Which of the following best describes the mind?
The brain & its activities
The scientific study of behavior and mental processes is called ____.
Although the bulk of psychology focuses on human behavior, studying animal behavior has been an essential part of the discipline that allows for ____.
making essential comparisons with humans
A doctor notices that many soldiers returning from fighting in the trenches in World War I were highly anxious, fearful of loud noises, and having difficulty reconnecting with their families. He asks them to record personal observations of their own thoughts, feelings, and behaviors in a journal. This process is called ____.
As a discipline, psychology dates back to ____.
the Roman Empire
The psychology family tree includes two major roots: ____.
philosophy and the physical sciences
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The relationship between behavior and biology is ____.
reciprocal: biology affects behavior and vice versa
Most philosophers beginning with Aristotle commonly believed that all knowledge is ____.
gained through sensory experience
The first experimental psychologist and proponent of the structuralist approach, along with his students, was ____.
Wundt’s student Edward Titchener developed an approach in which the mind is broken into the smallest elements of mental experience. What is this called?
Acknowledging that an experience is different than the sum of its elements is reflective of ____.
The Gestalt psychologists believed that breaking a “whole” perception into its building blocks, as advocated by the structuralists, would result in the loss of ____.
important psychological information
What was a major shortcoming of early psychologists?
They tried to establish theories without a large body of experimental data.
What is the psychological perspective that focuses on the relationships between mind, behavior, and their underlying biological processes, including genetics, biochemistry, anatomy, and physiology?
Which of the following is most likely to be the topic of research of a biological psychologist?
Do stress hormones due to abuse in early childhood affect the ability to form memories?
The psychological perspective that investigates how physical structure and behavior have been shaped by their contributions to survival and reproduction is called ____ psychology.
An evolutionary psychologist would be most interested in the question of ____.
whether there is an adaptive reason why men tend to gamble more than women
Entering the 21st century and armed with in-depth research results compiled in the various perspectives, psychologists are returning to ____.
a more comprehensive view of the mind
Alejandro is developing a preliminary research study to address the question of whether four-year-olds who are asked to delay gratification (e.g., to delay eating candy) perform differently in solitude than with other four-year-olds. Which combination of research perspectives would be best for this preliminary study?
developmental psychology and social psychology
Many of the new ways of looking at the mind will take advantage of the revolution in techniques for studying the brain; for example, ____ currently investigate the biological factors that vary along with people’s feelings and experience of social inclusion, rejection, or loneliness.
A biological psychologist studies the effects of amphetamine on aggression in rhesus monkeys. However, to the researcher’s surprise, the experimental results differ for isolated monkeys versus monkeys in a colony. What is missing from this experiment?
The social psychology perspective
The diversity of career pathways for those with degrees in psychology reflects, in relation to other disciplines, that psychology is a(n) “____.”
Harold is trying to decide between teaching at the nearby community college or obtaining a therapist’s license. What degree is the minimum degree required for these positions?
The clinical or counseling specialty includes extensive internships and supervised training prior to ____ that usually add at least one year to students’ graduate studies.
Josh has a doctoral degree in psychology and is a therapist in New York. His sister Sarah has a medical degree and is in a residency program for psychiatry. Currently, the biggest difference between the two professions is that, in contrast to Josh, Sarah can ____.
Science comes from the Latin scientia, which means “knowledge.” According to your text, which of the following best describes “science” today?
A special way of learning about reality through systematic observation and experimentation
One important difference between science and everyday observations is that science relies on ____.
Any observation by a human being is, by definition, ____.
What is a research design that controls for placebo effects in which neither the participant nor the experimenter observing the participant knows whether the participant was given an active substance or treatment, or a placebo?
A set of facts and relationships between facts that can explain and predict related phenomena is called a(n)
The best scientific theories not only explain and organize known facts, but they also generate new ____.
A proposed explanation for a situation, usually taking the form “if A happens then B will be the result” is called a(n) ____.
Scientific hypotheses must be both ____.
falsifiable and testable
Research methods designed for making careful, systematic observations are called ____.
Which of the following lends itself to the use of a descriptive method?
Jonathan would like to develop a hypothesis regarding the role of parental expression of affection in reducing toxic stress in early childhood.
You decide to study weekend dorm life for a sociology term paper. In order to do this, you attend several fraternity parties at a large university, week after week. What method of research are you employing?
What is one advantage of using naturalistic observation over the case study method?
Looking at a much larger group supports application of the results to the general population.
A measure of the direction and strength of the relationship between two variables is called ____.
A factor that has a range of values is called a ____.
A newspaper headline states “Autism correlation to wealth affirmed.” Researchers found that affluent youngsters were almost twice as likely as the poorest children in the study to have autism. This is a ____.
Consider the following relationships between two variables. Which pair is most likely to have the weakest correlation?
hair color and intelligence
What is an experimental design for assessing age-related changes in which data are obtained simultaneously from people of differing ages?
Which of the following is a drawback of longitudinal studies?
Participants may drop out of the study over time.
The consistency of a measure, including test-retest, inter-rater, inter-method, and internal consistency, is called ____.
The SAT II single subject achievement test shows the highest positive correlation with first-year college grades compared to both the SAT I aptitude test and high school grade point average. This indicates that of the three tests, it is the most ____.
Callie has gathered extensive data regarding the working conditions and stress levels of domestic workers in five U.S. cities, including their annual income. She arranges the data from low to high and notes how many workers are in each category using a histogram. This is called a ____.
The mean, median, and mode are all measures of a data set’s ____.
Neil has gathered data regarding self-report of successful smoking cessation. He finds that one of the eight methods used by study participants accounts for a high proportion of the successes. The most useful measure of central tendency to report would be the ____.
In statistics, the extent to which scores differ from one another or from their mean; often measured using the standard deviation, is called ____.
Researchers working in universities and other agencies must receive the approval of institutional review boards (IRBs) for human participant research and institutional animal care and use committees (IACUCs) before conducting research, ____.
if their institution receives federal funding
At the core of ethical standards for human research is the idea that participation should involve ____.
Noreen is a graduate student in psychology. She is designing a study regarding health care decision-making among teenagers. Which of the following research participants can legally provide his or her own informed consent?
An eighteen year old male with HIV/AIDS
Dr. Harmon has conducted a study of social networks and health within an isolated community. Which of the following would breach a research participant’s right to confidentiality?
Dr. Harmon stored the completed surveys and the key linking names and code numbers on his laptop, to which only he and his wife have the password.