ch 10 crcj 3350

Confidence interval
The range of values within which a population parameter is estimated to lie. A survey, for instance, may show that 40 percent of a sample favor a ban on handguns. Although the best estimate of the support that exists among all people is also 40 percent, we do not expect it to be exactly that. We might, therefore, compute a confidence interval (for example, from 35 to 45 percent) within which the actual percentage of the population probably lies. Note that it is necessary to specify a confidence level in connection with every confidence interval.
Environmental survey
Structured observations undertaken in the field and recorded on specially designed forms. Note that interview surveys record a respondent’s answers to questions, while environmental surveys record what an observer sees in the field. For example, a community organization may conduct periodic environmental surveys to monitor neighborhood parks–whether facilities are in good condition, how much litter is present, and what kinds of people use the park.
Longitudinal study
A study design that involves the collection of data at different points in time, as contrasted to a cross-sectional study. See also trend study, cohort study, and panel study.
A fault of some researchers: a strict limitation (reduction) of the kinds of concepts to be considered relevant to the phenomenon under study.
Snowball sampling
A method for drawing a nonprobability sample. Snowball samples are often used in field research. Each person interviewed is asked to suggest additional people for interviewing.
The grouping of the units composing a population into homogeneous groups (or strata) before sampling. This procedure, which may be used in conjunction with simple random, systematic, or cluster sampling, improves the representativeness of a sample, at least in terms of the stratification variables.
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In field research the complete observer:
/ observes without becoming a part of it in any way.
/ completely involves himself/herself without disclosing he/she is a researcher.
/ participates with the group but makes it clear that he/she is undertaking research.
/ identifies as a researcher and interacts with the group without becoming part of the group.
observes without becoming a part of it in any way.
Which of the following is accurate in regard to field research?
/ Produces quantitative and qualitative data.
/ Can only produce vignettes.
/ Produces qualitative data only.
/ Produces quantitative data only.
Produces quantitative and qualitative data.
Often the most important step in gaining access to formal organizations is:
/ setting up a general meeting with someone in the organization.
/ writing a letter to the organization.
/ finding a reliable sponsor within the organization.
/ making telephone contact with the organization.
finding a reliable sponsor within the organization.
Robbi wants to study the interactions between probation officers and individuals on probation; this would be an example of:
/ complete participant.
/ complete observer.
/ participant-as-observer.
/ observer-as-participant.
Unstructured interviews are most appropriate when:
/ researchers and subjects are together for extended periods of time.
/ all of these choices.
/ researchers have limited knowledge about a topic.
/ interviewing active criminals.
all of these choices.
Concerning a sponsor, which of the following is not true?
/ A sponsor should be known to and respected by the executive director of the organization.
/ A sponsor will be able to advise you on a contact person within the organization.
/ A sponsor will remain with you during your researcher as an aide.
/ A sponsor should know the contact person’s formal and informal status within the organization.
A sponsor will remain with you during your researcher as an aide.
Jeanneine observed Superior Court proceedings for six months. She witnessed only the public acts that took place in the courtroom, not the private conferences between judges and attorneys. Jeanneine’s role was:
/ participant-as-observer.
/ limited observer.
/ complete observer.
/ observer-as-participant.
complete observer.
Tyler wants to research crack houses; he considers deception as a means of concealing his research purpose to gain more in-depth information. Issues involved in his decision include:
/ ethical issues.
/ all of these choices.
/ physical risks.
/ legal responsibilities.
all of these choices.
Structured field observations are called:
/ purposive sampling.
/ oral questionnaires.
/ environmental surveys.
/ supplemental observation.
environmental surveys.
An unstructured interview is most like a/an:
/ conversation.
/ oral questionnaire.
/ experiment.
/ ethnography.
Of the following, which is not true concerning field research?
/ Has greater validity and reliability when compared with survey research.
/ Can provide quantitative and qualitative data.
/ Often combines observation and questionnaires.
/ Is often a theory generating activity.
Has greater validity and reliability when compared with survey research.
Which of the following would not be a logical crime to study using field research?
/ white collar crime
/ drug dealers
/ prostitution
/ shoplifting
white collar crime
Yasmine is conducting an observational study of police patrols; this is an example of:
/ a complete participant.
/ a observer-as-participant.
/ a complete observer.
/ a participant-as-observer.
a observer-as-participant.
Which of the following is not an area of research particularly appropriate for field research?
/ Attitudes and behaviors best understood in their natural settings.
/ Effects of watching a video on gangs in a laboratory setting.
/ Events taking place within a relatively limited area and time.
/ Social processes over time.
Effects of watching a video on gangs in a laboratory setting.
When planning field research the researcher should take into consideration that the sampling dimensions can be impacted by the behavior variance due to:
/ location.
/ all of these choices.
/ time and weather.
/ population group.
all of these choices
Observational studies have the potential to yield measures that are less valid.
“Going native” refers to situations arising from the subjects associating too closely with the researcher.
Field research provides measures with greater reliability as compared to survey and experimental measurements.
Generalizability can be problematic for qualitative field research.
Field notes should be planned in advance as much as possible.