The human Y chromosome can be used to provide data about recent human evolution because __________.
the Y chromosome passes essentially intact from father to son
DNA testing (profiling) has been used to determine guilt or innocence of suspected crime suspects. This works because __________.
every person has a unique DNA sequence
What is recombinant DNA technology?
combining genes from different species
Among other uses, recombinant DNA technology has provided a mechanism for nonhuman cells to produce _____.
Human insulin is produced in large quantities by __________.
recombinant E. coli bacteria grown in large fermentation vats
When plasmids, which are small, circular, bacterial, DNA molecules, are used to transfer foreign DNA to other cells, the plasmid is called a _____.
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The term “restriction fragments” refers to __________.
pieces of DNA that have been cut into different lengths
Which enzyme “pastes” DNA fragments together?
In recombinant DNA experiments, _____ is used to cut pieces of DNA and _____ joins the resulting fragments to form recombinant DNA.
a restriction enzyme … DNA ligase
A genomic library is __________.
a collection of cloned DNA pieces from a genome
In which of the following ways are sticky ends and nucleic acid probes alike?
They both undergo complementary base pairing.
A nucleic acid probe can be used to __________.
find a particular nucleotide sequence within a large segment of DNA
Which of the following is the best definition for recombinant DNA?
DNA that includes pieces from two different sources
Which of these is a genetically modified organism?
an organism carrying a gene that was acquired by artificial means
Which of the following best defines the term transgenic organism?
an organism containing a gene from another species
The world’s first genetically engineered pharmaceutical product was ______.
A vaccine works by ______.
stimulating the immune system to develop lasting defenses
Transgenic animals are currently used ______.
to produce potentially useful proteins
Which of these can act as a vector to introduce new genes into a cell?
Of these steps, which occurs first in the production of a recombinant plasmid?
isolation of a plasmid from a bacterium
Of these steps, which one occurs earliest in the process of producing recombinant DNA?
The same restriction enzyme is used to isolate the gene of interest and to cut the plasmid DNA.
When plasmids are used to produce a desired protein, the ______.
desired gene is inserted into the plasmid and the plasmid is taken up by the bacterium
The process of making multiple copies of a gene by inserting it into a host genome and culturing the host is an example of ______.
A collection of cloned DNA fragments that includes an organism’s entire genome is called a ______.
Nucleic acid probes are used to ______.
find a specific nucleotide sequence
Restriction enzymes are obtained from ______.
“Sticky ends” are produced as a result of the action of ______.
a restriction enzyme
“Sticky ends” are ______.
single-stranded ends of fragments of double-stranded DNA
A DNA fragment with a sticky end that reads -ATTCG will bind with another DNA fragment with a sticky end that reads ______.
Which enzyme is used to bind DNA fragments together?
Of the following, which is the last step in the production of a recombinant DNA plasmid?
using DNA ligase to join DNA fragments
How do forensics investigators use DNA fingerprinting to link a particular suspect to a particular crime scene?
Forensic investigators compare genetic markers in DNA taken from suspects to genetic markers in DNA from crime scene samples
Can DNA fingerprinting be used to study evolutionary connections?
Yes, patterns in the occurrence of specific genetic markers can reveal evolutionary relationships between populations
You are attempting to link an individual to a crime. The only evidence you have is a tiny drop of blood. How can you use this drop of blood to make the association?
You can use PCR to increase the amount of DNA available for restriction fragment analysis
What name is given to a region of DNA that varies from person to person?
Cutting DNA with a particular restriction enzyme produces DNA fragments that can be separated by ______.
To make restriction fragments, a DNA sample is treated with ______.
Gel electrophoresis separates DNA fragments on the basis of differences in their ______.
STR analysis is a DNA profiling technique that makes use of the fact that different people have
different numbers of repeats of short DNA sequences at certain sites in the genome.
Archaeologists unearthed a human skull with a small dried fragment of the scalp still attached. They extracted a tiny amount of DNA from the scalp tissue. How could they obtain sufficient DNA for an analysis of the ancient human’s genes?
Use the polymerase chain reaction
Which of the following was the first eukaryote to have its full DNA sequence determined?
The main goal of the Human Genome Project (HGP) was to __________.
determine the nucleotide sequence of the entire human genome and map all the human genes
The ability to sequence DNA has led to a new field called comparative genetics, which is __________.
the comparison of whole genomes
One thing that the Human Variome Project seeks to accomplish is __________.
collecting information on all of the genetic variations that affect human health
what way is genomics just beginning to provide information for treatment for a potential wide variety of diseases based on the genetic makeup of each patient?
In a few cases, such as some specific kinds of breast cancer, genomics has allowed doctors and patients to specifically target drugs that are effective for their particular genetic variant of a disease.
The scientific field that studies complete sets of genes is called ______.
The human genome contains approximately ______ genes.
Approximately what percentage of the human genome consists of noncoding DNA?
The Human Genome Project has the potential to ______.
play a role in all of the choices listed here
Which of these statements can be logically inferred from the amount of DNA shared by chimpanzees and humans?
Humans and chimpanzees share a relatively recent common ancestor
To find the nucleotide sequence of human chromosomes, chromosomes had to be digested into small fragments and then ______.
cloned and sequenced
What technique is most commonly used to sequence entire genomes?
the whole-genome shotgun method
The study of the full protein sets that genomes encode is _____.
The systematic study of the full protein sets that genomes encode is called _____.
An example of a successful gene therapy approach to treating human disease is seen in a procedure __________.
using gene therapy to treat severe combined immunodeficiency disease (SCID)
In human gene therapy
normal versions of genes are transferred to patients who carry a mutated allele.
The state of human gene therapy today is that
there have been a small number of successes, including with the disease SCID.
To date, the “easy” part of gene therapy has been __________.
isolating and cloning the normal gene
Because there are potential risks associated with the use of biotechnology in agriculture, __________.
potential risks associated with biotechnology are evaluated by a variety of U.S. regulatory agencies
One of the most difficult ethical issues related to DNA technology is the question __________.
How do we prevent genetic information from being used in a discriminatory manner?”
Genetically modifying human ______ cells may directly affect future generations.
Ethical dilemmas raised by DNA technology and knowledge of the human genome include ______.
all of the above
The possibility that Mongolian ruler Genghis Khan spread an unusual chromosome to nearly 16 million men living today resulted from studies of _____.
the Y chromosome
The diagram below summarizes _____.
human gene therapy
PIC-The following figure provides you with an overview of recombinant technology. The end result is a transgenic bacterium with a human gene that codes for marketable quantities of a human gene product. However, molecular biologists frequently have problems with the product. One problem might be ______.
production of a human protein that is unable to function properly
The following figure shows that gel electrophoresis can be used to separate repetitive DNA sequences. Gel electrophoresis separates DNA fragments because ______.
the DNA fragments have different lengths
Molecular biologists have perfected DNA fingerprinting so that it is possible to use the technique to provide evidence to solve crimes and even identify a child’s parents. Recently, a U.S. immigrant asked the U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services for permission to have her young daughter who was living with grandparents in their homeland join her.Her request was denied because there was an apparent mix-up with the child’s birth certificate and it could not be used as proof of maternity. Proof is required in cases such as this. The mother requested DNA fingerprinting to make her case. Samples of DNA were taken from the mother (Mom) and daughter (D1) as well as from another daughter (D2) and a son (S) living in the United States with her. Tandem repeat analysis was run on the four samples, and the results are shown here.
The results indicate that ______.
she is the mother of daughter D1
Molecular biologists have perfected DNA fingerprinting so that it is possible to use the technique to provide evidence to solve crimes and even identify a child’s parents. Recently, a U.S. immigrant asked the U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services for permission to have her young daughter who was living with grandparents in their homeland join her.Her request was denied because there was an apparent mix-up with the child’s birth certificate and it could not be used as proof of maternity. Proof is required in cases such as this. The mother requested DNA fingerprinting to make her case. Samples of DNA were taken from the mother (Mom) and daughter (D1) as well as from another daughter (D2) and a son (S) living in the United States with her. Tandem repeat analysis was run on the four samples, and the results are shown here
You can use this DNA fingerprinting information to make a judgment about maternity because ______.
of the position of the bands in the gel
The short tandem repeat analysis ______.
compares repetitive DNA sequences from different individuals
In the future, scientists hope to be able to compare whole genomes of individuals, a new field called __________
Which of the following best defines the term transgenic animal?
an animal containing a gene from a third “parent” maybe another species