Ch. 4 Sociology

social interaction
what people do when they come together
social structure
the typical patterns of a group, such as its usual relationships between men and women or students and teachers
culture
the broadest framework that determines what kind of people we become
social class
large amounts of people who have similar amounts of income and education and who work at jobs that are roughly equivalent in prestige
social status
the position that someone occupies
status set
all the statuses or positions that you occupy
ascribed status
involuntary; race, sex, etc.
achieved status
voluntary; efforts, accomplishments, etc.
status symbols
signs that identify a status
roles
the behaviors, obligations, and privileges attached to a status
groups
consist of people who regularly interact with one another
social institutions
the ways that each society develops to meet its basic needs
hunting and gathering
they depend on hunting and gathering for their survival and have the fewest social divisions
pastoral societies
(herding societies) based on the pasturing of animals
horticultural societies
(gardening societies) based on the cultivation of plants by the use of hand tools
pastoral and horticultural
set the stage for inequality. this led to wars, slavery, and a concentration of wealth
agricultural
based on large-scale agriculture; plows drawn by animals are the source of food production
industrial
a society based on the harnessing of machines powers by fuels. brought equality
industrial revolution
the third social revolution, occurring when machines powered by fuels replaced most animal and human power
postindustrial
based on information, services, and the latest technology rather than on raw materials and manufacturing
biotech society
the economy will center on applying and altering genetic structures- both plant and animal- to produce food, medicine, and materials
micro-sociology
stereotypes and personal space
dramaturgy
social life is like a drama or a stage play
role performance
the particular emphasis or interpretation that we give a role. our “style”
role conflict
what is expected of us in one status is incompatible with what is expected of us in another status
role strain
the same status contains incompatible roles