CH 19 Margin Review Questions

What accounts for the massive peasant rebellions of nineteenth century China? (933)
• China’s population grew rapidly between 1685 and 1853, but agricultural production was unable to keep up; this led to growing pressure on the land, smaller farms for China’s huge peasant population, and, in all too many cases, unemployment, impoverishment, misery, and starvation.
• China’s centralized bureaucratic state did not enlarge itself to keep pace with the growing population and lost influence at the local level to provincial officials and local gentry, who tended to be more corrupt and harsh.
• Peasants frequently embraced rebellion, finding leadership in charismatic figures who proclaimed a millenarian religious message.
• Peasants also increasingly articulated their opposition to the Qing dynasty on account of its foreign Manchurian origins.
• The Taiping Uprising between 1850 and 1864 found its inspiration in a unique form of Christianity.
What strategies did China adopt to confront its various problems? In what ways did these strategies reflect China’s own history and culture with the new global order? (939) [only first question]
Self-Strengthening Moment – policies sought to reinvigorate a traditional China while borrowing cautiously from the West. Examination system – Civil Service Exam – sought good men for official positions to cope with reconstruction after wake of the Taiping Rebellion. Support for landlords and repair of dikes and irrigation – helped restore rural social and economic order. Factories (textiles and steel) established, coal mines expanded, telegraph system. > modernization. European dominance = Chinese nationalism.
What lay behind the decline of the Ottoman Empire in the 19th century? (942)
Ottoman Empire was unable to prevent region after region from falling under control from Christian (European) powers. Domains of empire shrank from Russian, British, Austrian, and French aggression. Loss of Egypt as territory. Parts of the empire: Greece, Serbia, Bulgaria, and Romania achieved independence based on surging Nationalism and support from British/Russians. Central Ottoman state had weakened. Janissary Corps lost military edge. Technological and military gap with west growing. Capitulations – granted some exemptions from law – European penetration. Growing indebtedness of empire – foreign loans – dependency on Europe.
In what different ways did various groups define the Ottoman Empire during the 19th century? (945)
Reform supporters: Ottoman Empire was a secular state whose people were loyal to the dynasty that ruled it, rather than a primarily Muslim state based on religious principles.
Young Ottomans – Favored a Western-style government. Islam modernization. Rule of despotism
Young Turks – Abandoned Islam; advocated militantly secular public life – modernization and Ottoman Empire as a Turkish national state. Radical secularization of schools, courts, law codes. More women rights! Secular Nationalism – public loyalty.
In what ways did the Ottoman state respond to its various problems? (944, maybe)
Programs of “defensive modernization” were mounted – no internal uprisings. No huge population growth. Leaders were Turks or Muslims. Reforms that sought to reorganize and update army and to draw on European advisers and technology. – Stirred hostility from both the ulama and the Janissary Corps – saw it as conflict with Islam. Reformist measures – Tanzimat Reforms – as an empire looked for underpinning for a re-centralized state. Modernization! Westernization! Rights of non-Muslims!
In what ways was Japan changing during the Tokugawa era? (948)
The samurai evolved into a Bureaucracy – 5-6% of population. Devoted to warrior code – Bushido. Economic growth, commercialization, & urban development. More rice = rural manufacturing enterprises. Japan is world’s most urbanized country. – 10% population. Emerging capitalist economy. Education = high literacy rates. Solid foundation for industrial growth – 19th century. Merchants prospered – richer than Samurai. Peasants moved to cities, became artisans or merchants. Shogunate losing control.
How did Japan’s relationship to the larger world change during its modernization process?(954)
Japan’s modernization persuaded Western powers to revise the unequal treaties in Japan’s favor. – Equal with Western nations!! Empire-building enterprise. Successful wars against China & Russia = Japan a formidable military competitor in East Asia. Colonies in Taiwan and Korea. Some nations admired Japan. Japan was an economic, political, and military competitor. Defeat of Russia launched other revolutions in Western countries. – “Awakening of the East” Empire of Japan treated China bitterly. Merchants traded textiles.