Ch 13: Psyhological Disorders

psychopathology
The scientific study of the origins, symptoms, and development of psychological disorders
psychological disorder or mental disorder
A pattern of behavioral and psychological symptoms that causes significant personal distress, impairs the ability to function in one or more important areas of dialy life, or both
DSM-IV-TR
Abbrevation for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision; the book published by the American Psychiatric Association that describes the specific symptoms and diagnostic guidelines for different psychological disorders
panic attack
A sudden episode of extreme anxiety that rapidly escalates in intensity
panic disorder
An anxiety disorder in which the person experiences frequent and unexpected panic attacks
phobia
A strong or irrational fear of something, usually a specific object or situation, that does not necessarily interfere with the ability to function in daily life
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specific phobia
An anxiety disorder characterized by an extreme and irrational fear of a specific object or situation that interferes with the ability to function in daily life; formerly called simple phobia
social phobia or social anxiety disorder
An anxiety disorder involving the extreme and irrational fear of being embarrassed, judged, or scrutinized by others in social situations
posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
An anxiety disorder in which chronic and persistent symptoms of anxiety develop in response to an extreme physical or psychological trauma
obsessive-complusive disorder (OCD)
An anxiety disorder in which the symptoms of anxiety are triggered by intrusive, repetitive thoughts and urges to perform certain actions
obsession
Repeated, intrusive, and uncontrollable irrational thoughts or mental images that cause extreme anxiety of distress
complusion
Repetitive behaviors or mental acts that are performed to prevent or reduce anxiety
mood disorders
A category of mental disorders in which significant anf persistent disruptions in mood or emotions cause impaired cognitive, behavioral, and physical functioning; also called affective disorders
major depression
A mood disorder characterized by extreme and persistent feelings of despondency, worthlessness, and hopelessness, causing impaired emotional, cognitive, behavioral, anf physical functioning
dysthymic disorder
A mood disorder involving chronic, low-grade feelings of depression that produce subjective discomfort but do not seriously impair the ability to function
seasonal affective disorder (SAD)
A mood disorder in which episodes of depression typically occur during the spring and summer
bipolar disorder
A mood diorder involving periods of incapacitating depression alternating with periods of extreme euphoria and excitement; formerly called manic depression
manic episode
A sudden, rapidly escalating emotional state characterized by extreme euphoria, excitement, physical energy, and rapid thoughts and speech
cyclothymic disorder
A mood disorder characterized by moderate but frequent mood swings that are not severe ehough to qualify as bipolar disorder
personality disorder
Inflexible, maladaptive patterns of thoughts, emotions, behavior and interpersonal functioning that are stable over time and across situations, and deviate from the expectations of the individual’s culture
paranoid personality disorder
A personality disorder characterized by a pervasive distrust and suspiciousness of the motives of others without sufficient basis
anitsocial personailty disorder
A personality disorder characterized by a pervasive pattern of disregarding and violating the rights of others; such individuals are also often reffered to as psychopaths or sociopaths
borderline personality disorder
A personality disorder characterized by instability of interpersonal relationships, self-image, and emotions, and marked impulsivity
dissociative experience
A break or disruption in consciousness during which awereness, memory, and personalidentity become separated or divided
dissociative disorders
A category of psychological disorders in which extreme and frequent disruptions of awereness, memory, and personal identity impair the ability to function
dissociative amnesia
A dissociative disorder involving the partial or total inability to recall important personal information
dissociative fugue
A dissociative disorder involving sudden and unexpected travel away from home, extensive amnesia, and identity confusion
dissociative identity disorder (DID)
A dissociative disorder involving extensive memory disruptions along with the presence of two or more distinct identities, or “personalities”; formerly called multiple personality disorder
schizophrenia
A psychological disorder in which the ability to function is imapired by severely distorted beliefs, perceptions, and thought processes
positive symptoms
In schizophrenia, symptoms that reflect excesses or distortions of normal functioning, including delusions, hallucinations, and disorganized thoughts and behavior
negative symptoms
In schizophrenia, symptoms that reflect defects or deficits in normal functioning, including flat affect, alogia, and avolition
delusion
A falsely held belief that persists in spite of compelling contradictory evidence
halluciation
A false or perception that seems vividly real to the person experiencing it
dopamine hypothesis
The view that shizophrenia is related to, and may be caused by, excessive activity of the neurotransmitter dopamine in the brain