Arab sailing vessels with triangular or lateen sails; strongly influenced European ship design
Large triangular sails that are attached to the masts by long booms or yard arms which extend diagonally high across both the fore and aft portions of the ship.
murdered the reigning caliph and placed one of his sons on the throne. The mercenaries also became a major force for violent social unrest, often the catalyst for the food riots that broke out periodically in the capital and other urban centers. Assassinated and poisoned caliphs.
Regional splinter dynasty of the mid-10th century; invaded and captured Baghdad; ruled Abbasid Empire under title of sultan; retained Abbasids as figureheads
Nomadic Turks from Asia who conquered Baghdad in 1055 and allowed the caliph to remain only as a religious leader. they governed strictly
A series of military expeditions in the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries by Westrn European Christians to reclain control of the Holy Lands from the Muslims
(1137-1193) Powerful Muslim ruler during Third Crusade, defeated Christians at Hattin took Jerusalem
Written by Firdawsi in late 10th and early 11th centuries; relates history of Persia from creation to the Islamic conquests
“idol breaker”: muslim from afghanistan who attacks/terrorizes india and wants to destroy all pagans; he destroys huge buddhist city and huge hindu city
a mystical Muslim group that believed they could draw closer to God through prayer, fasting, and a simple life
Port city in the modern Southeast Asian country of Malaysia, founded about 1400 as a trading center on the Strait of Malacca. Also spelled Melaka. (p. 387)
most powerful of the trading states on the north coast of Java; converted to Islam and served as point of dissemination to other ports