound needed in the diet in small amounts to promote and regulate the chemical reactions and processes needed for growth, reproduction, and the maintenance of health.
Mineral
In nutrition, an element needed by the body to maintain structure and regulate chemical reactions and body processes.
Element
A substance that cannot be broken down into products with different properties.
Organic Compounds
A substance that contains carbon bonded to hydrogen. Like carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins that provide energy to the body.
Carbohydrates
A class of nutrients that includes sugars, starches, and fibers. Chemically, they all contain carbon, along wth hydrogen and oxygen, in the same proportions as in water (H2O).
Fiber
A type of carbohydrate that cannot be broken down by human digestive enzymes.
Lipids
A class of nutrients that is commonly called fats. Chemically, they contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, and most of them do not dissolve in water.
Cholesteral
A type of lipid that is found in the diet and in the blood. High blood levels increase the risk of heart disease.
Saturated Fats
A type of lipid that is most abundant in solid animal fats and is associated with an increased risk of heart disease. (Bad fat)
Unsaturated Fats
A type of lipid that is most abundant in plant oils and is associated with a reduced risk of heart disease. (Good fat)
Proteins
A class of nutrients that includes molecules made up of one or more intertwining chains of amino acids.
Amino Acids
The building blocks of proteins. Each contains an amino group, an acid group, and a unique side chain.
Energy-yielding Nutrients
Nutrients that can be metabolized to produce energy in the body. They include carbohydrates, fats, and proteins.
kilocalorie (kcal)
A unit of heat that is used to express the amount of energy provided by foods. It is the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 kilogram of water 1 degree Celsius (1 kcalorie = 1000 calories. When Calorie is spelled with a capital C it denotes kilocalorie).
Hormones
A chemical messenger that is produced in one location in the body, released into the blood, and travels to other locations, where it elicits responses.
Malnutrition
A condition resulting from an energy or nutrient intake either above or below that which is optimal.
Undernutrition
Poor nutritional status resulting from a dietary intake below that which meets nutritional needs.
Oseaoporosis
A bone disorder characterized by reduced bone mass, increased bone fragility, and increased risk of fractures.
Overnutrition
Poor nutritional status resulting from a dietary intake in excess of that which is optimal for health.
Genes
Units of larger molecule called DNA that are responsible for inherited traits.
Nutritional Genomics or Nutrigenomics
The study of how diet affects our genes and how individual genetic variation can affect the impact of nutrients or other food components on health.
Scientific Method
The general approach of science that is used to explain observations about the world around us.
Hypotheses
A proposed explanation for an observation or a scientific problem that can be tested through experimentation.
Theory
A formal explanation of an observed phenomenon made after a hypothesis has been tested and supported through extensive experimentation.
Epidemiology
The branch of science that studies health and disease trends and patterns in populations.
Control Group
In a scientific experiment, the group of participants used as a basis of comparison. They are similar to the participants in the experimental group but do not receive the treatment being tested.
Variable
A factor or condition that is changed in an experimental setting.
Experimental Group
In a scientific experiment, the group of participants who undergo the treatment being tested.
Placebo
A fake medicine or supplement that is indistinguishable in appearance from the real thing. It is used to disguise the control and experimental groups in an experiment.
Peer-review Process
The review of the design and validity of a research experiment by experts in the field of study who did not participate in the research.
Evidence-based Practice
Using the compiled evidence from all available well-controlled, peer-reviewed studies to develop recommendations and policies regarding nutrition and health care.
(1) LEARNING OBJECTIVES – Food Choices and Nutrient Intake:
1. Define nutrient density.
2. Compare fortified foods and dietary supplements.
3. Distinguish essential nutrients from phytochemicals.
4. Identify the factors that determine food choices.
1. Measurement of food intake to its nutrients by calorie.
2. Fortified foods are foods with added addition nutrients (vitamins & minerals), but dietary supplements provide nutrients but not necessarily health benefits.
3. Phytochemicals in fruits, vegetables, and whole grains.
– Garlic, broccoli, and onions provide sulfur-containing phytochemicals that help protect us from some forms of cancer by inactivating carcinogens or stimulating the body’s natural defenses.
– Yellow-orange fruits and vegetables, such as peaches, apricots, carrots, and cantaloupe, as well as leafy greens, are rich in carotenoids, which are phytochemicals that may prevent oxygen from damaging our cells.
– Soybeans are a source of phytoestrogens, hormone-like compounds found in plants that may reduce the risk of certain types of cancer and cause small reductions in blood cholesterol.
– Purple grapes, berries, and onions provide red, purple, and pale yellow pigments called flavonoids, which prevent oxygen damage and may reduce the risk of cancer and heart disease.
4. Environments, availability, culture, heritage, religion, economics, tradition, values, personal preferences, social pressure, background, habit, and what we believe is healthy.
(1) CONCEPT CHECK – Food Choices and Nutrient Intake:
1. Which has a higher nutrient density: a soda or a glass of milk?
2. Why are foods fortified?
3. Why is it better to meet your vitamin C needs by eating an orange than by taking a dietary supplement?
4. What factors determine which foods you eat at a family picnic?
1. A glass of milk
2. To help eliminate nutrient deficiencies in the population, with the federal government mandating that certain nutrients be added to certain foods.
3. Because supplements provide nutrients but do not offer all the health benefits of food such like an orange.
4. Tradition and values that we hold and our preferences for taste, smell, appearance, and texture.
(2) LEARNING OBJECTIVES – Nutrients and Their Functions:
1. List the six classes of nutrients.
2. Discuss the three functions of nutrients in the body.
1. carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, water, vitamins, and minerals.
2. Provide for growth, maintain and repair the body, and support reproduction.
(2) CONCEPT CHECK – Nutrients and Their Functions:
1. Which classes of nutrients provide energy?
2. What three nutrient functions help ensure normal growth, maintenance of body structure and functions, and reproduction?
1. Carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins.
2. a) Provide energy (calories)
b) Provide building blocks for structures
– bones, hair, skin
– cell membranes and structures
c) Regulate body processes
– body temperature
– blood pressure
– hormones & cell communication
– speed up reactions
(3) LEARNING OBJECTIVES – Nutrition in Health and Disease:
1. Describe the different types of malnutrition.
2. Explain ways in which nutrient intake can affect health in both the short term and the long term.
3. Discuss how the genes you inherit affect the impact your diet has on your health.
1. Overnutrition – too much of nutrients/calories
Undernutrition – too little of nutrients/calories
2.
UNDERNUTRITION…
– Short term: Dehydration – headache, fatigue, and dizziness
– Long term: Scurvy – deficiency of vitamin C; Osteoporosis – calcium-deficient; death
OVERNUTRITION…
– Short term: Liver failure – overdose of iron; nerve damage – too much of vitamin B6
– Long term: High blood pressure – high in sodium; Heart disease – excess intake of saturated fat; cancer – dietary pattern that is high in red meat and saturated fa and low in fruits, vegetables, and fiber; death
3. Your genetic makeup determines the impact a certain nutrient will have on you. Genes you inherit may give you a greater or lesser tendency to develop conditions like obesity, heart disease, high blood pressure, or diabetes. It has developed the concept of “personalized nutrition,” the idea that a diet based on the genes an individual has inherited can be used to prevent, moderate, or cure chronic disease.
(3) CONCEPT CHECK – Nutrition in Health and Disease:
1. What causes malnutrition?
2. How can your diet today affect your health 20 years from now?
3. Why might the diet that optimizes health be different for different people?
1. Consuming either too much or too little of one or more nutrients or energy.
2. Because your choices right now regarding nutrition and exercise will reflect in future due to collection of deficiencies. Some symptoms may not be immediately apparent or are nonspecific. However, the nutrients and food components you consume and the amount of exercise you get can increase or decrease your risk of developing nutrition-related diseases.
3. Due to unique combinations of genes inherited in each one of us. Also, through the nutritional genomics (nutrigenomics) study relating our diet and genes working together.
(4) LEARNING OBJECTIVES – Choosing a Healthy Diet:
1. Explain why it is important to eat a variety of foods.
2. Describe how you can sometimes eat foods that are low in nutrient density and still have a healthy diet.
3. Discuss how dietary moderation can reduce the risk of chronic disease.
1. Choosing a variety of foods is important because no single food can provide all the nutrients the body needs for optimal health. Variety means choosing foods from different food groups (vegetables, grains, fruits, dairy products, and high-protein foods) and also choosing diverse foods from within each food group (different vegetables). Also choosing different foods daily/weekly/yearly.
2. Act of balancing your diet or a balanced act. Healthy diet provides enough of all the nutrients you need without excesses of any. Ex. Eating a food that is lacking in fiber, balance it with one that provides lots of fiber. Also, a balanced diet balances the calories you take in with the calories you burn in your daily activities so that our body weight stays in the healthy range.
3. Moderation means not overdoing something like not having too many calories, too much fat, too much sugar, too much salt, or too much alcohol. Moderation makes it easier to balance our diet and allows you to enjoy a greater variety of foods.
(4) CONCEPT CHECK – Choosing a Healthy Diet:
1. Why is variety in a diet important?
2. How might you balance the 400-Calorie cinnamon toll you had for a morning snack with your lunch choice?
3. What is the connection between obesity and moderation in a diet?
1. Every food provides different nutrients, vitamins, and minerals to maintain body’s need for optimal health.
2. During lunch eat something with a low-fat like fruits.
3. Obesity is a result of overnutrition or over consuming calories like having everything too much (food-wise). Which in this case, it shows that it has not been practicing moderation when it comes to calorie intake.
(5) LEARNING OBJECTIVES – Evaluating Nutrition Information:
1. Explain the scientific method and give an example of how it is used in nutrition.
2. Discuss three different types of experiments used to study nutrition.
3. Describe the components of a sound scientific experiment.
4. Distinguish between reliable and unreliable nutrition information.
1. 1) Make an observation. 2) Propose a hypothesis. 3) Design & conduct experiment to test hypothesis. 4) Analyze results. 5) Publish & present with peer review. 6) Repeat & expand experiments. 7) Develop theories on results from many experiments.

EXAMPLE: Observation – “More people get colon cancer in the United States than in Japan.” Hypothesis – “The lower incidence of colon cancer in Japan than in the United States is due to differences in the diet.” Experiment – “Compare the incidence of colon cancer of Japanese people who move to the United States and consume a typical U.S. diet with Caucasian Americans who eat the same diet. Result: The Japanese people who eat the U.S. diet have the same higher incidence of colon cancer as Caucasian Americans.” Theory – “The U.S. diet contributes to the development of colon cancer.”

2. Epidemiological:
studies populations identifies patterns and relationships between diet and health. ex: fatty fish & heart disease in Alaska natives.
Laboratory:
conducted on cells, animals, or humans completely within a laboratory. ex: eat a meal and test blood glucose.
Experimental or clinical:
compares an experimental or treatment group with a control group. ex: treatment group takes a supplement and control group takes placebo.
3. An experiment must include a hypothesis, control group, experimental group (independent variable), and dependent variable (what is being measured).
In nutrition, the scientific method is used to develop nutrient recommendations, understand the functions of nutrients, and learn about the role of nutrition in promoting health and preventing disease.
4. For any nutrition study to provide reliable information, it must collect quantifiable data from the right experimental population, use proper experimental controls, and interpret the data accurately. Quantified means to include parameters that can be measured reliable and repeatedly, such as body weight or blood pressure. Testimonies or opinions, and everything that does not follow the criteria are not quantifiable.

(5) CONCEPT CHECK – Evaluating Nutrition Information:
1. What is the difference between a hypothesis and a theory?
2. How is epidemiology used to study nutrition?
3. Why are control groups important in any scientific experiment?
4. Why is information in advertisements likely to be exaggerated or inaccurate?
1. Hypothesis is a prediction or a proposed explanation for an observation (that can be tested). Where as, a theory is explaining the observed phenomenon based on the results of many studies.
2. Making observations about relationships between diet and health and patterns in populations.
3. in order to know whether what is being tested has an effect, one must compare it with something.
4. Because it is designed to help sell magazines or boost rating, not necessarily to promote health and well-being.