1. Define nutrient density.
2. Compare fortified foods and dietary supplements.
3. Distinguish essential nutrients from phytochemicals.
4. Identify the factors that determine food choices.
2. Fortified foods are foods with added addition nutrients (vitamins & minerals), but dietary supplements provide nutrients but not necessarily health benefits.
3. Phytochemicals in fruits, vegetables, and whole grains.
– Garlic, broccoli, and onions provide sulfur-containing phytochemicals that help protect us from some forms of cancer by inactivating carcinogens or stimulating the body’s natural defenses.
– Yellow-orange fruits and vegetables, such as peaches, apricots, carrots, and cantaloupe, as well as leafy greens, are rich in carotenoids, which are phytochemicals that may prevent oxygen from damaging our cells.
– Soybeans are a source of phytoestrogens, hormone-like compounds found in plants that may reduce the risk of certain types of cancer and cause small reductions in blood cholesterol.
– Purple grapes, berries, and onions provide red, purple, and pale yellow pigments called flavonoids, which prevent oxygen damage and may reduce the risk of cancer and heart disease.
4. Environments, availability, culture, heritage, religion, economics, tradition, values, personal preferences, social pressure, background, habit, and what we believe is healthy.
1. Which has a higher nutrient density: a soda or a glass of milk?
2. Why are foods fortified?
3. Why is it better to meet your vitamin C needs by eating an orange than by taking a dietary supplement?
4. What factors determine which foods you eat at a family picnic?
2. To help eliminate nutrient deficiencies in the population, with the federal government mandating that certain nutrients be added to certain foods.
3. Because supplements provide nutrients but do not offer all the health benefits of food such like an orange.
4. Tradition and values that we hold and our preferences for taste, smell, appearance, and texture.
1. List the six classes of nutrients.
2. Discuss the three functions of nutrients in the body.
2. Provide for growth, maintain and repair the body, and support reproduction.
1. Which classes of nutrients provide energy?
2. What three nutrient functions help ensure normal growth, maintenance of body structure and functions, and reproduction?
2. a) Provide energy (calories)
b) Provide building blocks for structures
– bones, hair, skin
– cell membranes and structures
c) Regulate body processes
– body temperature
– blood pressure
– hormones & cell communication
– speed up reactions
1. Describe the different types of malnutrition.
2. Explain ways in which nutrient intake can affect health in both the short term and the long term.
3. Discuss how the genes you inherit affect the impact your diet has on your health.
Undernutrition – too little of nutrients/calories
– Short term: Dehydration – headache, fatigue, and dizziness
– Long term: Scurvy – deficiency of vitamin C; Osteoporosis – calcium-deficient; death
– Short term: Liver failure – overdose of iron; nerve damage – too much of vitamin B6
– Long term: High blood pressure – high in sodium; Heart disease – excess intake of saturated fat; cancer – dietary pattern that is high in red meat and saturated fa and low in fruits, vegetables, and fiber; death
3. Your genetic makeup determines the impact a certain nutrient will have on you. Genes you inherit may give you a greater or lesser tendency to develop conditions like obesity, heart disease, high blood pressure, or diabetes. It has developed the concept of “personalized nutrition,” the idea that a diet based on the genes an individual has inherited can be used to prevent, moderate, or cure chronic disease.
1. What causes malnutrition?
2. How can your diet today affect your health 20 years from now?
3. Why might the diet that optimizes health be different for different people?
2. Because your choices right now regarding nutrition and exercise will reflect in future due to collection of deficiencies. Some symptoms may not be immediately apparent or are nonspecific. However, the nutrients and food components you consume and the amount of exercise you get can increase or decrease your risk of developing nutrition-related diseases.
3. Due to unique combinations of genes inherited in each one of us. Also, through the nutritional genomics (nutrigenomics) study relating our diet and genes working together.
1. Explain why it is important to eat a variety of foods.
2. Describe how you can sometimes eat foods that are low in nutrient density and still have a healthy diet.
3. Discuss how dietary moderation can reduce the risk of chronic disease.
2. Act of balancing your diet or a balanced act. Healthy diet provides enough of all the nutrients you need without excesses of any. Ex. Eating a food that is lacking in fiber, balance it with one that provides lots of fiber. Also, a balanced diet balances the calories you take in with the calories you burn in your daily activities so that our body weight stays in the healthy range.
3. Moderation means not overdoing something like not having too many calories, too much fat, too much sugar, too much salt, or too much alcohol. Moderation makes it easier to balance our diet and allows you to enjoy a greater variety of foods.
1. Why is variety in a diet important?
2. How might you balance the 400-Calorie cinnamon toll you had for a morning snack with your lunch choice?
3. What is the connection between obesity and moderation in a diet?
2. During lunch eat something with a low-fat like fruits.
3. Obesity is a result of overnutrition or over consuming calories like having everything too much (food-wise). Which in this case, it shows that it has not been practicing moderation when it comes to calorie intake.
1. Explain the scientific method and give an example of how it is used in nutrition.
2. Discuss three different types of experiments used to study nutrition.
3. Describe the components of a sound scientific experiment.
4. Distinguish between reliable and unreliable nutrition information.
EXAMPLE: Observation – “More people get colon cancer in the United States than in Japan.” Hypothesis – “The lower incidence of colon cancer in Japan than in the United States is due to differences in the diet.” Experiment – “Compare the incidence of colon cancer of Japanese people who move to the United States and consume a typical U.S. diet with Caucasian Americans who eat the same diet. Result: The Japanese people who eat the U.S. diet have the same higher incidence of colon cancer as Caucasian Americans.” Theory – “The U.S. diet contributes to the development of colon cancer.”
studies populations identifies patterns and relationships between diet and health. ex: fatty fish & heart disease in Alaska natives.
conducted on cells, animals, or humans completely within a laboratory. ex: eat a meal and test blood glucose.
Experimental or clinical:
compares an experimental or treatment group with a control group. ex: treatment group takes a supplement and control group takes placebo.
3. An experiment must include a hypothesis, control group, experimental group (independent variable), and dependent variable (what is being measured).
In nutrition, the scientific method is used to develop nutrient recommendations, understand the functions of nutrients, and learn about the role of nutrition in promoting health and preventing disease.
4. For any nutrition study to provide reliable information, it must collect quantifiable data from the right experimental population, use proper experimental controls, and interpret the data accurately. Quantified means to include parameters that can be measured reliable and repeatedly, such as body weight or blood pressure. Testimonies or opinions, and everything that does not follow the criteria are not quantifiable.
1. What is the difference between a hypothesis and a theory?
2. How is epidemiology used to study nutrition?
3. Why are control groups important in any scientific experiment?
4. Why is information in advertisements likely to be exaggerated or inaccurate?
2. Making observations about relationships between diet and health and patterns in populations.
3. in order to know whether what is being tested has an effect, one must compare it with something.
4. Because it is designed to help sell magazines or boost rating, not necessarily to promote health and well-being.