Ch 3 Managing Stress and Coping with Life’s Challenges

what kind of stress is becoming a public health crisis? how affect us?
-According to American Psychological Association poll, chronic stress that interferes with our ability to function normally over an extended period is becoming a public health crisis
nearly _% of American adults reported experiencing unhealthy levels of stress in the last month and struggled to implement _
changes they believed would decrease stress and improve their lives
nearly _American adults (_%) believe that their stress has increased over the past 5 years, affecting their personal and professional lives
how stress affects our health? (7)
-rob body of needed nutrients
-damage cardiovascular system
-raise blood pressure
-increase our risk for cancer and diabetes
-dampen the immune system’s defenses
-drain emotional reserves and contribute to depression, anxiety, fatigue, and irritability, impacting relationships with friends, family, and coworkers
how stress affects children and youth?
-1 in 3 of children report they have suffered a stress-related health problem in last month, such as headaches, stomachaches, difficulty sleeping
-stress seems to be particular threat to youth who are overweight. The higher the stress, the greater the chances of overeating, sleeping too much. and too much TV, which in turn contributes to weight gain and more stress
what percent of deaths in US are related to wholly or in part to stress?
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is too much stress an inevitable negative part of life? explain
no. We can learn to anticipate and recognize our personal stressors and develop skills to reduce or better manage those stressors we cannot avoid
is not some stress healthy? (2 types of stress and which is good for you, when live well with stress, what happens if we do not have any stress)
-absolutely! stress is not necessarily bad for you: although events that cause prolonged distress, such as a natural disaster, can undermine our health, events that cause eustress, such as the birth of a child, can have positive effects on your growth and well-being. People usually live their lives to the fullest when they experience a moderate level of stress–just enough to keep them challenged and motivated–and deal with that stress in a productive manner. Just as too much stress can be detrimental to your health, too little stress leaves you stagnant and unfulfilled
the short-term mental and physiological response and adaptations by our body to an immediate perceived threat to one’s well being
(perceived or real changes and challenges in our lives)
a physical, social, or psychological event or condition that upsets homeostasis and produces a stress response
several factors influence one’s response to stressors include_(3) explain each
-characteristics of stressor: can control it? predictable? does it occur often?
-biological factors: your age or gender
-past experiences: things that have happened to you, consequences, and how responded
what are two types of stessors? include examples
-tangible stressors. ex: failing grade on a test
-intangible stressors. ex: the angst associated with meeting your significant other’s parents for the first time
explain why what stresses out one person may not even bother the next person
-the stress is in the eyes of the beholder: Each person’s unique combination of heredity, life experiences, personality, and ability to cope influences how the person perceives an event and what meaning he or she attaches to it
types of stress? (5)
-acute stress
-episodic acute stress
-chronic stress
-positive stress
-stress that presents opportunities for personal growth and satisfaction and can actually improve health
what eustress can cause on you?
it can energize you, motivate you,and raise you up when you are down
what two examples of activities can give you eustress? what are 3 general examples?
-getting married
-winning a major competition
both can give a rise to the pleasurable rush associated with eustress
-school life, changes and relationships
-negative stress
-stress that can have a detrimental effect on health
what causes distress? examples?
-caused by many of life’s difficult realities
-is caused by events that result in debilitative tension and strain, such as financial problems, death of a loved one, academic difficulties, and the break up of a relationship
what is the most common manifestation of stress?
acute stress
acute stress
the short-term physiological response to an immediate perceived threat
acute stress come from _ (what causes it)
-comes from demands and pressures of the recent past and anticipated demands and pressures of the near future
how acute stress acts and how long lasts?
acute stress is intense, flares quickly, and disappears quickly without permanent damage to your health
example of action that would cause acute stress?
seeing someone you have a crush on
-anticipating a class presentation
episodic acute stress
-type of stress which describes the state of regularly reaction with wild, acute stress to various situations
describe person that experiences episodic acute stress (2)
-individuals experiencing episodic acute stress may complain about all they have to do and focus on negative events that may/may not come about These awfulizers are often reactive and anxious, but their thoughts and behaviors can be so engrained that to them they seem normal
-Others may regularly react with episodic outbursts that are over-the-top “chirpy” or happy happy happy and they may not realize this is also a stress reaction
what is the relation between acute stress and negative physical and emotional outcomes?
-while types of acute stress can cause physical and emotional reactions, they may or may not result in negative physical or emotional outcomes
in contrast with acute stress, what stress can have negative outcomes?
chronic stress, which can linger indefinitely and wreak silent havoc on your body systems
chronic stress (definition and example)
an ongoing state of physiological arousal in response to an ongoing or numerous perceived threats
ex: chronic disease and death of a loved one
what is the origin of stress? (history) how this leads to having stress being bad for our health over time?
-the body physiological responses evolved to protect humans from harm
-thousands years ago, if you ancestors did not respond by fighting or feeling, they might have been eaten or killed.
-today, when we face real or perceived threats, these same physiological responses are usually larger in scale than needed for the situation at hand, so our instinctual reactions must be constrained or repressed. Continually having to “stuff” our reactions rather than letting them run their course can harm our health over time
when stress levels are low, the body is often in a state of_
a balanced physiological state in which all the body’s systems function smoothly to maintain equillibrium
stressor triggers a_, after which the body attempts to return to homeostasis by means of an _
-“crisis-mode” physiological response
-adaptive response
adaptive response
-for of adjustment in which the body attempts to restore homeostasis
first characterized by _, the internal fight to restore homeostasis in the face of a stressor is known as_
-Hans Selye
-general adaptation syndrome (GAS)
general adaptation syndrome (GAS)
-the pattern followed in the physiological response to stress
-general adaptation syndrome (GAS) describes how we cope with prolonged stress
what are the 3 phases in general adaptation syndrome (GAS)?
-alarm stage
-resistance stage
-exhaustion stage
explain alarm stage or alarm phase of general adaptation syndrome (GAS)
-stressor disrupts body’s stability, temporarily lowering resistance
explain resistance stage of general adaptation syndrome (GAS)
adaptation resources are mobilized to combat stressor, and body maintains a higher level of resistance
explain exhaustion stage of general adaptation syndrome (GAS)
body runs out of adaptation energy stores for adjusting to stressor, and resistance drops below normal
how an individual reacts to stressor depends on_(4)
-learned responses
-emotional and physiological health
-coping mechanism
what is another name for the alarm phase?
fight-or-flight response
fight-or-flight response
-phyhsiological arousal response in which the body prepares to combat or escape a real or perceived threat
what happens to your body in alarm phase? the body’s acute stress response (14)
-more blood flows to brain
-senses sharpen
-pupils dilate to bring in more light and increase visual perception
-hearing ability increases
-salivation decreases
-perspiration increases
-heart rate and blood pressure increase
-more blood flows to muscles; muscle tense
-respiration rate increases
-digestive system slow as blood supply is diverted to more critical areas
-urine production decreases
-liver and fat tissue release energy-producing substances (such as glucose) into bloodstream
-blood-clotting ability increases
-immune system activity decreases
fight-or-flight response is a physiological reaction is one of our most _ (how complex and when get it)
basic, innate survival instincts
when the mind perceives a real or imaginary stressor, the _(part of brain) the region of the brain that interprets the nature of an event, triggers an_response that _(what does)
-cerebral cortex
-autonomic nervous system (ANS)
-prepares the body for action
autonomic nervous system (ANS)
-the portion of the central nervous system regulating body functions that a person does not normally consciously control
ex: heart, glandular functions, breathing
what are the two branches of autonomic nervous system (ANS)?
-sympathetic nervous system
-parasympathetic nervous system
stress response is made to_, but it can_
-protect us
-damage our bodies if we are constantly in a state of alarm
stress response
-body’s well-tuned ability to prepare us to survive threats to our survival
sympathetic nervous system (what it is, what does and how)
-branch of autonomic nervous system (ANS) responsible for stress arousal (fight-or-flight response)
-energies the body for fight-or-flight response by signaling the release of several stress hormones
parasympathetic nervous system (what it is, what does,)
-branch of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) responsible for slowing systems stimulated by the stress response
-functions to slow all the systems stimulated by the stress response, counteracts the actions of sympathetic branch
what part of the brain functions as the control center of the sympathetic nervous system? what else does?
-determines the overall reaction to stressors
a structure in the brain that controls the sympathetic nervous system and directs the stress response
when the hypothalamus perceives the extra energy is needed to fight a stressor what does? (who stimulates and to release what)
-hypothalamus stimulates the adrenal glands, located near the top of the kidneys, to release the hormone epinephrine (adrenaline)
epinephrine (other name and definition)
-a hormone that stimulates body systems in response to stress
epinephrine actions in the body (5)
-causes more blood to be pumped with each beat of the heart, dilates the airways in the lungs to increase oxygen intake, increases the breathing rate, stimulates the liver to release more glucose (which fuels muscular exertion), and dilates the pupils to improve visual sensitivity
-the body is then posed to act immediately
in addition to fight-or-flight response, the alarm phase can also trigger_
long-term reaction to stress
when long term reaction to stress is activated, what hypothalamus does? (who stimulates, what release, what is the following up events)
-hypothalamus uses chemical messages to trigger the pituitary gland within teh brain to release adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
-ACTH signals the adrenal glands to release cortisol
-finally, other parts of the brain and body release endorphins, which relieve pain that a stressor may cause
cortisol (what does and who produces it)
-a hormone that makes stored nutrients more readily available to meet energy demands
-released by adrenal glands
what body tries to do in resistance phase of GAS?
-trues to return to homeostasis by resisting the alarm response. However, because some perceived stressor still exists, the body does not achieve complete calm or rest.
-instead the body stays activated or aroused at a level that causes a higher metabolic rate in some organ tissues
what happens in exhaustion phase of GAS? how you may feel?
-a prolonged effort to adapt to the stress response leads to allostatic load
-physical and emotional energy used to fight a stressor has been depleted
-you may feel tired and drained
allostatic load
-wear and tear on the body caused by prolonged or excessive stress response
what happens as the body adjusts to chronic unresolved stress? (include name of gland and hormone and what causes)
adrenal gland continue to release cortisol, which remains in the bloodstream for longer periods of time as a result of slower metabolic responsiveness
-over time, cortisol can reduce immunocompetence
-the ability of the immune system to respond to attack
because of its duration, how stress has been often described?
-a disease of prolonged arousal that leads to a cascade of negative health effects
-the longer you are chronically stressed, the more likely will be the negative health effects
what are some warning symptoms of prolonged stress? (8)
-tension headaches, migraine, dizziness
-oily skin, skin blemishes, rashes, blushing
-dry mouth, jaw pain, grinding teeth
-backache, neck stiffness, muscle cramps, fatigue
-tightness in chest, hyperventilation, heart pounding, palpitations
-stomachache, acid stomach, burping, nausea, indigestion, stomach butterflies
-diarrhea, gassiness, constipation, increased urge to urinate
-cold hands, sweaty hands and feet, hand tremor
what are the broad life effects of stress? (3)
-physical effects of stress
-intellectual effects of stress (physiological problems of stress)
_% of deaths and _% of diseases in the US are related, in whole or part, to stress
the list of aliments (illness) related to chronic stress include. (8)
-heart diseases
-low back pain
-common cold
increases in rates of _(4) across the US are additional symptoms of a nation under stress
-domestic violence
what are the physical effects of stress? (8)
-stress and cardiovascular disease
-stress and weight gain
-stress and alcohol dependence
-stress and hair loss
-stress and diabetes
-stress and digestive problems
-stress and impaired immunity
-stress and libido
the most studied and documented health consequence of unresolved stress is_. research on this topic demonstrates the impact of chronic stress on_(4 related to this disease)
-cardiovascular disease (CVD)
-heart rate, blood pressure, heart attack, and stroke
what is the largest epidemiological study to date? what demonstrated about relation of stress and cardiovascular diseae?
-ID stress as one of the key modifiable risk factors for heart attack
relationship between stress and cardiovascular disease (historical (5) vs current reason)
-historically, the increased risk of cardiovascular disease from chronic stress has been linked to increase arterial plaque buildup of the arteries due to elevated cholesterol, hardening of the arteries, alterations in heart rhythm,. increased and fluctuation blood pressures, and difficulties in caridiovascularresponsiveness due to all of the above
-current: the relationship between cardiovascular disease and stress contributos has shown direct links between the incidence and progression of cardiovascular disease and stressors such as job strain, caregiving, bereavement, and natural disasters
what is the relation between stress and weight gain? why this happens? (biological reason, include hormones)
-when you are extremely stressed, you tend to eat more and gain weight
-higher stress levels may increase cortisol levels in blood stream. Cortisol contributes to increased hunger and seems to activate fat-storing enzymes
-cortisol plays a role in laying down extra belly fat and increasing eating behaviors
what is the relation between stress and alcohol dependence? (what hormone is the key player in this dependence and role of hormone)
-stress hormone, corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) is key to development and maintenance of alcohol dependence
-CRF is a natural substance involved in the body’s stress response, stimulating the secretion of various stress hormones
what is relation between stress and hair loss?
-too much stress can lead to thinning hair and even baldness
what are types of stress-induced hair loss?
-telogen effluvium
-alopecia areata
telogen efflucium (how common, seen in what kind of people, what happens)
-most common type of stress-induced hair loss
-seen in people who suffered a death in family, difficult pregnancy, or experienced severe weight loss
-this condition pushes colonies of hair to go into a resting phase.
-over time, simply washing or combing hair may cause clumps of it to fall out
alopecia areata (what happens and what if stress is prolonged)
-stress-related condition
-occurs when stress triggers white blood cells to attack and destroy hair follicles, usually in patches
-if stress is prolonged, varying degrees of baldness may occur
controlling stress levels is critical for preventing development of_(disease)
type 2 diabetes
why people can get type 2 diabetes for having too much stress? (indirectly and directly)
-people under lots of stress often do not get enough sleep, do not eat well, and may drink or take other drugs to help them get through stressful time
-all of these behaviors can alter blood sugar levels and promote development of diabetes
-stress hormones may affect blood glucose levels directly
how stress cause digestive problems?
-digestive disorders are physical conditions whose causes are often unknown. It is widely assumed that an underlying illness, pathogen, injury, or inflammation is already present when stress triggers nausea, vomiting, stomach cramps, and related gut pain, or diarrhea
-although stress does not directly cause these symptoms, it is clearly related and may actually make your risk of having symptoms even worse
relaxation techniques may be helpful in coping with stressor that make your digestive problems worse, how?
-these techniques promote relaxation by reducing the activity of the sympathetic nervous system, leading to decreases in heart rate, blood pressure, and other stress responses
-decrease gastrointestinal activity
growing area of scientific investigation is known as_(relation between stress and impaired immunity)
-psychoneuroimmunology (PNI)
what does psychoneuroimmunology (PNI)?
analyzes the relationsip between the mind’s response to stress and the immune system’s ability to function effectively
how stress is related to impaired immunity? list some possible diseases (4)
stress is linked to adverse health consequences suggest that too much stress over a long period can negatively affect various aspects of the cellular immune response, increasing risks for upper respiratory infections and certain chronic conditions, increasing adverse birth outcomes and fetal development, and exacerbating problems for children and adults suffering from post-traumatic stress
how long do you have to be stressed to suffer form impaired immunity?
-evidence from impaired immunity from the initial stress to as long as 6 months later
what are stressors that cause impaired immunity? (acute stressors (3) vs long term (7))
-acute stressor such as arguments, public speaking, and academic examination
-more prolonged stressors: such as socioeconomic disparities and prolonged economic uncertainty, devastating life events such as the loss of a spouse, exposure to natural disaster, war, caregiving,or living with a chronic disease or handicap,
what is the relation between stress and libido?
too much stress decreases sexual drive (libido)
prolonged stress can compromise the _system, leaving you _
-immune system
-vulnerable to infection
what percentage of college students said they had experienced larger than average amount of stress during the past year?
what is the number one impediment to academic performance? what follows it?
-lack of sleep
how stress affects the intellectual health of students? (3)
-decrease students ability to remember key information for exams, and understand and retain complex information
-inability to concentrate
_% of college students reported that stress negatively impacted their grade on an exam or course, or caused them to drop a course
why stress affects memory and concentration? (5) (state research results)
-it is not well known
-chronic exposure to glucocorticoids (stress hormones released form adrenal cortex) in animals are believed to affect cognitive functioning and overall mental health
-in humans, acute stress has been show to impair short -term memory, particularly verbal memory
-prolongued exposure to cortisol (key stress hormone) shrinks the hyppocampus, the brain’s major memory center
-in rats that were chronically stressed, the decision making regions of brain shriveled, sectors responsible for habitual behaviors that did not relay on memory increased
2 diseases that are related with the effect of stress on Psychological Effects of Stress
-stress may be one of the single greatest contributors to mental disability and emotional dysfunction in industrialized nations
what two mental disorders are related to large amounts of stressors from childhood through adulthood?
what are two causes of mental disorders among people aged 15 to 24 more than among other age groups? what are some stressors? (6)
-inadequate social support
-stressful life event
-stressors: those related to work,finances, school, lack of social support, loneliness, and problems in relationships, which may challenge their mental health
why should I care about academic stress?
it is associated with increased upper respiratory tract infections among students. You can avoid a bad cold if you de-stress
what are the major causes of stress among American adults? As reported by American Psychological Association (7) what are the 3 main?
-family responsibilities
-health problems
-housing costs
-money (main), work, and housing concerns as major sources of stress in their lives
psychosocial stressors
-refer to the factors in our daily routines and in our social and physical environments that cause us to experience stress
key psychosocial stressors include_(7)
-adjustments to change: the more you have, more chances are that stress will have an impact on health.
-interpersonal relationships
-academic and career pressures
-frustrations and conflicts
-stressful environments
hassles refer to_
-the little things that bug you
-little stressors, frustrations, and pretty annoyances, known collective as hassles can be just as stressful as the major life changes
how hassles can affect your health?
-these cumulative hassles add up, taxing the physiological systems of the body and putting what is sometimes referred to as allostatic load on the body that can result in health issues
the fast pace of_creates a new hassles and adds to the stress of some people. this kind of stress is referred as_and it is defined as_
-stress created by a dependence on technology and the constant state of connection, which can include perceived obligation to respond, chat, or tweet
what are diseases due to technology? (2)
-social distress: technosis, yndrome in which people become so immersed in technology that they risk losing their own identity
-technology dependency: being connected 24/7 can lead to mental overload, neglect of personal needs and activities, time pressures, guilt, physical symptoms, and economic problems. frustration when wireless does not work can lead to high stress levels
what factor can trigger some of the biggest fight-or-flight responses?
_% of studies of stress and work provides strong evidence that work situations with_(3)will increase likelihood that employee complaints about gastrointestinal aliments and sleep difficulties. what other kinds of jobs are stressful too?
-high demands, little control, and coworkers who are difficult to get along
-competition for rewards and systems that favor certain classes of employees or pit workers against one another are among the most stressful job situations
what group of people is most affected by academic and financial pressures?
students (college)
when frustrations can occur?
whenever these is a disparity between our goals (what we hope to obtain in life) and our behaviors (actions that may or may not lead to these goals), frustrations can occur
when conflicts can occur? (2)
when we are forced to decide among competing motives, impulses, desires, and behaviors or when we are forced to face pressures of demands that are incompatible with our own values and sense of importance
ex: college students who are away from their families for the first time may face a variety of conflicts among parental values, their own beliefs, and the beliefs of others who are very different from themselves
overload (definition and when occurs)
-a condition in which a person feels overly pressured by demands
-occurs when try as we might, there are not nearly enough hours in the day to do what we are required to do, and our physical, mental , and emotional reserves are not sufficient to deal with all we have on our plans
students suffering from overload may experience _(5)
-mood swings
-host other symptoms
unrelenting stress and overload can lead to a state of _known as_
physical and mental exhaustion known as burnout
what causes an environment to become stressful?
-natural disasters, which can create extreme levels of environmentally induced stress
-background distressors
often as damaging as one-time disasters are_in the environment (2)
-background distressors
background distressors (definition and examples)
-environmental stressors of which people are often unaware
ex: noise, air, water pollution; allergy aggravating pollen and dust; environmental tobacco smoke
who is most prone to stress? (characteristics) what career has the greatest amount of stress?
-everyone experiences stress in his or her life, but some people have personalities and attitudes that leave them more susceptible. whereas others have careers or life circumstances that impose greater external pressures on them
-individuals such as doctors and nurses face long work hours and a high-stakes work environment, making them especially prone to stress, overlaod, and burnout
what students that are different experience stress?
-because of bias, students that are different may experience bigotry, insensitivity, harassment, or hostility or be ignored
-differences include: race, ethnicity, religious affiliation, age sexual orientation, or other differences like viewpoints appearances, behaviors, or backgrounds
ex: international students
evidence of health effects of excessive stress in _groups abounds. why?
ex: african americans suffer hypertension, CVD, and most cancers
-this may reflect real and perceived effects of institutional racism rather than individual/interpersonal poverty and perceived racism
what is the myth buster about multitasking? (how this applies to driving and talking in cell phonse, at work?)
-myth: multitasking is more efficient
-fact: you think you are getting a lot of done at once but you are not. it slows us down because we do one task and then we switch to the other. it is like information traffic jam in your brain. it can be dangerous when you are driving while talking on the phone. drivers that multitasked were at 5 times more likely to get into accident. In the office is where multitasking is taking the most roll. Those employees that were interrupted by messages or emails took about 15 minutes to go back to work. waste time in emails and recovery time, which cost.
what is the 3-step program to stop multitasking?
1. check emails once per hour
2. turn computer sound and icon that signals new emails
3. if need to hear music, listen to instrumentals. lyrics are distracting
What are examples of internal stressors? (3) how affect you?
-negative appraisal
-low self-esteem
-low self-efficacy
can cause unsettling thoughts or feelings and can ultimately affect your health
throughout life, we encounter many different types of demands and potential stressors. In any case, it is our _of these demands, not the demands themselves, that result in our experiencing stress
the interpretation and evaluation of information provided to the brain by the senses
as new information becomes available. how appraisal can help us id stressors?
-as new information becomes available. appraisal helps us recognize stressor, evaluate them on the basis of past experiences and emotions, and decide whether or not we have the ability to cope
when you have what appraisal about stressor will make you feel strain and distress?
when you feel that the stressors of life are overwhelming and you lack control, you are more likely to feel strain and distress
-refers to how you feel about yourself
how self-esteem relates to stress?
-when you feel good about yourself, you are less likely to respond or interpret an event as stressful and more likely to be able to cope when you are stressed
-if increase self-esteem, increase ability to cope with stress
low self-esteem and stressful life events signficantly predict_
suicidal ideation
suicidal ideation
a desire to die and thoughts about suicide
refers to belief that or confidence in one’s skills and performance abilities
what is one of the most important personality traits that influences psychological and physiological stress responses?
how personality can have an impact on you?
-personality can have an impact on whether you are happy and socially well-adjusted or sad and socially isolated
-it may the critical factor in your stress level, as well as in your risk for CVD, cancer, and other chronic and infectious diseases
what are the 2 personalities proposed by Meyer Friedman and Ray Rosenman?
-Type A personalities
-Type B personalities
describe Type A personalities (how they are and how affect health)
-Type A personalities are defined as hard-driving, competitive, time-driven perfectionists
-had greatly increased risk of heart disease
describe Type B personalities
-Type B personalities are described as being relaxed, noncompetitive, and more tolerant to others
how can we fit into the Type A or Type B personalities?
-We are not wholly one or the other all the time. We might exhibit either type as we respond to the various challenges of our daily lives
what Type A personality individuals experience negative health consequences?
-not all of Type A people experience negative health consequences
-some hard-driving individuals seem to thrive on their supercharged lifestyles
-Only those Type A individuals who exhibit a “toxic core”;have disproportionate amounts of anger; are distrustful of others; and have a cynical, glass half-empty approach to life are at increased risk for heart disease
the characteristics showed by Type A people that are at increased risk for heart disease is referred as_
-the cognitive, affective, and behavioral tendencies toward anger and cynicism
what relationships have higher risk of early coronary hearth disease?
-those relationships fraught with problems
-those who have marital discord, who are often in turmoil and are angry and hostile toward each other
other personality types have been linked to increased risk for a variety of illnesses, ranging from _to_. The personalities that fit in it are_
-asthma to cancer
-Type C and type D personalities
Describe Type C personalities
-Type C people are stoic and tend to deny feelings
-They have a tendency to conform to the wishes of others (or to be “pleasers”), a lack of assertiveness, and an inclination toward feelings of helplessness or hopelessness
what are the diseases associated with Type C personality
-they are more susceptible to illnesses such as asthma, multiple sclerosis, autoimmune disorders, and cancer
-They are “nice” guys and gals who really do finish last when it comes to their health
Describe Type D personality
-recently idenfitied
-Type D (distress)
-it is characterized toward excessive negative worry, irritability, gloom, and social inhibition
describe disease associated with type D personality
-Type D people may be up to 8 times more likely to die of a heat attack or sudden cardiac death
According to psychologist _(name), _was the key to reducing self-imposed_associated with type _behavior
-Sussame Kobasa
-Psychological hardiness
-self-imposed stress
-Type A
psychological hardiness
-a personality trait characterized by control,commitment, and the embrace of challenge
describe psychological hardy people
-psychologically hardy people were characterized by control, commitment, and willingness to embrace change
In psychological hardiness, explain how people with a sense of control act
people with a sense of “control” are able to accept responsibility for their behaviors and work to change situations they discover to be debilitating
In psychological hardiness, explain how people with a sense of commitment act
-people with a sense of commitment have healthy self-esteem and know their purpose in life
In psychological hardiness, explain how people that embrace challenge act
people who embrace challenge see change as a stimulating opportunity for personal growth
Today, the concept of hardiness has evolved to include a person’s ability to cope with _(2)
stress and adversity
Today, it is more common for people to think of this general hardiness concept in terms of _
psychological resilience
psychological resilience (2)
-the process of adapting well in the face of adversity, trauma, tragedy, threats, or significant sources of stress, such as family and relationship problems, serious health problems, or workplace and financial stressors
-essentially, it refers to our ability to “bounce back” from difficult experiences, thrive in the face of adversity, or function at higher levels than expected under stressful situations
describe what resilient individuals are able to do. why they can do it?
-resilient individuals are able to interact more effectively with potentially negative environments as a result “protective factors” such as strong support networks of family, friends, and healthy communities
the concept of _has been studies extensively and appears to be a key indicator of good psychological and social development
recent studies of college students indicate that the emotional health self-rating of first year college students is at an all-time_. why? how is it shown? how these problems progress as in sophomores, juniors, and seniors? what this indicates?
-high levels of stress that does not let them to cope
-they are overwhelm, emotional reactivity in the form of anger, hostility, frustration, and a greater sense of being out of control
-sophomores and juniors reported fewer problems with these issues, and seniors reported the fewest problems
-This may indicate students’ progressive emotional growth through experience, maturity, increased awareness of support services, and more social connections
what you can do to those stressors ion your life that you cannot eliminate?
-you can train yourself to recognize the events that cause stress and to anticipate your reactions to them
strategy that college students can use to deal with stress? how are known collectively?
-coping strategies and skills
-known collectively as stress-management techniques
s the act of managing events or conditions to lessen the physical or psychological effects of excess stress
are college students more stressed out than other groups?
studies suggest yes–the combination of new environment, peer and parent pressures, and juggling the demands of work, school, and a social life likely contribute to this phenomenon
list stress management techniques (8)
-practice mental work to reduce stress
-developing a support Network
-Cultivating your spiritual side
-managing emotional responses
-taking physical action
-managing your time
-consider downshifting
-Relaxation Techniques for Stress Management
what you assess in general terms in practice mental work to reduce stress? (what is the principal problem, 3)
-because your perceptions are often part of the problem, assessing your “self-talk,” beliefs, and actions
what sections are within practice mental work to reduce stress? (2)
-assess your stressors and solve problems
– change how you think and talk to youself
what is the first step to solving problems and reducing stress?
-assessing what is really going on in your life (assess your stressors)
steps to follow in assess your stressors to assess what is really going on in your life to solve problems and reduce stress? (6)
1. Make a list of the major things that you are worried about right now
2. Examine the causes of the problems and worries
3. Consider how big each problem is. What are the consequences of doing nothing versus taking action?
4. List your options, including ones that you may not like very much
5. Outline an action plan, and then act. remember that even little things can sometimes make a big difference and that you should not expect immediate results
6. After you act, evaluate.How did you do? Do you need to change your actions to achieve a better outcome next time? How?
what technique is useful for coping with stressors?
stress inoculation
stress inoculation (what it is)
-Stress inoculation helps people prepare for stressful events ahead of time.
-stress-management technique in which a person consciously tries to prepate ahead of time for potential stressors
-it is used to cope with stressors, once you have ID them, is to consciously anticipate and prepare for specific stressors
example of stress inoculation application (speak in front of class)
-if you are afraid of speaking in front of class, you can practice in front of friends or in front of a video camera to banish panic and prevent your freezing up on the day of the presentation. The assumption is that by dealing with smaller fears, you develop resistance, so that larger fears do not seem so overwhelming
what makes things stressful?
-our appraisal of people and situations is what makes these things stressful, not the people or the situations themselves
examples of negative self talks and explain each (5)
-pessimism: focusing on the negative
-perfectionism: expecting superhuman standards
-“should-ing”: reprimanding yourself for items that you should have done
-blaming: blaming yourself or others for circumstances and events
-dichotomous thinking: in which everything is either black or white (good or bad) instead of gradated
To combat negative self-talks, what technique we can use?
cognitive restructuring
cognitive restructuring (definition, how use this process)
-the modification of thoughts, ideas, and beliefs that contribute to stress
-process to combat negative self-talks in which we first become aware of negative self-talk, stop it, and replace the negative thoughts with positive ones.
-once you realize that some of your thoughts may be irrational or overreactive, interrupt this self-talk by saying “stop” (under your breath or out loud) and make a conscious effort to think positively
if you can learn to view stressors in a positive light by using cognitive restructuring, you can_
reduce stress levels without having to remove the stressors
4 suggestions to break the worry habit
-create a “worry period” when you can hournal or fret out loud. After that move on
-Focus on what is going right, deemphasize what is going wrong
-learn to accept what you cannot change
-seek help from a friend, counselor, or family member if your worries seem out of control
as you plan a stress-management program, remember the importance of _
-social networks and social bonds
how support network can help to fight against stress?
-friendships are an important aspect of inoculating yourself against harmful stressors
-social support can buffer individuals from the effects of stress
when developing a support network, what are two steps? explain each
-find supportive people: friends, family, counseling services, clergy, instructors, etc
-invest in your loved ones: invest time and energy in people you love (family and friends). DO not let busy life do not make time for the very people who are most important to us. cultivate and nurture the relationships that matter: those built on trust, mutual acceptance and understanding, honesty, and genuine caring. treat others emphatically provides them with a measure of emotional security and reduces their anxiety. If you want others to be there for you to help you cope with life’s stressors, you need to be there for them
one of the most important factors in reducing overall stress in your life is taking time and making commitment to cultivate your spirtual side. By cultivating your spiritual side is meant_
-finding purpose in life and living your days more fully
we get upset by_
-not by realities, but our faulty perceptions
how social networking sites and email as are often perfect places for faulty perceptions? what are the best way to interact and why>
-they are perfect places for reading meaning into things that are said and perceiving issues that do not exist
-Eyeball-to-eyeball interactions, where body language,voice intonation, and opportunities for clarification are present, are much better than cryptic texts or emails for interpreting true meanings
stress management requires you to_ (in managing emotional responses section)
-examine the validity of a stressor and your emotional responses to interactions with others using all of the available visual and sensory clues
-learning to tell the difference between normal emotions and emotions based on irrational beliefs or expressed and interpreted in an over-the-top manner can help you stop the motion or express it in a healthy and appropriate way
what is part of managing emotional responses? (2)
-fight the anger urge
-learn to laugh, be joyful, and cry
sources of anger (in general sense, specific)
anger usually results when we feel we have lost control of a situation or are frustrated by a situation that we can do little about
1. perceived threats to self or others we care about
2. reactions to injustice such as unfair actions, policies, or behaviors
3. fear, which leads to negative responses
4. faulty emotional reasoning, or misinterpretation of normal events
5. low frustration tolerance, often fueled by stress, drugs, lack of sleep, and other factors
6. unreasonable expectations about ourselves and others
7. people rating, or applying derogatory rations to others
what are 3 main approaches to deal with anger? what is the healthiest thing to do?
1. expressing it
2. suppressing it
3. calming it
-the healthiest thing to do is to express anger in an assertive rather than aggressive way
what are several strategies that you can use to express anger in assertive way? (8) explain each briefly
1. ID your anger style (passively vs actively, holding or exploding)
2. learn to recognize patterns in your anger responses and how to de-escalate them (what thoughts and feelings lead up to boiling point, keep a journal and listen your anger. try to change your self-talk. explore to interrupt patterns of anger (counting to 10, getting a drink of water, taking some deep breaths))
3. Find the right words to de-excalate conflict (use words that suggest thoughtfulness to reduce conflict.words: think, because, reason, why demonstrate more consideration for the other person (partner) and the issues under fire, as well as more rational approach)
4. plan ahead (options to minimize exposure to anger-provoking situations)
5. vent to your friends
6. Develop realistic expectations of yourself and others (anger is often the result of unmet expectations, frustrations, resentments, and impatience)
7. Turn complaints into requests
8. Leave past anger in the past (learnt o resolve issues that have caused pain, frustration, or stress.if necessary seek counsel of a professional)
why to learn to laugh, be joyful, and cry?
-you feel better after laugh or cry
-humans have long recognized that smiling, laughing, singing, dancing, and other actions can elevate our moods, relive stress, make us feel good, and help us improve our relationships
-learn to laugh at your own silly actions and taking yourself less seriously is a good starting place
-crying can have a similar positive physiological effects on relieving tension
how laugh and joy can affect your body?
-increase endorphin levels
-increase oxygen levels in blood
-decrease stress levels
– relive pain
-enhance productivity
-reduce risks of chronic disease
positive psychology
-field of research to study how people can become happier
happiness and optimism are keys to _
-health (ex: have fewer mental and physical health problems) and stress reduction
strategies to be happy
-set realistic goals (managing expectations)
-remember that money does not buy happiness (too much focus on things rather than relationships and connections; people that have to pay material things tend to work longer hours and rest less or take time for themselves)
-lose yourself in the moment (find your flow, a state of effortless concentration and enjoyment. what energizes you more and makes time fly by and causes you to concentrate in the present)
-count your blessings (concentrate in positive attributes and being thankful for all the good things in our lives. tell your loves ones how much you appreciate them)
-make changes and reinvigorate (do new things that you can enjoy (travel, plan something fun, try new recipe, etc)
-forgive and forget (try to understand what may have caused someone to act toward you in a hurtful manner and then move on)
-Remember to prioritize you (your own happiness is as important as that of others in your life. Limit the time you spend with people that bring you down. find time for time alone)
taking care of your physical health through_(some examples)(3) is a crucial components of stress management
-quality sleep
-sufficient exercise
-healthful nutrition
3 strategies in taking physical action to reduce stress? (4)
-exercise regularly
-get enough sleep
-learn to relax
-eat healthful
why to excersice regularly to reduce stress?
-the human stress response is intended to end in physical activity
-exercise burns out existing stress hormones by directing them toward their intended metabolic function
-exercise can also help combat stress by raising levels of endorphins (mood-elevating, painkilling hormones) in the bloodstream, increasing energy, reducing hostility, and improving mental alertness
benefits of sleep related to stress
-allow you to refresh your vital energy
-cope with multiple stresssors more effectively
-be productive when you need to be
what is one of the biggest stress busters of them all?
benefits of relaxation
-cope with stressful feelings
-preserve your energy
-refocus your energies
what happens to body as you relax?
-your heart rate slows
-your blood pressure and metabolic rate decrease
-many other body-calming effects occur, all of which allow you to channel energy appropriately
how eat healthfully can help us?
-it is not well know how and whether food can calm us and nourish our psyches
-eating a balanced, healthy diet will help provide the stamina you need to get through problems and will stress-proof you in ways that are not fully understood
overeating, undereating, and eating wrong kinds of foods can create_(what in body)
-distress in body
sympathomimetics (definition, example, should you eat them?)
-food substances that can produce stresslike physiological responses
ex: caffeine
-avoid them
how can I manage my time more effectively? (what means to manage time? what you need to do? (5))
-learning to manage your time means recognizing that there are only 24 hours in a day and you cannot do everything. Instead, you need to prioritize your “to do’s” and set realistic time limits
-You also need to ID the things that cause you to waste time and find ways to avoid them
-establishing routlines and using a calendar or other planning devices to keep track of schedules and tasks can help you implement an effective time-management plan
enemy of managing your time?
-to intentionally put off doing something
-voluntarily delay doing some task despite expecting to be worse off for the delay
procrastination results in_(4)
-academic difficulties
-financial problems
-relationship problems
-multitude of stress-related ailments
How can you avoid procrasitnation? (3)
-according to psychologists Peter Gollwitzer, setting clear “implementation intentions,” a series of goals to be accomplished toward a specific end, is key
-by making a clear plan of action with set deadlines and rewarding yourself for meeting these deadlines, you can motivate yourself toward project completion
-another strategy is to get started early and set a personal end date that is well ahead of the class due date
learning to _better overall is a key to reducing stress
manage your time better overall
what is a way to asses if you are managing your time well?
-keep a journal for 1 week to become aware of how you spend your time
-write down your activities every day and the amount of time you spend doing each
-Once you have kept track for several days, you can assess your activities. Are you completing the tasks you need to do on a daily basis? are there any activities you can stop doing or that you would like to do more frequently?
list the time-management tips for stress-management program (8)
-do one thing at a time (stay focused)
-clean off your desk (toss uneccessary papers, put into folders papers for taskss that you must do, read mail, recycle, file what you need later)
-prioritize tasks (make a daily “to do” list and stick to it. categorize in things must do today, things must do but not immediately, things would be nice to do)
-Find a clean, comfortable place to work, and avoid interruptions
-reward yourself for work completed
-work when you are at your best
-break overwhelming tasks into small pieces, and allocate a certain amount of time to each.
-remember that time is precious
strategies to learn how to say no
-be sympathetic, but firm. explain that although you think it is a great cause or idea, you just cannot take on one more project right now. do not waver if they persist in pressuring you
-do not say you want to think about it and will get back to them
-do not give to guilt. stick to your guns. remember you do not owe anyone your time
-even if something sounds good, avoid spontaneous “yes” responses to new projects. make a rule that you will take at least a day to think about committing your time
-schedule time for yourself first.
downshifting (other name, what it is)
-voluntary simplicity
-today’s lifestyles are hectic and pressure packed, and stress often comes from trying to keep up. many people are questioning whether “having it all” is worth it, and they are taking a step back and simplifying their lives
examples of downshifting (2)
-moving form a large urban area to a smaller town
-leaving a high-paying and high-stress job for one that makes you happy
downshifting involves what? (what you need to change internally?)
involves fundamental alteration in values and honest introspection about what is important in life
ex: cut down shopping, buy what you need, live modestly
when contemplate any form of downshift, it is important to move slowly and consider the following: (6)
-plan for health care costs
-determine your ultimate goal
-make both short-and long-term plans for simplifying your life
-complete a financial inventory
-select the right career (work that you enjoy that is not driven by salary)
-consider options for saving money (does not mean you renounce money; you choose money will not dictate your life)
_is the body’s natural antidote to stress
what are the common relaxation techniques for stress management? (10)
-tai chi
-deep breathing
-progressive muscle relaxation
-massage therapy
what kind of stress has always been an issue for college students?
financial stress
ancient practice that combines meditation, stretching, and breathing exercises designed to relax, refresh, and rejuvenate
origin of yoga? (when and place)
-began 5,000 years ago in India
nearly _of people in the US practice one or more of the many versions of yoga
15 million
types of yoga (2)
-classical yoga
-Hatha yoga
classical yoga
-is the ancestor of nearly all modern forms of yoga
-breathing, poses, and verbal mantras are often part of classical yoga
of the many branches of classical yoga, what is the most well known? why?
-Hatha yoga
-it is the most body focused
Hatha yoga (what involves (2))
-this yoga involves the practice of breath control and asanas
asanas (part of what yoga and what it is)
-part of Hatha yoga
-held postures and choreographed movements that enhance strength and flexibility
benefits to body of practicing Hatha yoga (3)
-reducing inflammation
-boosting mood
-reducing stress
Qigong (what kind of exercise it is, country originated, what you will get out of it)
-form of mind-body health exercise
-ancient Chinese practice that involves becoming aware of and learning to control “qi” or vital energy in your body
Qigong is part of the treatment for people suffering from_(2)
chronic pain or stress
According to Chinese medicine, what are “qi”? when one feels sluggish or powerless?
-according to chinese medicine, a complex system of internal pathways called “meridians” carry qi throughout your body
-if your qi becomes stagnant or blocked, you will feel sluggish or powerless
Qigong incorporates what activities? (4) designed to do what?
-series of flowing movements, breath techniques, mental visualizations exercises, and vocalizations of healing sounds designed to restore balance and integrate and refresh the mind and body
Tai chi (described as_. where originated, why used, and how long ago, 2 main characteristics)
-described as meditation in motion
-developed in China as form of self-defense. (existed for about 2000 years)
-noncompetitive and self-paced
what you do when you perform tai chi?
-you perform a defined series of postures of movements in a slow, graceful manner.
-each movement of posture flows into the next without pause
two modern uses of tai chi?
-basic exercise program
-complement to other health care methods
health benefits of performing tai chi? (3)
-stress reduction
-greater balance
-increased flexibility
how we typically breathe?
-we breathe using only the upper chest and thoracic region rather than involving the abdominal region
diaphragmatic breathing (other name, what it is, used in what practices (2))
-deep breathing
-is deep breathing that maximally fills the lungs by involving the movement of the diaphragm and lower abdomen
-is used in yoga exercises and other meditative practices
diaphragmatic breathing will help you to learn to_
breathe deeply as a way to relieve stress
steps to perform diaphragmatic breathing (5)
1. assume a natural, comfortable position either sitting up straight with your head, neck, and shoulders relaxed, or lying on your back with your knees bent and your head supported. Close your eyes and loosen binding clothes
2. in order to feel your abdomen moving as you breathe, place one hand on your upper chest and other just below your rib cage
3. breathe in slowly and deeply though your nose. feel your stomach expanding into your hand. the hand on your chest should move as little as possible
4. exhale slowly though your moth. feel the fall of your stomach away from your hand. again, the hand on your chest should move as little as possible
5. concentrate on the act of breathing. shut out external noise. focus on inhaling and exhaling, the route the air is following, and the rise and fall of your stomach
meditation (definition and simple way to practice it)
-a relaxation technique that involves deep breathing and concentration
-most involve sitting quietly for 15 to 20 minutes, focusing on a particular word or symbol, and controlling breathing
meditation was practiced by_religions for centuries and it is believed to be an important form of _(2)
-introspection and personal renewal
in stress management, what can meditation do?
-it can calm the body and quiet the mind, create a sense of peace
one form of mediation_, helped college students decrease stress and increase coping ability, particularly among those at risk for _(disease)
-transcendental meditation
how our imagination can stress us?
often it is our thoughts and imagination that provoke distress by conjuring up worst-case scenarios
what is the technique in which our imagination can be tapped to reduce stress?
-the creation of mental images to promote relaxation
what are the choice of mental images in visualization and why? what else you can involve to have greater effect?
-the choice is unlimited, but natural settings such as ocean beaches and mountain lakes are often used because they represent stress-free environments
-physical sense of sound, sight, smell, taste, and touch can replace stressful stimuli with peaceful and pleasurable thoughts
progressive muscle relaxation (how works?)
-involves systematically contacting and relaxing different muscle groups in your body
-standard pattern is to begin with the feet and work your way up your body, contracting and releasing as you go
the process of progressive muscle relaxation is designed to teach _. what you will be able to do with practice?
-awareness of the different feelings of muscle tension and muscle release
-awareness of tension in your body
-with practice you can quickly ID tension in your body when you are facing stressful situations and consciously release tat tension to calm yourself
list steps to perform progressive muscle relaxation
To start: sit or lie down in a comfortable position and follow the steps:
1. start with one foot. inhale, contracting the muscles of your foot. hold and notice the feeling of tension. exhale, slowly releasing the muscles. notice the feeling of tension flowing away
2. repeat the same steps contracting and releasing your foot and lower leg, then your entire leg
3. follow the same sequence with your other foot and leg
4. starting with one hand, follow the same sequence for both arms
5. continue this isolations as you progress up your body, contracting and then relaxing your abdomen, then chest, followed by neck and shoulders, and ending with your face
benefit of message therapy (2)
beneficial effect on hormones known to regulate blood pressure and reduce inflammation, as well as invoke relaxation response in the body
2 types of massage therapy
biofeedback (definition and how works)
-a technique using a machine to self-monitor physical responses to stress
-a technique in which a person learn to control body functions, such as heart rate, body temperature, and breathing rate, with conscious mind control. Using machines as simples as stress dots that change color with body temperature variation to sophisticated electrical sensors, individuals learn to listen to their bodies and make necessary adjustments, such as relaxing certain muscles or changing breathing or concentration, to slow heart rate and relax
-eventually, individuals develop the ability to recognize and lower stress responses without using the machines and then it can be practiced anywhere
hypnosis (definition)
-a trancelike state that allows people to become unusually responsive to suggestion
what hypnosis does to brain and how? include part of brain affected
-hypnosis requires a person to focus on one thought, object, or voice, thereby freeing the right hemisphere of the brain to become more active
-the person then becomes unusually responsive to suggestion
hypnosis can reduce certain_
types of stress
_% of American adults report having practiced some form of meditation in the past 12 months
body’s response to stress is known as_. it is a _response
-fight-or-fly response
-physiological, most primitive, survival response
environmental stressors
include natural disasters and background distressors, such as noise, air, and water pollution.
self-imposed stressors include _(5)
include appraisal, self-esteem, self-efficacy, external versus internal locus of control, and Type A personality.
health hazards of stress (what does to our body in long term) (4)
It can damage the cardiovascular system, weaken the immune system, deplete our emotional reserves, and contribute to depression and anxiety.
first thing to do to reduce stress?
-assess stressors
-Recognize them. Evaluate them. Decide what you can do to reduce your stress levels.
steps to reduces stress
-assess stressors
-change your responses to stressors
-learn to cope with stressors
what relaxation does to your body?
is a coping mechanism that dissipates excess hormones associated with fight-or-flight response and helps you refocus your energies.
mindfulness (what it is, how related to stress)
the ability to be fully present in the moment, can lower our stress levels by relaxation, reduction of emotional and physical pain, and helping us to connect more effectively with ourselves. Mindfulness contributes to overall health and wellness.
Even though Jim experienced stress when he got married and moved to a new city, he viewed it as an opportunity for growth. What is Jim’s stress called? Is it: (a) distress; or (b) eustress
The answer is B – Eustress presents an opportunity for personal growth and satisfaction. Distress is caused by events that result in debilitative stress.
At Sue’s new job, there is excessive time pressure and responsibility coupled with lack of support by co-workers. Sue risks suffering from (a) hassles or (b) overload.
`The answer is B – Overload is a state of being overburdened.
Losing your keys is an example of what psychosocial source of stress? Is it (a) hassles
or (b) pressure?
The answer is A – hassles. Hassles are petty annoyances and frustrations. While they may seem unimportant, their cumulative effects have been shown to be harmful in the long run.
During what phase of the general adaptation syndrome has the physical and psychological energy used to fight the stressors been depleted? Is it (a) resistance phase or (b) exhaustion phase?
The answer is B – exhaustion phase
The branch of the autonomic nervous system that is responsible for energizing the body for either fight or flight and for triggering many other stress responses is the (a) parasympathetic nervous system or (b) sympathetic nervous system.
The answer is B – sympathetic nervous system. The sympathetic nervous system readies the body for fight or flight by releasing stress hormones that speed the heart rate, increase the breathing rate, and trigger other stress responses.
Research suggests that there is no link between the mind’s reaction to stress and how the immune system functions. True or False?
The answer is False. Too much stress for a prolonged period of time can negatively regulate various aspects of our immune system.
People with high levels of stress are less likely to develop upper respiratory infections. True or False?
The answer here is True.
Numerous studies have concluded that physical health is a key predictor of mental health. True or False?
The answer is False. Numerous studies have indicated that mental health is a key predictor of physical health.
A personality trait characterized by control, commitment, and challenge is called psychological hardiness. True or False?
The answer is True.
Improving time management does seem to have an effect on the stress levels of students. True or False?
The answer is True.
Mental and physical responses to change are termed (a) stress or (b) stressor.
The answer is A – stress.
A real or perceived situation that causes the body to adjust is referred to as (a) stress or (b) stressor.
The answer is B – stressor
Research on stress and body function has found that prolonged stress (a) has increased adaptive energy stores or (b) reduces the effectiveness of the immune response.
The answer is B – reduces the effectiveness of the immune response.
Too much stress contributes to physiological changes including (a) decreased blood pressure or (b) hardening of the arteries.
The answer is B – hardening of the arteries.
Being a full-time student, having a job, being the president of a sorority, in addition to family responsibilities would be best described as: (a) overload; or (b) ambiguity.
The answer is A – overload.
Which of the following statements is true? (a) The goal of stress management is to eliminate all stress in our lives or (b) Stress management consists primarily of finding balance in our lives.
The answer is B – Stress management consists primarily of finding balance in our lives.
College women indicate that one of their most frequent stressors is (a) being away from family and friends or (b) trying to diet.
The answer is B – trying to diet.
College men indicate that their most frequent stressors include: (a) having too many hassles or (b) being underweight.
The answer is B – being underweight.
Which functions are associated with the sympathetic nervous system? (a) decreases heart rate and breathing; or (b) increases heart rate and breathing.
The answer is B – increases heart rate and breathing.
The term describing what happens when we perceive danger is called (a) the resistance phase or (b) fight-or-flight response.
The answer is B – fight-or-flight response.
stress response is physiologically adapted to_(function)
-protect us from nature
-adapted from our ancestors that use it to escape from a lion
-body uses it to protect itself from danger or fight the danger (fight-or-flight response)
what happens in the brain when you see a lion?
-through the eyes, cortex recognizes the lion
-message is sent to amygdala, which identifies the lion as threat
-the amygdala activates the hypothalamus in the base of the brain
-hypothalamus send messages through the spinal cord which get to adrenal medulla, which releases adrenaline (very important for stress response)
-the hypothalamus also sends messages to pituitary gland. from pituitary, messages go to adrenal cortex, which makes cortisol
role of hypothalamus in stress response
critical part of the brain which organize the response to the stress
what adrenaline does?
all the body activities of the fight-or-flight response
-ex: increase sugar in the blood, increase heart rate, increases blood going to muscles
what cortisol does?
-acts to put up your blood pressure and keep up blood sugar
-very important hormone in stress situation
During which phase of the general adaptation syndrome (GAS) does the body return to homeostasis after reacting to a stressor?
resistance stage
True or false: Perception of a stressor can have as big an impact on a person as an actual stressor.