Ch 11 – 14 College US History

Nat Turner’s Rebellion
August 22, 1831
Black people rebelled
anti slave laws created
Old South
“antebellum era” 1830-1860 southern slave labor states that produced cotton which dominated the economy of the South
inequality by 2 things: class and caste (maybe they’re born with it; maybe it’s maybeline)
Slave’s Daily Life
varied by region
90% southern slaves work on plantations, rest in cities
African Methodist Episcopal Church
under leadership of rev Richard Allen of Philadelphia 1816
Vesey Conspiracy
plot to burn Charleston, South Carolina and initiate a general slave revolt by Denmark Vesey in 1822. got found out and 3/4 got hung
Underground Railroad
network of safe houses made by abolitionists (usually free blacks) to aid slaves in their attempt to get to the north or canada
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Free Blacks in the Old South
occupied precarious positions in antebellum
white people feared slave revolts
caused white people to talk about ‘domesticating black people’ rather than taking them as slaves
The Planters’ World
few in numbers, but great influence
Yeomen Farmers
just below small slaveowners on social scale
owned land they worked themselves
American Colonization Society
1817- est. by people worried of the impact of slavery and race on society. They argued slavery had to end, and americans had to send black slaves back to Africa. Was a failure of a plan. Few planters freed their slaves, some blacks didn’t want to leave even. America even bought land in africa, liberia, to place the slaves. Only six thousand slaves were transported. West coast of africa.
Cotton Gin
A machine for cleaning the seeds from cotton fibers, invented by Eli Whitney in 1793
A style of Christian ministry that includes much zeal and enthusiasm. Didn’t include Mormons or Catholics, etc.
Second Great Awakening
A series of religious revivals starting in 1801, based on Methodism and Baptism. Stressed a religious philosophy of salvation through good deeds and tolerance for all Protestant sects. The revivals attracted women, Blacks, and Native Americans.
Temperance Movement
A movement that prompted Congress to pass the Eighteenth Amendment in 1919, instituting Prohibition, which forbade the sale or transportation of alcohol. Prohibition was repealed in 1935.
high mortality rate for infants
farm children did farm stuff, city children did factory work
Educational Reform
1820 – 1850
incorporated more moral indoctrination
made kids smarter so societies wouldn’t end up unable to self-govern
The asylum
1820s and 30s
special institution for confinement and rehabilitation
escaped slaves made north aware of the bondage
Liberty Party
A former political party in the United States; formed in 1839 to oppose the practice of slavery; merged with the Free Soil Party in 1848
Black Abolitionists
escaped slaves and free blacks were outspoken and convincing, spoke about brutality and degradation of slavery, Douglass, Harriet Tubman, David Ruggles, Sojourner Truth, William Still, helped organize efforts to assist fugitive slaves escape to the North
Seneca Falls Convention
took place in upperstate New York in 1848. Women of all ages and even some men went to discuss the rights and conditions of women. There, they wrote the Declaration of Sentiments, which among other things, tried to get women the right to vote.
the goal to create an ideal society based on cooperation and economic self-sufficiency; found on idealized perfection
not taylor swift
1840s; one of the first religious communal movements; kept men and women separate; failed due to lack of recruits
Oneida Community
A group of socio-religious perfectionists who lived in New York. Practiced polygamy, communal property, and communal raising of children. By John Humphrey Noyes, called a “free love” community.
A philosophy pioneered by Ralph Waldo Emerson in the 1830’s and 1840’s, in which each person has direct communication with God and Nature, and there is no need for organized churches. It incorporated the ideas that mind goes beyond matter, intuition is valuable, that each soul is part of the Great Spirit, and each person is part of a reality where only the invisible is truly real. Promoted individualism, self-reliance, and freedom from social constraints, and emphasized emotions.
Brook Farm
A transcendentalist Utopian experiment, put into practice by transcendentalist former Unitarian minister George Ripley at a farm in West Roxbury, Massachusetts, at that time nine miles from Boston. The community, in operation from 1841 to 1847, was inspired by the socialist concepts of Charles Fourier.
Young America
the confident, manifest destiny spirit of the Americans in the 1840’s and 50’s. Expansionists began to think about transmitting the dynamic, democratic spirit of the US to other countries by aiding revolutionaries, opening up new markets, and annexing foreign lands
Webster-Ashburton Treaty
1842 between the US and the Brits, settled boundry disputes in the North West, fixed most borders between US and Canada, talked about slavery and excredition
Texas Revolution
War between Texas settlers and Mexico from 1835-1836 resulting in the formation of the Republic of Texas
Republic of Texas
Created March, 1836 but not recognized until the next month after the battle of San Jacinto. Its second president attempted to establish a sound government and develop relations with England and France. However, rapidly rising public debt, internal conflicts and renewed threats from Mexico led Texas to join the U.S. in 1845.
A Spanish mission converted into a fort, it was besieged by Mexican troops in 1836. The Texas garrison held out for thirteen days, but in the final battle, all of the Texans were killed by the larger Mexican force.
Mormon Trek
Mormons, led by Joseph Smith and later Brigham Young, sought a community and moved to Utah to establish Salt Lake City. New York to Utah
Manifest Destiny
A notion held by a nineteenth-century Americans that the United States was destined to rule the continent, from the Atlantic the Pacific.
Mexican-American War
(1846-1848) The war between the United States and Mexico in which the United States acquired one half of the Mexican territory.
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
(1848) treaty signed by the U.S. and Mexico that officially ended the Mexican-American War; Mexico had to give up much of its northern territory to the U.S (Mexican Cession); in exchange the U.S. gave Mexico $15 million and said that Mexicans living in the lands of the Mexican Cession would be protected
1828: First in US created. 1833: New York prohibited railroads from carrying freight in order to protect investment in Erie Canal. Early: dangerous because sparks, feeble brakes, differences in gauge meant many changes for passengers. 1859: Pullman “sleeping palace” was introduced.
Industrial Revolution
The first Industrial Revolution, which began in the 18th century, merged into the Second Industrial Revolution around 1850, when technological and economic progress gained momentum with the development of steam-powered ships, railways, and later in the 19th century with the internal combustion engine and electrical technology
Mass Immigration
Period between 1865 and 1920 where nearly 30 million immigrants come to the United States.
The Working Class
From 1800-1850 little improvement was made for working class citizens (conditions remained poor). A group led by Ned Ludd, the Luddites, destroyed the machines that they believed were replacing them.
Wilmot Proviso
(1846) bill proposed by congressman, David Wimot, to forbit slavery in any new territories from Mexico
Popular Sovereignty
Authority of the people
Free-soil Party
A political party formed in 1848 from a merger between the northern Democratic Party, abolitionist Liberty Party and Antislavery Party. It supported abolition and nominated Martin Van Buren has their candidate for president
Compromise of 1850
(1) California admitted as free state, (2) territorial status and popular sovereignty of Utah and New Mexico, (3) resolution of Texas-New Mexico boundaries, (4) federal assumption of Texas debt, (5) slave trade abolished in DC, and (6) new fugitive slave law; advocated by Henry Clay and Stephen A. Douglas
Fugitive Slave Law
1793 law providing for federal and state judges and local officials to facilitate the return of escaped slaves. ended 1850
Kansas-Nebraska Act
1854 – Created Nebraska and Kansas as states and gave the people in those territories the right to chose to be a free or slave state through popular sovereignty.
Rivals of the Federalists who believed in a smaller government based on state rights. Their rivalry sparked tensions with Federalists, creating a political party system.
Ostend Manifesto
a declaration (1854) issued from Ostend, Belgium, by the U.S. ministers to England, France, and Spain, stating that the U.S. would be justified in seizing Cuba if Spain did not sell it to the U.S.
An anti-foreign feeling that arose in the 1840’s and 1850’s in response to the influx of Irish and German Catholics.
Know-Nothing Party
A party which pushed for political action against these newcomers. They displayed the feelings of America regarding newcomers that were different and therefore, the double standard of the country.
Harriet Beecher Stowe and Uncle Tom’s Cabin
(1811-1896) American author and daughter of Lyman Beecher, she was an abolitionist and author of the famous antislavery novel, Uncle Tom’s Cabin.
Dred Scott Case
1857 Supreme court case that developed the fact that slaves were property not persons entitled to constitutional rights. It was the second Supreme Court decision to declare a law unconstitutional- Missouri Compromise
Lecompton Constitution
Pro-slave constitution that got voted in for Kansas after anti-slavery people boycotted the election
John Brown
Abolitionist who was hanged after leading an unsuccessful raid at Harper’s Ferry, Virginia (1800-1858)
Election of 1860
Lincoln, the Republican candidate, won because the Democratic party was split over slavery. As a result, the South no longer felt like it has a voice in politics and a number of states seceded from the Union.