Chapter 1: Evolution of Psychology

psychology
the scientific study of mind and behavior
mind
the private inner experience of perceptions, thoughts, memories, and feelings
behavior
observable actions of human beings and nonhuman animals
nativism
the philosophical view that certain kinds of knowledge are innate or inborn
Plato
one of first philosophers to struggle with fundamental questions about the mind. Strong proponent of nativism. (nature)
Aristotle
one of first philosophers to struggle with fundamental questions about the mind. Strong proponent of philosophical empiricism. (nurture)
Philosophical Empiricism
the view that all knowledge is acquired through experience
Rene Descartes
french philosopher who said that mind and body are dif things. Mind = immaterial/spiritual substance Body = material substance
Dualism
how mental activity can be reconciled and coordinate with physical behavior (ying and yang = mind and body)
Thomas Hobbes
british philosopher who said the mind is what the brain does. Brain sets body in motion.
Paul Broca
french surgeon who found that damage to a specific part of brain impaired a specific psychological function
Herman von Helmholtz
physiologist who developed a method for measuring the speed of never impulse. looked at reaction time from electric shock
Reaction Time
amount of time taken to respond to certain stimulus
-Wilhelm Wundt
student of Helmholtz. believed that psychology should focus on analyzing consciousness. developed structuralism. primary research involved introspection
Consciousness
a persons personal experience of the world and mind
Structuralism
the analysis of the basic elements that constitute the mind
Introspection
a method that asks people to report on the contents of their personal experience (consciousness)
functionalism
developed by William James. the study of the purposes that mental processes serve in enabling people to adapt to their environment
Charles Darwin
naturalist who proposed idea of natural selection
natural selection
Darwin’s theory that says that the features of an organism that help it survive and reproduce are more likely than other features to be passed onto subsequent generations
Jean Martin Charcot
french physician interested in hysteria
Hysteria
a temporary loss of cognitive or motor functions usually as result of emotionally upsetting experiences
Sigmund Freud
physician from austria who said hysteria was caused by painful/unrememberable childhood experiences. he suggested that these memories resided in the unconscious
unconscious
part of the mind that operates outside of awareness but that influences thoughts, feelings, and actions
Psychoanalytic Theory
developed by Sigmund Freud. an approach that emphasizes the importance of unconscious mental processes in shaping feelings, thoughts, and behavior
Psychoanalysis
formed by the psychoanalytical theory. a therapeutic approach that focuses on bringing unconscious material into conscious awareness to better understand psychological disorders.
humanistic psychology
pioneered by Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers. an approach to understanding human nature that emphasizes the positive potential of human beings
Behaviorism
developed in late 20th century. an approach that advocates that psychologists restrict themselves to the scientific study of objectively observable behavior
John Broadus Watson
proposed psychologists should instead study behavior – what people do instead of what they say… behaviorism
Ivan Pavlov
dog salivating experiment. developed stimulus and response
stimulus
sensory input from the environment (bell for dog)
response
an action or physiological change elicited by a stimulus (dog salivation)
Burrhua Frederick Skinner
rat, food, lever experiment. principle of reinforcement.
reinforcement
the consequences of a behavior determine whether it will be more likely to occur again
Max Wertheimer
studied psychological illusions and his ideas led to Gestalt psychology
illusions
errors of perception, memory, or judgement in which subjective experience differs from objective reality
Gestalt Psychology
a psychological approach that emphasizes that we often perceive the whole rather than the sum of the parts
cognitive psychology
the scientific study of mental processes, including perception, thought, memory, and reasoning
behavioral neuroscience
an approach to psychology that links psychological processes to activities in the nervous system and other bodily processes
cognitive neuroscience
the field of study that attempts to understand the links between cognitive processes and brain activity
evolutionary psychology
psychological approach that *explains mind and behavior in terms of the adaptive value of abilities that are preserved* over time by natural selection
social psychology
the study of the causes and consequences of sociality
cultural psychology
the study of how cultures reflect and shape the psychological processes of their members
APA
American Psychological Association. Founded by William James and six other psychologists
Mary Whiton Calkins
Trail blazer for women in psychology. First female president of the APA in 1905
Kenneth Clark
First minority member & president of APA. Focussed on segregation causing psychological harm (1970)
The word psychology is derived from the Greek words psyche and logos which means
soul, to study
Which book, written by William James in 1890, is still widely read and considered one of the MOST influential texts in psychology?
The Principle of Psychology
The establishment of the first psychology laboratory by _____ launched the beginning of psychology as an independent field of study
Wilhelm Wundt
By asking people to pay attention to and record their feelings and perceptions of an event, Wilhelm Wundt used the method of _____ to analyze the basic elements of the mind
introspection
Historical events such as Nazism and the Holocaust helped to shape which subdiscipline of psychology
social psychology
To better understand the Nazi atrocities that occurred during the Holocaust, social psychologists began to study
conformity and obedience
While some psychologists engage exclusively in conducting research, many psychologists, such as _____, are involved in clinical and other work focused on helping people dealing with family or career issues
counseling psychologists
Today, MOST psychologists work:
in clinical fields

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