Ch. 10 Psychology

social psychology
looks at behavior and mental processes but also includes the social world in which we exist, as we are surrounded by others to whom we are connected and by whom we are influenced in many ways
social influence
the process through which the real or implied presence of others can directly or indirectly influence the thoughts, feelings, and behavior of an individual
conformity
changing one’s own behavior to match that of other people
groupthink
occurs when people place more importance on maintaining group cohesiveness than on assessing the facts of the problem with which the group is concerned
compliance
changing one’s behavior as a result of other people directing or asking for the change
consumer psychology
branch of psychology that studies the habits of consumers in the marketplace, including compliance
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foot-in-the-door technique
asking for a small commitment and, after gaining compliance, asking for a bigger commitment
door-in-the-face technique
asking for a large commitment and then, after being refused, asking for a smaller commitment
lowball technique
getting a commitment from a person and then raising the cost of that commitment
obedience
changing one’s behavior at the command of an authority figure
Milgram study
-a “teacher” administered what he or she though were real shocks to a “learner”
-Participants consistently followed orders to administer apparently painful shocks
attitude
a tendency to respond positively or negatively toward a certain person, object, idea, or situation
Three Components of an Attitude
1.Affective (emotional) component
2.Behavioral component
3.Cognitive component
very specific or very strong
Attitudes are often poor predictors of behavior unless the attitude is …. ….
vicarious conditioning
watching the actions and reactions of others to ideas, people, objects, and situations
persuasion
the process by which one person tries to change the belief, opinion, position, or course of action of another person through argument, pleading, or explanation
source of the message, the message itself, the target audience, and the medium
Key elements in persuasion are the:
Elaboration Likelihood Model
-People will either elaborate on the persuasive message or fail to elaborate on it
-The future actions of those who elaborate are more predictable than the actions of those who do not
-Central-route processing: involves attending to the content of the message itself
-Peripheral-route processing: involves attending to factors not involved in the message, such as the expertise of the source of the message, the length of the message, and other non-content factors
either elaborate;fail to elaborate
People will ….. on the persuasive message or ….. on it
central-route processing
involves attending to the content of the message itself
peripheral-route processing
involves attending to factors not involved in the message, such as the expertise of the source of the message, the length of the message, and other non-content factors
cognitive dissonance
the sense of discomfort or distress that occurs when a person’s behavior does not correspond to that person’s impression
changing the conflicting behavior, changing the conflicting attitude, or forming a new attitude to justify the behavior
Cognitive dissonance is lessened by ….
impression formation
the development of the first knowledge a person has about another person
primacy effect
the very first impression one has about a person tends to persist even in the face of evidence to the contrary
social categorization
the assignment of a person one has just met to a category based on characteristics the new person has in common with other people with whom one has had experience in the past
stereotype
a set of characteristics that people believe is shared by all members of a particular of a particular social category
implicit personality theory
sets of assumptions about how different types of people, personality traits, and actions are related to each other
implicit association test
measures the degree of association between concepts
schemas
mental patterns that represent what a person believes about certain types of people
stereotypes
Schemas can become …..
attribution
the process of explaining one’s own behavior and the behavior of others
attribution theory
the theory of how people make attributions
situational cause
causes of behavior attributed to external factors
situational causes
-Delays
-Action of others
-Some other aspect of the situation
dispositional cause
cause of behavior attributed to internal factors
dispositional causes
-Personality
-Character
fundamental attribution error (actor-observer bias)
the tendency to overestimate the influence of internal factors in determining behavior while underestimating situational factors
prejudice
negative attitude held by a person about the members of a particular social group
discrimination
treating people differently because of prejudice toward the social group to which they belong
forms of prejudice
ageism, sexism, racism, and prejudice against those who are too fat or too thin
social cognitive theory
theorists of this school view prejudice as an attitude acquired through direct instruction, modeling, and other social influences
in-groups
social groups with who a person identifies; “us”
out-groups
social groups with whom a person does not identify: “them”
scapegoating
tendency to direct prejudice and discrimination at out-group members who have little social power or influence
realistic conflict theory
this theory posits that conflict between groups increases prejudice and discrimination
social identity theory
this theory states that the formation of a person’s identity within a particular social group is explained by social categorization, social identity, and social comparison
social identity
the part of the self-concept that includes one’s view of self as a member of a particular social category
social comparison
the comparison of oneself to others in ways that raise one’s self-esteem
stereotype vulnerability
the effect that people’s awareness of the stereotypes associated with their social group has on their behavior
self-fulfilling prophecy
the tendency of one’s expectations to affect one’s behavior in such a way as to make the expectation more likely to occur
equal status contact
contact between groups in which the groups have equal status, with neither group having power over the other
jigsaw classroom
educational technique in which each individual is given only part of the information needed to solve a problem, forcing individuals to work together to find the solution
social factors
increasing the effects of stress include:
1. Poverty
2. Stresses on the job or in the workplace
3. Entering a majority culture that is different from one’s culture of origin
acculturative stress
results from the need to change and adapt to the majority culture
Four Methods of Acculturation
integration,assimilation,separation, marginalization
Integration
maintaining a sense of the original culture while forming positive relationship with the majority culture
Assimilation
giving up the original cultural identity and adopting the majority culture
Separation
rejecting the majority culture’s ways
Marginalization
maintain no ties with one’s original or majority cultures
social support system
the network of family, friends, neighbors, coworkers, and others who can offer support, comfort, or aid to a person in need
perceive
Different cultures …. stressors differently
culture to culture
Coping strategies will also vary from ….
cope
People with religious belief have been found to …. better with stressful events
interpersonal attraction
liking or having the desire for a relationship with another person
proximity
physical or geographical nearness
similar;different
People like people who are … to themselves or who are …. from themselves (complementary).
reciprocity of liking
the tendency of people to like other people who like them in return
love
a strong affection for another person due to kinship, personal ties, sexual attraction, admiration or common interests
Strenberg’s Three Components of Love
1. Intimacy
2. Passion
3. Commitment
romantic love
consists of intimacy and passion
compassionate love
consists of intimacy and commitment
consummate love
ideal love, in which all three components are present
aggression
behavior intended to hurt or destroy another person
frustration-aggression hypothesis
aggression is a reaction to frustration
Konrad Lorenz
saw as an instinct for fighting to promote the survival of our species
biological influences of Aggression
genetics, the amygdala and limbic system, and testosterone and serotonin levels
social role
the pattern of behavior that is expected of a person who is in a particular social position
Violent TV shows, movies, and videogames
… … … are related to aggression
prosocial behavior
socially desirable behavior that benefits others
altruism
prosocial behavior that is done with no expectation of reward and may involve the risk of harm to oneself
temporoparietal junction
is larger in individuals who make altruistic choices
Bystander effect
the effect that the presence of other people has on the decision to help or not help
diffusion of responsibility
a person fails to take responsibility for action or for inaction because of the presence of other people who are seen to share the responsibility
one bystander
… … cannot diffuse responsibility
Five Steps in Making a Decision to Help
1.Noticing
2.Defining an emergency
3.Taking responsibility
4.Planning a course of action
5.Taking action
noticing
Realizing that there is a situation that might be an emergency
defining an emergency
Interpreting the cues as signaling an emergency
taking responsibility
Personally assuming the responsibility to act
planning a course of action
Deciding how to help and what skills might be needed
taking action
Actually helping
social neuroscience
-The study of how biological processes influence social behavior
-Studies use of fMRI and other imaging techniques to discover areas of the brain involved in social actions
a person suffers from feelings of low self-worth
Researchers found that reciprocity of liking doesn’t work when
is a technique that gives each individual only part of the information needed to solve a problem, so they must work with others to find the solution.
The “jigsaw classroom”
ambiguous
The presence of others heavily influences helping behavior when a situation is
more likely to help
A woman falls on the sidewalk in front of Ben. There is no one else around. Studies have shown that Ben is … in this situation than if several people were around.
conformity
Tyonna hates to exercise. However, when her friends decide to go to the gym to exercise after work, Tyonna joins in without even being asked. Tyonna’s change in behavior could be due to the effect of ….
normative social influence
Oscar wants to feel accepted by his classmates, so when they all decide to skip school to have a party, he conforms by joining in. Oscar’s need to conform is the result of … … …
prosocial and competitive
The TPJ is an area of the brain involved in both … and … behavior.
poor predictors of actual behavior
Attitudes are
releasing inhibitions
Alcohol has an impact on aggressive behavior by … …
of the extreme effect it was having on the participants
Zimbardo’s prison experiment lasted only five days because
reciprocity of liking
Once Dawn realized that Samson was attracted to her, she suddenly became very attracted to him. This example is based on what “rule” of attraction?
conformity
When a person changes his or her own behavior to more closely match the actions of others, this is
conformity
Kayla decided to drink at the party simply because everyone else seemed to be doing it. Kayla’s behavior is an example of
social neuroscientists
study the most intimate workings of the social brain
dissonance
When people who think they’re smart do something they think is stupid, it causes
Cognitive dissonance involves an inconsistency between what people say and what they do.
Which of the following statements concerning cognitive dissonance is true?
-Cognitive dissonance involves an inconsistency between what people say and what they do.

-Cognitive dissonance is only found in adolescents and adults.

-Cognitive dissonance has been debunked as a scientific theory.

-It only happens to intelligent individuals.

at least one confederate agreed with the participant
In Asch’s study, conformity decreased when…
Caroline wants her team to openly vote by a show of hands either for or against her business plan.
Which of the following would not be effective in minimizing groupthink?
-Caroline wants her team to openly vote by a show of hands either for or against her business plan.
-Karen openly invites input from all team members and even those outside her team.
-Annina reminds her team that everyone will be held responsible for the ultimate decision of her group.
-Juanita works hard to remain impartial to all ideas no matter what they are.
door-in-the-face technique
Conner needs just $20 more to go out with his friends. He asks his mother for $50 but she tells him he can have $30 instead. In the end, Conner ends up with $10 more than he originally planned. What technique did Conner use?
Dan, who is curious about other forms of religion and independent
Who among the following might be the least likely target for a cult?
-Sharona, who is fairly gullible and very idealistic
-Benji, who is very stressed about his job and his life in general
-Dan, who is curious about other forms of religion and independent
-Geneva, who tends to be unassertive and wants to belong
were only slightly less likely to obey than those in Milgram’s study
In Burger’s follow-up study to Milgram’s obedience experiment, participants …
” I love to go to clubs – it makes me so happy!”
Which of the following represents the affective component of an attitude?
-” I love to go to clubs – it makes me so happy!”
– “Tonight, we’re going to that new club downtown.”
– “It is interesting to watch people when I’m out at a club”
– “I’m going to wear a new outfit to the club tonight.”
the source
As an attorney, you always recommend to your clients that they dress up in professional clothes for their day in court. What aspect of persuasion are you focusing upon?
peripheral-route processing
One of your friends tells you, “I didn’t like the environmental-awareness presentation today. First of all it was too long, not to mention the person who gave it was drinking out of a polystyrene cup and drove away in a huge SUV.” What kind of processing might your friend be using?
Those things that happen first, also known as the primary effect.
According to the phenomenon known as social categorization, what is most influential in helping us form an attitude about someone or something?
implicit personality theory
Kohanna thinks that everyone who smiles must always be happy and those people who are quiet must be naturally shy. Such assumptions are the bases of….
dispositional
Caleb almost always shows up late for work. His friends attribute this to Caleb’s laziness. This is an example of a cause.
Subjects in that study must have been the kind of people who like to hurt others.
How might someone who unknowingly is committing the fundamental attribution error explain Stanley Milgram’s obedience study?
attitudes; behavior
Prejudice is about… whereas discrimination is about …
poverty and job stress
What are two of the most prominent social factors in creating stressful living conditions?
assimilation
Joaquin moved from Nicaragua to the United States. He learned to speak and write English, changed his last name so that it would some more “American,” and no longer maintains any of his old culture’s styles of dress or customs. Joaquin has used which method of entering the majority culture?
Religion can help people effectively cope with stress in multiple ways.
What effect, if any, does religion have on one’s stress?
Studies do no support this idea and instead note that similarity is what tends to draw people together.
What does the research say about the concept of opposites attract?
reciprocity of liking
In grade school, 12-year-old Chase does not know 12-year-old Corrine well, but starts to like her when he hears from her friends that she has a crush on him. This is an example of ….
consummate
According to Sternberg, when all three components of love are present, a couple possesses …. love.
aggression
When people are unable to a reach a goal, frustration may result, which can ultimately turn into….
serotonin
Increased levels of aggression in those who drink alcohol may be due to a decrease in what neurotransmitter?
temporoparietal junction; altruistic
Studies of the brain have found that the …. is influential in the presence of … behavior.
You come across someone lying on a walking path while you are walking alone at your local nature center.
Which of the following scenarios probably will not result in the bystander effect?
– you come across someone lying on a busy sidewalk in a large city.
– you see someone pass out at a concert
– you drive past an automobile accident where a crowd has gathered
-You come across someone lying on a walking path while you are walking alone at your local nature center.
taking responsibility
Once a situation has been defined as an emergency, the next step in the decision-making process is…
normative social influence
Saul admits that he conforms so as to be liked by others. This is known as ….
presidential elections
According to the text, in which of the following has groupthink been known to occur?
door-in-the face
Maria was approached by her neighbor, asking her to adopt two to three kittens that were abandoned by their mother. Although Maria refused to take in three kittens, she did agree to adopt just one. What compliance technique did her neighbor use on Maria?
the foot-in-the-door technique
When examining Stanley Milgram’s research, some have suggested that a teacher’s willingness to deliver potentially lethal shocks may be a product of …. than of obedience, but as of yet no research supports this specific conclusion.
direct instruction
The public service messages that encourage parents to sit down with their children and talk frankly about drugs are promoting which method of attitude formation?
moderate; information about how to prevent the fearful consequences
Researchers have found that a … degree of fear in a message makes it more effective, particularly when it is combined with …
central-route
Sandy was a juror in the trial for a man accused of stealing guns from a sporting goods store. The defendant was not very well-spoken and came from a very poor background, but Sandy listened carefully to the evidence presented and made her decision based on that. Sandy was using …. processing.
changing her behavior
If LaShonda experiences a sense of cognitive dissonance between her attitude and behavior , which of the following would help her reduce that uncomfortable sensation?
impression formation
Gerard goes to a job interview dressed in patched blue jeans, a torn T-shirt, and sandals. His hair is uncombed and he hasn’t shaved in a few days. Obviously, Gerard knows nothing about…
a situational cause
If behaviors assumed to be caused by external characteristics, this is known as…
in-group
Thomas likes to “hang with the guys.” These people with whom Thomas identifies most strongly with are called a(n)…
an equal status contact
The “Robber’s Cave” experiment showed the value of … in combating prejudice.
integration
Huong has moved from China to the United States. While she dresses and acts like her American friends, she still has retained much of her cultural heritage and attends traditional Chinese dance classes on the weekends. This is an example of….
Mary, a very religious person who is involved in her community
Which of the following people may have the greatest ability to cope with stress?
-Mary, a very religious person who is involved in her community
– Carrie, who works hard but doesn’t have any apparent hobbies or other interests
– Jeri, who has few friends and whose family lives far away from her
-Larry, who is highly driven to succeed
mere exposure
Vivian and Steve met at work. At first they were just friends, but over time, they found themselves falling in love – or as Vivian tells her friends, “Steve just grew on me!” According to research in interpersonal attraction, the most likely explanation for their attraction is…
romantic
According to Sternberg, a couple whose love is based on intimacy and passion but who are not yet committed to a long-term relationship are in the form of love called … love.
social learning
The concept that aggression results from a social role is based on what psychological theory?
bystander effect and diffusion of responsibility
To which two processes do most social psychologists attribute the failure of those around LaShanda Calloway to help her?
taking action
While serving as a chaperone for her son’s class trip to the museum, Cara witnessed someone fall down a flight of stairs. She was able to request emergency assistance by simply dialing 9-1-1 on her cell phone. Which step in the decision process for helping was Cara?
what parts of the brain influence social behavior
Which of the following would field of social neuroscience be most likely to study?
-what parts of the brain influence social behavior
– how influential heredity is on social behavior
– what impact head trauma has on developing relationships
-what impact friends have in resolving conflicts