Ch. 4 Sec. 1

What were some Roman contributions to western civilization?
Roman alphabet, the division of the year into twelve months (our calendar), the success of the Christian church, the basis of a democratic republic, and a codified legal system.
What did the Romans value more: good government and military prowess, or cultural and artistic achievements?
Romans believed themselves to excel in the areas of good government and military prowess, rather than the arts or philosophy
What are the two main periods of Roman history called?
Roman Republic, 509 to 31 B.C.E, and Imperial Rome, 31 B.C.E. to C.E. 476.
What people occupied Rome from 616 to 510 B.C.E.? What is the name for the part of Italy ruled by these people?
The Etruscans occupied the region of Tuscany in what is now northern central Italy
How did the art of the Etruscans differ from that of the Greeks?
Etruscan art emphasizes the expressive impact of the work on the viewer over concerns with proportion, which characterized much of Greek art
In what ways did the Etruscans help Rome rise to power?
Under Etruscan influence Rome was transformed into city with a working infrastructure and a thriving cultural center which had contact with other Italian cities and the various peoples of the Mediterranean.
What event marks the beginning of the history of the Roman Republic
The Romans expelled the Etruscans from Roman territories. Over the next two centuries their cities were conquered, the Etruscans were given full citizenship, and ultimately assimilated into Roman society.
What Roman class was represented in the Senate?
The Roman aristocracy (the patricians).
What was the name of the large open space in the center of Rome used for meetings of the Senate and the assemblies of the people?
Used for meetings of the Senate and the assemblies of the people is called the forum.
What was the significance of the passage of Hortesian Law? How did this influence the balance of power in the Republic?
This redistribution of power led to increasing tensions between the patrician and plebian, which became further strained with the rise of a strong plebian middle class.
What territories did the Roman expansion acquire? What was the impact of this expansion on the state and the colonies?
The Roman expansion included the seizure of Carthage from the Phoenicians and their territories in North Africa, Spain and Sicily. They went on the take control of all the territories surrounding the Mediterranean, including Greece, Asia Minor and the Middle East. This substantial expansion stretched the administrative capabilities both within Rome and in its outer territories.
What events in the last hundred years of the Roman Republic would cause many Romans to welcome the rule of an emperor such as Augustus?
A cycle of revolts and power struggles ending in violence during the last hundred years of the Roman Republic caused many Romans to welcome Emperor Augustus and the stability of his reign
What were the two principal schools of philosophy in Rome? Where did they originate?
The two principal schools of philosophy in Rome were Epicureanism and Stoicism. Both had origins in Greece
According to Epicurus, why should humans be able to live free from superstitious fear of the unknown and not have to fear the threat of divine retribution?
According to Epicurus the gods play no part in human affairs or earthly events and thus humans should live free from superstitious fear of events they cannot control or the threat of divine retribution.
What Greco-Roman philosophy is associated with Seneca, Epictetus, and Marcus Aurelius?
Seneca, Epictetus, and Marcus Aurelius were adherents to the Greco-Roman philosophy Stoicism.
What was the subject of the Ius Civile of Julius Caesar?
In the Ius Civile, Julius Caesar created a single unified code of Roman civil law.
How does Sulla’s Sanctuary of Fortuna in Palestrina demonstrate Roman values?
Sulla’s Sanctuary of Fortuna in Palestrina is a testimony to the Roman regard for symmetry and grandeur as well as their strong identification with the Greeks
What characteristics of earlier styles did Roman sculptors build upon? What new elements are seen in Roman sculpture?
Roman sculptors excelled at portraiture, revealing the personality through subtle details in the features of their subjects.
What political events characterized the last century of the Roman Republic (133 B.C.E. to 31 B.C.E.)?
The last century of the Roman Republic was rife with power struggles between the leaders Marius, Sulla, Pompey, and Caesar and their supporters in an effort to gain control over the state. This lead to the collapse of the Republic.
How did cement and concrete influence Roman architecture? What was it made of?
Bigger building and lasted longer. IT was made out of ground limestone, volcanic ash, and water.
What were the basic teachings of Epicureanism and Stoicism?
Epicurus- the way to a happy life is pleasure. Gods are busy, aren’t involved with our lives.
Stoics- Once you ignore the negativity it will go away.
What was Julius Caesar’s contributions to literature, law and Roman Culture?
The roman alphabet, created Iuscivis (civil law), and expanded the roman empire
Caesers biography
Dictator for five years but was killed by Brutus and Cassius because they didn’t want him to rule any longer
Roman baths
Men and women don’t bath together. there were three different pools, one room temp. another very hot, and the final one was cold.
New Roman music
Waterloo, and tuba