Ch. 7 Quiz

According to Matza, ________ refers to the process of moving from one extreme of behavior to another. Further, this helps to explain why a youth’s behavior may be law abiding sometimes and deviant at other times.
holding religious beliefs
Which of the following has been linked to decreasing crime?
Labeling theorists use a/an _______ definition of crime.
social bond theory
The theory that links the onset of criminality to the weakening of the ties that bind people to society is:
differential association theory
The principle that criminal techniques are learned is part of:
Differential associations may vary in all but which of the following ways?
Differential association theory is able to explain why one youth who is exposed to delinquent definitions eventually succumbs to them, while another, living under the same conditions, is able to avoid criminal entanglements.
There is no difference between learning criminal behavior and non-criminal behavior.
Referring to differential association theory, how does learning criminal behavior differ from learning other behavior?
The influence of deviant friends is not supportive of delinquency.
Differential association has a number of important findings. What finding is false?
track students to identify academic potential
Schools contribute to criminality when they:
Social control theory maintains that everyone has the potential to become a criminal but that most people are controlled by their bonds to society.
subterranean behaviors
The morally tinged influences, which have become entrenched in the culture but that are publicly condemned are known as:
denial of responsibility
When young offenders claim their unlawful acts were beyond their control, it’s known as:
primary deviance
This occurs when norm violations or crimes have very little influence on the actor and can be quickly forgotten:
neutralization theory
The view that becoming a criminal is a learning process in which potential delinquents master skills that enable them to counterbalance conventional values and drift back and forth between illegitimate and conventional behavior is known as:
social reaction theory
People become criminals when significant members of society label them as such and they accept those labels as a personal identity. This is part of the:
When young offenders sometimes claim their unlawful acts were simply not their fault, it is known as denial of responsibility.
criminals sometimes voice a sense of guilt over their illegal acts
Sykes and Matza base their neutralization theory on a variety of observations about criminals. Among these observations is that
appeal to higher loyalties
Novice criminals often argue that they are caught in the dilemma of being loyal to their own peer group while at the same time attempting to abide by the rules of the larger society. This is known as:
Parental efficacy
___________________ occurs when parents have excellent parenting skills, are supportive and can effectively control their children in a noncoercive fashion resulting in a reduction in antisocial behavior.
Criminal techniques are learned including the motives, drives, rationalizations, and attitudes associated with crime.
Children living with a stepparent exhibit less problems as youth in single-parent families and considerably more problems than those who are living with both biological parents.
Diversion programs are a policy implication of what social process theory?
Delinquents and nondelinquents did not share similar beliefs about society.
Important findings of social control theory include all but which of the following?
According to social reaction theory, labels are believed to produce:
learning theories
The critique that the origin of criminal definitions is not accounted for is applicable to what theory group?
Youth who grow up in households characterized by conflict and tension, and where there is a lack of familial love and support, are susceptible to:
The interactions people have with various organizations, institutions, and processes of society is known as:
negative reinforcement
When behavior is punished, this is referred to as:
Whose name do we associate with the prominent social learning theory of differential association?
The importance and prestige attributed to individuals or groups from whom the definitions are learned is the _________ element of an association.
reflected appraisals
One consequence of labeling is the concept of _____________, which brings about a reassessment of one’s self-image that reflects actual or perceived judgments made by others, such as parents.
the degree it has been rewarded or punished
According to differential reinforcement theory what determines whether deviant or criminal behavior persists?
social process theory
The view that criminality is a function of people’s interactions with various organizations, institutions, and processes in society is referred to as:
71 percent
Research indicates that school dropouts, especially those who have been expelled, face a significant chance of entering a criminal career. According to the Urban Institute, what percentage of American students manage to graduate?
denial of injury
By denying the wrongfulness of an act, criminals are able to neutralize illegal behavior. This is known as:
containment theory
In his _________________, pioneering control theorist Walter Reckless argued that a strong self-image insulates a youth from the pressures and pulls of crimogenic influences in the environment.
Poor school achievement and limited educational aspirations have been associated with delinquent behavior
Which is not an element of the social bond?
Social learning theories assume people are born either “bad” or “good” and that their degree of criminality can be unlearned with proper socialization.
Differential association theory suggests that crime is a/an ______ behavior
Social process theories view criminality as a function of people’s interactions with various organizations, institutions, and processes in society. Thus, improper socialization is a key component of crime.
When an offender views the world as a corrupt place with a dog-eat-dog code, it is known as denial of injury.
symbolic interaction
Communication via symbols which represent something else is known as:
differential enforcement
A major premise of social reaction theory is that the law is differentially constructed and applied, depending on the offenders. This is known as:
Sykes and Matza found that criminals are immune to the demands of conformity and that criminals rarely respect, if ever, honest, law-abiding persons.
Attachment to deviant peers decreases the likelihood of criminality.
What statement is false as a critique of social control theory?
denial of victim
When a crime is directed at certain persons because they are disliked or engage in behavior some people may find offensive, the offenders sometimes neutralizes their wrongdoing by maintaining that it was deserved. This is known as
definitions unfavorable toward criminality occur
When friends or parents demonstrate their disapproval of crime it is known as:v
differential reinforcement theory
The view, according to Akers, that both deviant and conventional behaviors are learned is called:
containment theory
In his _________________, pioneering control theorist Walter Reckless argued that a strong self-image insulates a youth from the pressures and pulls of crimogenic influences in the environment.