Chapter 1 E Interactions of Living Things

Ecology
the study of the interactions of living organisms with one another and with their environment
Biotic
describes living factors in the environment
Abiotic
describes the nonliving part of the environment
Population
a group of organisms of the same species that live in a specific geographical area
Community
all of the populations of species that live in the same habitat and interact with each other
Ecosystem
a community of organisms and their abiotic, or nonliving, environment
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Biosphere
the part of Earth where life exists
Herbivore
an organism that eats only plants
Carnivore
an organism that eats animals
Omnivore
an organism that eats both plants and animals
Food chain
the pathway of energy transfer through various stages as a result of the feeding patterns of a series of organisms
Food web
a diagram that show the feeding relationships between organisms in an ecosystem
Energy pyramid
a triangular diagram that shows an ecosystem’s loss of energy, which results as energy passes through the ecosystem’s food chain
Carrying capacity
the largest population that an environment can support at any given time
Prey
Organisms that are killed and eaten by other organisms
Predator
an organism that eats all or part of another organism
Symbiosis
a relationship in which two different organisms live in close association with each other
Mutualism
a relationship between two species in which both species benefit
Commensalism
a relationship between two organisms in which one organism benefits and the other is unaffected
Parasitism
a relationship between two species in which one species, the parasite, benefits from the other species, the host which is harmed
Coevolution
when a long-term change takes place in two species because of their close interactions with one another
Producer
organisms that use sunlight directly to make food
Consumer
organisms that eat other organisms
Decomposer
organisms that get energy by breaking down dead organisms
Limiting Factor
resource that is so scarce that it limits the size of a population
Competition
When two or more individuals or populations try to use the same resource, such as food, water, shelter, space, or sunlight
Camouflage
one way animals avoid being eaten is by being hard to see, blending in with the background
Defensive Chemicals
Some animals defend themselves with chemicals
Warning Coloration
Animals that have a chemical defense need a way to warn predators that they should look elsewhere for a meal