Ch. 27, Sec. 2: Imperialism (Case Study: Nigeria)

indirect control
A method of management used by the United States and Britain. This method relied on already existing political rulers, including a legislative council. This method was used for the Philippines.
direct control
A method of management used by the French and other European powers. This method was based on paternalism and assimilation, because they felt the Africans could not govern themselves.
paternalism
A paternal way of governing people that provides for their needs but does not give them rights. Europeans brought in their own bureaucrats to achieve this method of governing.
assimilation
This policy is based on ideals of that time, and the main idea was that the French culture would be adopted by the local populations.
association
A policy that is similar to indirect control, and was adopted by the French later, after they had abandoned assimilation. In this policy, the French recognized African culture, but saw it as inferior to their own.
Royal Niger (Company)
This company accomplished the British conquest of northern Nigeria. They gained control of the palm-oil trade along the Niger River. In 1914, the British gained complete control of Nigeria as a colony.
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colony
A country or territory governed internally by a foreign power, such as Somaliland in East Africa (French colony).
protectorate
A country or territory with its own internal government but under the control of an outside power, such as the British colonies over the Niger River delta.
sphere of influence
An area in which an outside power claims exclusive investment or trading privileges, such as Liberia (US colony).
economic imperialism
An independent but less-developed country controlled by private business interests rather than other governments (Dole Fruit company controlled pineapple trade in Hawaii).
Hausa-Fulanai
Muslim people from northern Africa that had a strong central government. Ruling through local officials worked well with these people.
Yoruba
From the southwest part of Africa, these people followed traditional religions and were controlled by chiefs. When Britain attempted indirect rule with them, they resented having their power taken away.
Igbo
From the south part of Africa, these people followed traditional religions and were controlled by chiefs. When Britain attempted indirect rule with them, they resented having their power taken away.
Ethiopia
All countries’ attempts of resistance against the British failed due to their superior weaponry, except in this country.
(Samori) Touré
This man led the resistance movement in West Africa against the French. He modernized his army and fought against them for 16 years.
maji-maji
Magic water that the East Africans believed if sprinkled on their bodies, it would turn the Germans’ bullets into water.
Maji Maji Rebellion
This rebellion took place in East Africa, and was centered towards the East Africans’ anger towards the Germans for insisting they must plant cotton (a cash crop), instead of their own crops.
Menelik (II)
This man became emperor of Ethiopia in 1889, and played the great countries against each other. He noticed a difference in wording in the Ethiopian and Italian versions of a treaty he was signing, and declared war against the Italians. The Ethiopians’ successful resistance against the Europeans is often believed to be because of this man.
(Battle of) Adowa
At this battle, Ethiopian forces defeated the Italians and kept their nation independent. After the battle, Menelik continued to stockpile his rifles.
smallpox
This was a common disease many Africans died of.
famines
These periods of loss of food stemmed from the change to cash crops in order to give the “mother country” more money.
(Sir Thomas) Roe
In 1603, he went before Queen Elizabeth I and got a license to start the British East India Company.