Chapter 1 – Becoming an Effective Teacher of Reading

Culturally responsive teaching
It incorporates multicultural information, resources and materials in all the subjects and skills routinely taught in schools.
authentic literacy activities
• Literature Focus Units (Read and respond to books as a class)
• Literature Circles (Book Clubs)
• Reading workshop (Choose a trade boo and read independently)
• Writing Workshop (Self-selected writing topics)
What are the eight principles for an effective teacher?
1. Understand how Children Learn
2. Support Children’s Use of the Four Cueing Systems
3.Create a Community of Learners
4. Adopt a Balance Approach to Literacy Instruction
5. Scaffold Children’s Reading and Writing Experiences
6. Organize Literacy Instruction in Four Ways
7. Differentiate Instruction
8. Link Instruction and Assessment Instruction
behaviorism
• Focuses on observable changes in behavior
• Views the teacher’s role as providing information and supervising practice
• Describes learning as the result of stimulus-response actions
• Uses incentives and rewards for motivation
EX: basal readers, mini-lessons, repeated readings, worksheets
Constructivism
• PIAGET
Describes learning as the active construction of knowledge
• Recognizes the importance of background knowledge
• Views learners as innately curious
• Advocates collaboration, not competition
• Suggests ways to engage students so they can be successful
EX: literature focus units, K-W-L charts, learning logs, thematic units, word sorts
To which theorist is constructivism attributed
Piaget
Sociolinguistic
• Emphasizes the importance of language and social interaction on learning
• Views reading and writing as social and cultural activities
• Explains that students learn best through authentic activities
• Describe the teacher’s role as scaffolding students’ learning
• Advocates culturally responsive teaching
• Challenges students to confront injustices and inequities to society
Sociolinguistic Applications
literature circles, shared reading, questioning the author, reading and writing workshop, author’s chair
information processing theory
• Compares the mind to a computer
• Recommends integrating reading and writing
• Views reading and writing as meaning-making processes
• Explains that readers’ interpretations are individualized
• Describes students as strategic readers and writers
Information Processing Theory Applications
guided reading, graphic organizers, grand conversations, interactive writing, reading logs
The Phonological System
the sound system of English with approximately 44 sounds and more than 500 ways to spell them (phonemes, graphemes)
Phoneme
Smallest unit of sound
Grapheme
Written representation of a phoneme
Syntactic system
the structural system on English that governs how words are combined into sentences
Syntax
The structure of grammar of a sentence
Morpheme
the smallest meaningful unit of written
language
Free morpheme
a morpheme that can stand alone as a word
Bound morpheme
Must be attached to a free morpheme
Semantic System
The meaning system of English that focuses on vocabulary
Semantics
Meaning
Synonyms
words that mean the same or nearly the same thing
Antonyms
Opposites
Homonyms
Words that sounds alike but are spelled differently
Pragmatic System
The system of English that offers language choices according to social and cultural uses (Function, Standard/Non Standard English)
Strategies teachers can use to create a classroom community
Safety, Respect, High Expectations, Risk Taking, Collaboration, Choice, Responsibility, Family and Community Involvement
Shared Reading
teachers and students read books together, with students following as the teacher reads and then repeating familiar refrains. Language Experience Approach, KWL Charts
Interactive Reading
teachers and students read instructional-level texts together and take turns doing the reading. Teachers help students read fluently and with expression.
Interactive Writing
Students and the teacher create a text and write a message
Interactive reading/writing examples
Choral Reading and Readers Theatre
Guided Reading
teachers plan and teach reading lessons to small, homogeneous groups using instructional-level books. The focus is on supporting and observing students’ use of strategies.
Guided Writing
Teachers plan and teach lessons on a writing strategy, skill, or procedure and students participate in supervised practice activities.
Guide Reading/writing examples
Mini-lessons, Collaborative book
Guided Practice
Interactive instruction between teacher and students.
zone of proximal development
(Vygotsky) The distance between students’ actual developmental level and their potential developmental level that can be reached with scaffolding by the teacher or classmates.
To which theorist is the zone of proximal development attributed?
VYGOTSKY
Literature Focus Units
Students read and response to grade-appropriate books together as a class or the teacher reads books aloud. Teachers teach mini-lessons on strategies, vocabulary and comprehension.
Literature Circles
Students form literature circles or “book clubs” to read and respond to self-selected trade books. Develop reading and discussion schedule and assume roles for the discussion. Teachers sometimes participate in discussion.
classroom assessment tools
• Observation of students as they participate in instructional activities
• Running Records
• Examination of students’ work
• Conference to talk with students about their reading and writing
• Rubrics
• Formative (Ongoing)
• Summative (End of a lesson/unit)
Reading logs
Students write about and draw their thoughts and feelings about what they read. Used to increase comprehension, helps to unravel their thinking.
Learning Logs
Used to make notes on important content area information they are learning.
Banks’ approaches to Multicultural curriculum reform
1. The Contributions Approach
2. The Additive Approach
3. The Transformative Approach
4. The Social Action Approach
The Contributions Approach
Least amount of involvement in multicultural education approaches. Incorporated by selecting books and activities that celebrate holidays, heroes, and special events from various cultures. Spending time reading about Dr. MLK in January
The Additive Approach
Content, concepts, themes, and perspectives are added to the curriculum without changing the basic structure. Examining the perspective of a Native American about Thanksgiving
The Transformative Approach
Changes the structure and the curriculum and encourages students to view concepts, issues, themes, and problems from several ethnic perspectives. A unit of Thanksgiving would become an entire unit exploring cultural conflict.
The Social Action Approach
Combines the transformation approach with activities that strive for social change. Students may write letters to senators, congress and newspaper editors.