The Unhealthy Chesapeake
Half of people born in Virginia/Maryland didn’t live past 20; Virginia most popular colony (MD was 3rd)
1630s: 1.5 million pounds tobacco out of Chesapeake Bay, 40 million by end of century
Indentured servants
used on tobacco farms, worked in exchange for passage to America; received freedom dues
Anthony Johnson
Angolan former indentured servat; became one of the first property/slave owners of African descent; successful tobacco farmer in MD; known as “the black patriarch” of the first community of Negro property owners
Freedom dues
servants, when free, received a few barrels of corn, clothes, and possibly a little bit of land
VA/MA headright system
50 acres land to indentured servants following work; promoted importation of servant workers
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“White Slaves”
100,000 indentured servants to Chesapeake by 1700; rep. 3/4 of all European immigrants to VA and MD in 17th century
Nathaniel Bacon and Bacon’s Rebellion
1676; 1000 Virginians who resent VA governor William Berkeley for friendly Native American (NA) policies (had fur trade w them); Berkeley refuses to retaliate for savage attacks > proud attacks indians and chases him from Jamestown and torch the capitol
Result of Bacon’s Rebellion
after Bacon died from disease, Berkeley crushed the uprising hanging 20 rebels (penalties complained about by Charles II); planters look for less troublesome laborers and soon look to Africa
Colonial Slaves
arrive Jamestown 1619; wages in England rose in 1680s so less indentured servants came, turned to slaves
Royal African Company
loses monopoly on slave trading in 1698; Americans cash in on slaves (mostly from African west coast)
Slave codes
started in 1662; VA made blacks/their kids property of white masters for life
Black language developed on sea islands off of South Carolina; blends English w African languages
South Carolina Slave Revolt
1739; 50+ blacks along Stono River try to march to Spanish FL but were stopped by militia; black slaves were more controlled than indentured servants so they did not revolt as badly as Bacon
Souther Social Scale
Planters who monopolized political power, Small farmers who were largest group, Landless whites who many were former indentured servants, black slaves
New England Family
migrated as families; when a man died, the church inherited the property not the wife (contrary to Southern colonies) bc Puritans feared undercutting the unity of married persons; women gave up property rights when they married; laws sought to defend the integrity of marriage
front of colonies trying to abolish black slavery; every family had land; Harvard in 1636; Puritans ran own churches w democracy in Church gov.
new form of Puritan sermon in 17th century
Half-way Covenant
1662; new formula for church membership in which adherents admitted baptism (but not full communion) to unconverted children of existing members; aided money-stricken church and increased membership
Salem Witch Trials
1692; legal lynching of 20 women; Gov. pardons convicted and ends trials in 1693
Soil in New England
stony, hard to plant with
New England Life
Less diversity bc European immigrants didn’t go to places w bad soil; very hot summers/ very cold winters; NA had right to use land, but didn’t have concept of owning it; expert shipbuilders due to timber from dense forests; fished for cod
Early Settler’s Days and Ways
Women wove, cooked, cleaned, cared for children; Men cleared land, fenced, planted, cropped, cut wood, and butchered livestock; resentment against upper class (ex. Bacon’s rebellion, Maryland Protestant uprising at end of 17th century); MA prohibited poor from wearing gold/silver lace in 1651
Leisler’s Rebellion
bloody NYC uprising from 1689-1691; animosity bw lordly landholders and aspiring merchants
1619: First Africans arrive in Virginia
1636: Harvard College founded
1662: Half-Way Covenant for Congregational Church membership established
1670: Virginia assembly disfranchises landless freeman
1676: Bacon’s Rebellion in Virginia
1680s: Mass expansion of slavery in colonies
1689-1691: Leisler’s Rebellion in New York
1692: Salem witch trials in Massachusetts
1693: College of William and Mary founded
1698: Royal African Company slave trade monopoly ended
1712: New York City slave revolt
1739: South Carolina slave revolt