Ch. 7 ap world history stearns

Dhows
Arab sailing vessels with triangular or lateen sails; strongly influenced European ship design
Lateen sails
Large triangular sails that are attached to the masts by long booms or yard arms which extend diagonally high across both the fore and aft portions of the ship.
slave mercenaries
murdered the reigning caliph and placed one of his sons on the throne. The mercenaries also became a major force for violent social unrest, often the catalyst for the food riots that broke out periodically in the capital and other urban centers. Assassinated and poisoned caliphs.
buyids
Regional splinter dynasty of the mid-10th century; invaded and captured Baghdad; ruled Abbasid Empire under title of sultan; retained Abbasids as figureheads
seljuk turks
Nomadic Turks from Asia who conquered Baghdad in 1055 and allowed the caliph to remain only as a religious leader. they governed strictly
crusades
A series of military expeditions in the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries by Westrn European Christians to reclain control of the Holy Lands from the Muslims
saladin
(1137-1193) Powerful Muslim ruler during Third Crusade, defeated Christians at Hattin took Jerusalem
shah-nama
Written by Firdawsi in late 10th and early 11th centuries; relates history of Persia from creation to the Islamic conquests
mahmud
“idol breaker”: muslim from afghanistan who attacks/terrorizes india and wants to destroy all pagans; he destroys huge buddhist city and huge hindu city
sufis
a mystical Muslim group that believed they could draw closer to God through prayer, fasting, and a simple life
malacca
Port city in the modern Southeast Asian country of Malaysia, founded about 1400 as a trading center on the Strait of Malacca. Also spelled Melaka. (p. 387)
Demak
most powerful of the trading states on the north coast of Java; converted to Islam and served as point of dissemination to other ports