Ch 11 psy4604

How did Bandura believe behavior could be controlled?
– whoever controls society’s models controls behavior.
– by visualizing the consequences of a particular behavior we have not personally experienced and then making a conscious decision to behave or not behave similarly
What was the main focus of study for neobehaviorists?
learning
What is operationism?
The idea that a concept is the same as the corresponding set of procedures to measure it

-aka, things can only be defined if they can bemeasured

What was the first stage in the evolution of the behavioral school of thought?
Watson’s behaviorism
How did Hull’s form of behaviorism compare to Watson’s?
Hull’s form of behaviorism was more sophisticated and complex than Watson’s
– Hull: “Watson is too naive. His behaviorism is too simple and crude”
How was Skinner’s research unique among other major neobehaviorists?
– advocated a totally empirical system with no theoretical framework within which to conduct research or to explain the results
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What is the “third stage” of behaviorism?
*sociobehaviorism*
– includes Bandura and Rotter
– a return to the consideration of cognitive processes while maintaining a focus on the observation of overt behavior
Where did the term “social learning theory” come from?
-Rotter
-we learn through social experiences
What is self-efficacy?
One’s sense of self-esteem and competence in dealing with life’s problems
What is the difference between locus of control and self-efficacy?
locus of control can be generalized over many different situations while self-efficacy seems to be related to more specific situations.
What is the second stage of behaviorism
neobehaviorism
three points of neobehaviorism
-The core of psychology is the study of learning
– Most behavior, no matter how complex, can be accounted for by the laws of conditioning
– Psychology must adopt the principle of operationism.
Edward C. Tolman’s system combining the objective study of behavior with the consideration of goal-orientation in behavior is called ____.
purposive behaviorism
Intervening variables
Unobserved and inferred factors within the organism that are the actual determinants of behavior

ex: hunger can’t be seen but can be measured by length of time since last eating or how much food eaten

Hypothetico-deductive method
Hull’s method for establishing postulates from which experimentally testable conclusions can be deduced
Law of primary reinforcement
-Hull
– When a stimulus-response relationship is followed by a reduction in a bodily need, the probability increases that on subsequent occasions the same stimulus will evoke the same response.
Habit strength
– Hull
– The strength of the stimulus response connection, which is a function of the number of reinforcements.
Edward Chace Tolman
– Questioned the scientific usefulness of introspection
– *rats*
– purposive behaviorism
Clark Leonard Hull
■ The spirit of mechanism:
– Describes human nature in mechanistic terms
– Regarded human behavior as automatic and capable of being reduced to the language of
physics
■ Objective methodology and quantification
– Three methods that Hull considered useful:
■ Simple observation, systematic controlled observation, and the experimental testing of hypotheses
– Fourth method:
■ Hypothetico-deductive method: Hull’s method for establishing postulates from which experimentally testable conclusion can be deducted
■ Drives:
– Basis of motivation; bodily need that arose from a deviation from optimal
biological conditions
■ Learning: focuses on reinforcement
– Law of primary reinforcement
– Habit strength
Operant conditioning
A learning situation that involves behavior emitted by an organism rather than elicited by a detectable stimulus
-Skinner
Law of acquisition
the strength of an operant behavior is increased when it is followed by the presentation of a reinforcing stimulus
– Skinner
Reinforcement schedules
Conditions involving various rates and times of reinforcement
-Skinner
Successive approximation
An explanation for the acquisition of complex behavior. Behaviors such as learning to speak will be reinforced only as they come to approximate or approach the final desired behavior
– Skinner
Behavior modification
The use of positive reinforcement to control or modify the behavior of individuals or groups.
-Skinner
Vicarious reinforcement
Bandura’s notion that learning can occur by observing the behavior of other people, and the consequences of their behavior, rather than by always experiencing reinforcement personally
A concept of Bandura that reflects one’s beliefs about one’s own adequacy is ____.​
self-efficacy
The agent who controls the models controls behavior, according to __
Bandura
Behavior is the primary characteristic of living things according to:
Skinner
One’s own sense of elf-esteem and competence in dealing with life’s problems is ___
Self-efficacy
Internal locus of control
The belief that reinforcement depends on one’s own behavior
External locus of control
The belief that reinforcement depends on outside forces
Of all the neobehaviorists, the one who most obviously espoused mechanism was ____.​
Hull
Skinner’s former students demonstrated which of the following with the advent of the IQ Zoo?​
Operant conditioning can be taken out of the lab and applied to the real world.
Which of the following did Tolman not consider to be a cause of behavior?​

environmental stimuli
physiological drives
heredity
motivation

motivation
Skinner was the complete opposite of Hull with regard to the _____.
lack of theoretical framework
The dominant area of study for the neobehaviorists was ____.​
learning