Ch 10 Quiz

According to your text, what does the science of personality explore?
a. Global patterns of identification, socialization, and adaptation
b. Distinctive patterns of morals, desires, and behaviors
c. Unique patterns of being, perceiving, and sensing
d. Characteristic patterns of thinking, feeling, and behaving
d
Professor Hill asks Anita to explain psychodynamic theory for the class. How should Anita respond?
a. Psychic energy is moved among the compartments of the personality: id, ego, and superego.
b. Psychic energy is created and destroyed in an open system made up of the id, ego, and superego.
c. Psychic energy is stored in the compartments of the personality: id, ego, and unconscious.
d. Psychic energy is created and destroyed in the process of personality formation.
a
Sigmund Freud’s treatment approach based on his psychodynamic theory is called ____.
a. psychosexual development
b. psychoanalysis
c. behaviorism
d. self-actualization
b
In Freud’s view, it is the job of the ego, or self, to ____.
a. balance the pleasure-seeking impulses of the superego with the morality imposed by the id
b. overrule the pleasure-seeking impulses of the id with the morality imposed by the superego
c. enhance the pleasure-seeking impulses of the id despite the morality imposed by the superego
d. balance the pleasure-seeking impulses of the id with the morality imposed by the superego
d
For as long as he can remember, Randy’s passion in life has been to eat, drink, and be merry. Which component of Freud’s personality theory does this reflect?
a. superego
b. id
c. unconscious
d. ego
b
In Freud’s personality theory, the self that others see is called the ____.
a. ego
b. id
c. superego
d. unconscious
a
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Olivia has just obtained her driver’s license. She is nervous that she might break one of numerous “rules of the road” and receive both a ticket and a reprimand from her parents. Which component of Freud’s personality theory does this reflect?
a. unconscious
b. ego
c. superego
d. id
c
What is the part of mental activity that cannot be voluntarily retrieved?
a. preconscious mind
b. unconscious mind
c. conscious mind
d. superconscious mind
b
In Freud’s personality theory, a protective behavior that reduces anxiety is called a ____.
a. trait
b. psychosexual stage
c. defense mechanism
d. level of awareness
c
Susan was so angry at her boss that, when she got home from work, she yelled at her husband in response to his question “How was your day?”. This is an example of ____.
a. sublimation
b. projection
c. denial
d. displacement
d
The stages in Freud’s theory of the developing personality are called ____.
a. defense mechanisms
b. psychosexual stages
c. developmental complexes
d. reaction formations
b
Ben is three years old and very bright. His parents try all sort of games to encourage him to urinate in the toilet rather than in his diaper, with little success. Which developmental stage is he in?
a. phallic stage
b. genital stage
c. oral stage
d. anal stage
a
According to Freud, what is the resolution of the Oedipus complex?
a. Identification with the same-sex parent
b. Attraction to the same-sex parent
c. Competition with the opposite-sex parent
d. Identification with the opposite-sex parent
a
What does a neurosis represent for Freud?
a. A conflict between the ego and reality
b. A continuing conflict between the ego and the id, superego, or both
c. A failure to internalize society’s rules
d. A failure to resolve a particular conflict, such as weaning
b
The theorists who attempted to update and modify Freud’s original theory of personality are called ____.
a. neo-Freudians c. Jungians
b. psychoanalysts d. humanists
a
Which of the following is a contribution of Carl Jung to psychodynamic thought?
a. The individual unconscious mind
b. The importance of birth order
c. The collective unconscious mind
d. Penis envy and pregnancy envy
d
Which of the following is true about Abraham Maslow?
a. He was primarily interested in human motivation.
b. He conducted most of his research on rats and pigeons.
c. He developed a theory of personality based on his experience as a therapist.
d. He observed that exceptional people generally lacked a sense of humor but had many friends.
a
To remember the Big Five traits, use the acronym ____.
a. STORM
b. FRAME
c. EARTH
d. OCEAN
d
What is the theory of personality that features cognition and learning, especially from the social environment, as important sources of individual differences in personality?
a. psychodynamic theory
b. trait theory
c. behaviorism
d. social-cognitive learning theory
d
What is the cognitive expectancy featured in social-cognitive learning theories of personality about the source of individual outcomes?
a. reciprocal determinism
b. locus of control
c. response tendencies
d. defense mechanisms
b
Aaron, a pre-med student, received a C on his biochemistry exam. He told his roommate that he had studied for the exam, and that it was just bad luck that the professor had asked so many questions that he did not understand. Aaron appears to have ____.
a. an external locus of control
b. reciprocal determinism
c. self-efficacy
d. an internal locus of control
a
What is the social-cognitive learning theory of personality that features the mutual influence of the person and situation on each other?
a. reciprocal determinism
b. behaviorism
c. self-efficacy
d. locus of control
a
Of the following, who most reflects self-efficacy?
a. Maria, who tries to redirect her aggressive urges into more prosocial channels
b. Todd, who believes that he can handle challenging situations and obtain future rewards
c. Beth, who tends to attribute her own problems and anxieties to others
d. Marcus, who believes that most of the things that happen to him are due to luck or factors beyond his control
b
A child’s pattern of mood, activity, or emotional responsiveness that is linked to later personality is called her ____.
a. self-esteem
b. self-concept
c. character
d. temperament
d
Most efforts to study the effects of genetics on personality use ____.
a. factor analysis
b. qualitative methods
c. the twin study method
d. the study of siblings
c
To avoid the pitfalls of observation and interview, many psychologists turn to ____.
a. standardized tests of personality
b. individualized tests of personality
c. participant observation
d. long-term qualitative studies
a
What are the two basic requirements of a good test?
a. specificity and sensitivity
b. specificity and generalizability
c. validity and reliability
d. reliability and sensitivity
c
A projective personality test provides an ambiguous stimulus onto which the test taker “projects” his or her personality. This is based on ____.
a. social-cognitive learning theory
b. humanistic theory of personality
c. the Big Five theory
d. Freudian theory
d
In Freudian theory, projection is ____.
a. part of the Oedipus complex
b. a psychosexual stage of development
c. a defense mechanism
d. a function of the superego
c
What is the self?
a. A personal database of memories
b. The patterns of thought, feelings, and actions we see in ourselves
c. The characteristics we retain from our genetic history
d. The cognitive organization of our brains
b
One’s knowledge of personal traits, feelings, roles, and memories is called ____.
a. self-esteem
b. self-concept
c. self-schema
d. self-awareness
d
What is self-esteem?
a. A judgment of the value of the self
b. A person’s description of his or her own positive characteristics
c. A person’s optimal patterns of thought, feelings, and actions
d. A person’s knowledge of his or her roles and memories
a
What purpose does the text suggest that self-esteem may have played related to survival in the evolutionary past?
a. Lower self-esteem led to more cooperation between rival groups.
b. High self-esteem increased popularity in social groups.
c. A drop in self-esteem served as an early warning signal that rejection by the group is imminent and that behavior designed to regain the favor of the group should be initiated.
d. An increase in self-esteem was associated with enhanced reproductive success.
c