chapter 1 homework

macronutrients
carbohydrate
fat
protein
A processed food is defined as:
any food that has been changed from its natural state.
Which of the following statements about the typical American diet is true?
Intake of whole grains is low and more energy is consumed than expended
Where do most people in the U.S. get their nutrition information?
Mass media, i.e., television, magazines and newspapers
scientific method
observation
hypothesis
experiment
theory
When subjects do not know which treatment they are receiving in a clinical trial, but the researchers do, the study is called:
single blind
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Approximately 1000 college students were asked to keep a record of what supplemental vitamins they took and how many colds they had over the course of a year. The amount of vitamin C consumed was compared with the students’ incidences of colds. This is an example of a(an):
epidemiological sudy
Which of the following is the BEST reason to include a placebo in the experimental design of a human intervention trial?
It helps prevent the expectations of the subjects from biasing the research.
One group of individuals is asked to eat a diet high in fruits, vegetables and dairy
foods while a second group of individuals is asked to eat a diet with lower amounts of fruits, vegetables and dairy foods. The two groups’ blood pressure readings are monitored and compared. This is an example of a(an):
epidemiological study
Comparison of the amount of a particular nutrient consumed with the amount of the nutrient excreted is characteristic of a(an):
balance study
Which of the following is NOT an authorized health claim associating intake with a health consequence?
vitamin A intake and risk of cataracts
hypothesis
An educated guess made to explain an observation.
When evaluating a nutritional study, which is the least important factor?
How many researchers were involved in the study
Which of the following is a common source of anecdotal evidence?
testimony of individuals
One important principle of a healthy diet is to eat a variety of foods. In this context, “variety” refers to:
choosing a variety of foods from within food groups as well as among food groups.
Which of the following would be the LEAST reliable source of information about herbal supplements?
A pamphlet published by the health food store
A substance found in plants which cannot be made by the body and is not necessary to sustain life, but has healthful benefits, is:
a phytochemical.
Which of the following yields energy but is not considered a nutrient?
alcohol
The energy provided by foods is measured in:
kilocalories.
represent a state of malnutrition?
1.Vitamin A toxicity as a result of excessive intake of vitamin supplements
2.Osteoporosis as a result of long-term inadequate intake of calcium and vitamin D.
3.Overweight status as a result of regular ingestion of large portions of energy-dense foods.
hypothesis vs. theroy
A hypothesis is an educated guess and a theory is based on scientific study and reasoning.
Which of the following is likely to limit the availability of food?
Socioeconomic status
Health status
Where a person lives
Continued acceptance of a scientific theory depends on:
the ability of other scientists to duplicate the original research and results.
A measure of the nutrient content of a food compared to its energy content is referred to as
nutrient density.
Researchers are interested in whether caffeine has any effect on short-term memory. A study is designed in which two groups of subjects are given capsules that look identical. Group A receives capsules containing caffeine and Group B receives capsules containing powdered sugar. Group B is being given a:
placebo
In a controlled study, if neither the subjects nor the investigators know which subjects are receiving treatment, the study is called a(n)
double blind study.
The discipline which explores the relationship between genetic variation and nutrition is called:
nutrigenomics
Which of the following nutrients are NOT organic molecules?
minerals
Which of the following is LEAST likely to affect food choices?
weather
Which is an example of anecdotal information?
A famous runner reports having more energy after eating a certain type of power bar.
Eating turkey on Thanksgiving is an example of making a food choice based on:
cultural and family background
Consuming nutrient-dense foods helps to ensure a proper diet. One effective strategy is:
1.eating foods that have been minimally processed.
2.consuming foods with a high nutrient content compared to the kcalories provided.
3.limiting added fats and sugars.
Processed foods and convenience foods tend to ______ compared to freshly prepared foods.
have more kcalories
less nutrients
higher in fat, sugar and salt
Under-nutrition does not include:
eating too much saturated fat.
An adverse or toxic reaction is most likely to occur if:
an individual overuses vitamin and/or mineral supplements
The recommendation to eat everything in “moderation” refers to:
selecting appropriate portion sizes.
Which of the following food types is typically consumed by Americans today in excessive amounts?
salty and sugary
Why is eating a variety of foods important?
No one food can provide all the nutrients the body needs for optimal health
What is a placebo?
A fake medicine that is indistinguishable from the real thing.
Which one of the following is viewed as the most valuable source of nutrition information?
advice from a registered dietitian
Which one of the statement is true about our present eating habits?
Our modern food supply includes an endless assortment of eating options.
Which of the following classes of nutrients provide energy?
carbohydrates, proteins, lipids
What is the name of the study that compares nutrient intake with its excretion?
balance study
What information would determine the validity of a nutrition claim?
The study was published in peer-reviewed journals
What is true about nutrients?
Nutrients must be supplied in the diet to support life.
Which one of the following statement describes a correct function of nutrients?
Lipids can be used as regulatory molecules
How does malnutrition impact our health?
Energy deficiency can cause poor growth.
What is TRUE about our food choices?
The foods we are exposed to as children influence what foods we eat as adults
Which of the following statements is TRUE about scientific method?
Experimental results may or may not prove the hypothesis to be true.
Which one of the following guidelines has been developed to protect the rights of humans and animals used in experimental research?
The study must first be reviewed by a committee of scientists and nonscientists.
Physiologic processes take place in the body to keep body temperature, heart rate, and blood sugar relatively constant. This stable state is called:
homeostasis.
______________ protects human subjects in a study and limits the types of procedures that can be performed on them.
Informed consent
Which of the following functions is performed by members of all six classes of nutrients?
Regulate body processes