ch 10

1) Legitimacy in terms of American elections means
A) the public is satisfied with the qualifications and the policy positions of the candidates.
B) the public is nearly unanimously happy with the results.
C) the election is nearly unanimously accepted as a fair and free method to select political leaders.
D) the public is generally not satisfied with the candidates, the results, or the methods by
which elections are held.
E) the best candidate is selected.
c
2) Elections in the United States perform which of the following functions?

A) make or ratify legislation

B) select party nominees

C) select officeholders from among party nominees

D) both B and C

E) all of the above

E
3) Which of the following functions do elections LEAST serve?

A) selecting public officials

B) making and coordinating public policy

C) providing regular access to political power

D) providing legitimacy to the political system

E) connecting citizens to government officials

B
4) Californiaʹs famous Proposition 13, in which voters frustrated by a lack of action by their

legislature forced an issue on the ballot and voted to limit the rise in property taxes, was an

example of

A) a direct primary.

B) an indirect primary.

C) an initiative.

D) a referendum.

E) a voter override.

C
5) Californiaʹs Proposition 209, which intended to end affirmative action programs in the state, is

an example of

A) a direct primary.

B) an indirect primary.

C) an initiative.

D) a referendum.

E) a voter override.

C
6) Daniel Smith argues that initiatives typically stem from

A) broad public demand for the policy.

B) the actions of a dedicated policy entrepreneur.

C) the natural emergence of policy issues.

D) responsive elected officials, working in coalition.

E) none of the above

B
7) The initiative is put on the ballot as a result of

A) the governorʹs order.

B) a Supreme Court ruling.

C) a petition signed by a certain percentage of the voters in the previous election.

D) public opinion polls showing strong support for a certain measure not acted upon by the

legislature.

E) a special, legally constituted convention voting to place it there.

C
8) Of the following, which is the most direct form of democracy?

A) initiative

B) referendum

C) direct primary

D) presidential election

E) recall

A
9) The initiative petition

A) is used to select party nominees for congressional and state offices.

B) enables voters to put proposed legislation on the ballot.

C) is an election in which voters approve or disapprove a legislative act.

D) is needed for a candidate to get his or her name on the ballot.

E) is a petition that initiates a recall election to determine whether an elected official shall be

removed from office.

B
10) Examples of issues addressed in recent initiatives include all of the following EXCEPT

A) ending affirmative action.

B) setting maximum claim sizes.

C) paying college graduates to reside in a state for a number of years.

D) election day registration.

E) none of the above

D
11) An election whereby voters are given the chance to approve or disapprove some legislative act

or constitutional amendment is called

A) a referendum.

B) an initiative petition.

C) a direct primary.

D) a direct election.

E) a ratification election.

A
12) A referendum is an election

A) in which citizens can propose their own legislation.

B) for judicial offices.

C) for choosing party nominees for state offices.

D) whereby voters are given the chance to approve or disapprove some legislative act or

constitutional amendment.

E) to determine whether to remove an elected official from office before the end of their

term.

D
13) Which of the following is NOT true about elections in American society?

A) They socialize and institutionalize political activity.

B) They provide regular access to political power.

C) They are accepted as legitimate, fair, and free methods to select political leaders.

D) The vast majority of eligible citizens cast ballots, even for local races.

E) none of the above

D
14) In the 1800 election presidential candidates were nominated by

A) their partiesʹ elected representatives in Congress.

B) their partiesʹ nominating convention.

C) their partiesʹ voters in primary elections.

D) the electoral college.

E) the president.

A
15) Which of the following does NOT characterize presidential elections around 1800?

A) The candidates barnstormed the country campaigning and giving speeches.

B) Most of the campaigning was done by state and local party organizations.

C) Campaigns were directed at state legislators, not the voters.

D) Newspaper coverage of the campaign was extremely biased and dishonest.

E) All of these describe the pathetic, sordid, sorry state of early American elections – weʹvecome a long way baby!

A
16) Which of the following statements about the 1800 presidential election is TRUE?

A) The 1800 election was ultimately decided in the House of Representatives.

B) The 1800 election was the first one in which the candidates were chosen by party

conventions.

C) For the first time the focus of the 1800 election was on the citizen voters.

D) The candidates in the 1800 election vigorously campaigned in each of the states.

E) all of the above

A
17) The election of 1800 was

A) decided by the direct vote of the people.

B) decided by the electoral college.

C) decided by the House of Representatives.

D) overturned by the Supreme Court.

E) decided by the full Congress.

C
18) The presidential election of 1800 was

A) the first use of direct primaries in the United States.

B) decided by the House of Representatives after a tie in the electoral college.

C) notable for the importance of key convention speeches to swing the votes in the electoral

eollege.

D) the first transition of power between parties accomplished by votersʹ ballots in the

history of the world.

E) influenced by media intent on forcing incumbent out of office.

D
19) The presidential election of 1800 represents the first

A) use of party nominating conventions.

B) time the Senate elected the president.

C) use of the electoral college.

D) peaceful transfer of power in the world between parties via the electoral process.

E) time the voters directly elected the presidential electors.

D
20) In the original constitutional system,

A) each presidential elector cast two ballots and the top vote-getter was named president and the runner-up became vice president.
B) the Senate elected the president and the House of Representatives elected the vice president.
C) each presidential elector cast one ballot for one of the president/vice president teams running.
D) the state legislatures elected the president and vice president, with the candidate getting the second most votes becoming vice president.
E) the president, once elected by the electoral college, chose the vice president.

A
21) Which of the following is TRUE of the presidential election of 1800?

A) The candidates traveled throughout the smaller number of United States at the time to

campaign for votes.

B) It was a gentlemanly contest in which partisans on both sides showed respect for the

opposition.

C) It was carefully and objectively covered in the newspapers of the day, with logical

reasoning and respect for both candidates in articles and editorials.

D) It was the first peaceful transfer of power between parties via the electoral process in the

history of the world.

E) all of the above

D
22) In the electoral college vote in the election of 1800, there was a tie between

A) Thomas Jefferson and John Adams.

B) John Adams and James Madison.

C) John Adams and Aaron Burr.

D) Thomas Jefferson and Aaron Burr.

E) George Washington and Thomas Jefferson.

D
23) The issue of free silver (to increase the amount of currency in circulation) was championed in

the election of 1896 by ________, whose most famous oration was his ʺCross of Goldʺ speech at

the Democratic national convention.

A) Grover Cleveland

B) William McKinley

C) William Jennings Bryan

D) Theodore Roosevelt

E) Woodrow Wilson

C
24) In 1896, who liked silver money?

A) debtors

B) bankers

C) exporters

D) Eastern manufacturers

E) coin collectors and dealers

A
25) The first peaceful transfer of power between parties via the electoral process in the history of

the world occurred as a result of the presidential election of

A) 1796.

B) 1800.

C) 1860.

D) 1896.

E) 1789.

B
26) The election of 1896 was largely fought over the issue of

A) war.

B) economics.

C) race relations.

D) government corruption.

E) the ownership of land in the west.

B
27) Which of the following statements about the election of 1896 is FALSE?

A) The main issue in the election of 1896 was the gold standard and tariffs.

B) William Jennings Bryan broke with tradition and campaigned extensively in person.

C) The election resulted in the Democrats becoming firmly entrenched as the majority party

in the Northeast and Midwest.

D) Nearly 80 percent of the eligible electorate voted in 1896.

E) none of the above

C
28) The winner of the presidential election of 1896 was

A) Theodore Roosevelt.

B) William McKinley.

C) Grover Cleveland.

D) William Jennings Bryan.

E) Ulysses Grant.

B
29) The election of 1896 left a legacy of a political alignment that endured for several decades,

wherein

A) the Democrats won the more populous Northeast and Midwest, and the Republicans

won in the South and West.

B) the Democrats won the South and West, while the Republicans won in the more

populous Northeast and Midwest.

C) the Democrats won the Midwest and the South, while the Republicans won in the

Northeast and West.

D) the Democrats won in the Northeast and West, while the Republicans won in the

Northeast and South.

E) the Republicans swept the South, and the Democrats won in all other regions.

B
30) Because Bushʹs lead over Gore in the initial count was less than one-tenth of one percent,

Florida law mandated

A) that the Florida state legislature vote to declare Bush the winner.

B) the outcome of the election be determined by the Florida Supreme Court.

C) the Secretary of State to certify the results.

D) an automatic recount.

E) a thirty-day extension for absentee ballots.

D
31) In Bush v. Gore (2000), the United States Supreme Court ruled that

A) the Florida Supreme Court did not have jurisdiction over the presidential election legal

issues.

B) although a recount was legal, the same (or more precise) standards for evaluating ballots

would have to be applied in all counties.

C) the butterfly ballot was unconstitutional.

D) the time used to recount ballots could extend past December 12, when the Florida

electors would meet.

E) punch card ballots were illegal if not used in all counties.

B
32) According to exit polls, ________ was a major reason voters selected Bush in 2004.

A) welfare reform

B) health care reform

C) the war on terrorism

D) freedom of speech

E) strategic voting

C
33) In the 2004 election, John Kerry won votes among those most concerned with

A) the economy, health care, and education.

B) the fairness of the tax system.

C) the environment, the economy, and transportation issues.

D) the environment and urban affairs.

E) civil rights, the environment, and the economy.

A
34) Suffrage means

A) the right to vote.

B) turning out to vote.

C) voting for the winner.

D) voting for the loser.

E) the struggle for equal rights for women.

A
35) Which of the following is TRUE about American elections over the past 100 years?

A) The suffrage has broadened, and the turnout has increased.

B) The suffrage has broadened, and the turnout has decreased.

C) The suffrage has narrowed, and the turnout has increased.

D) The suffrage has narrowed, and the turnout has decreased.

E) Suffrage has broadened, but there has been no change in turnout.

B
36) Suffrage refers to

A) a type of election unique to the United States.

B) the right to vote.

C) a voter registration system.

D) voter turnout rates.

E) voting procedures in the electoral college.

B
37) As the right to vote has been extended,

A) voter turnout has increased proportionately.

B) proportionately fewer of those eligible have chosen to vote.

C) the number of candidates running for office has increased.

D) voter turnout has actually remained about the same.

E) the scope of American government has shrunk.

B
38) The nearly two centuries of American electoral history has been characterized by

A) consistently close elections.

B) increasing voter turnouts.

C) expansion of the right to vote.

D) a proliferation of presidential candidates.

E) all of the above

C
39) The high point of voter turnout in the United States was in

A) 1896.

B) 1932.

C) 1972.

D) 1968.

E) 1960.

A
40) People are more likely to vote for all of the following reasons EXCEPT if they

A) have a high sense of civic duty.

B) have a high sense of political efficacy.

C) are able to see policy differences that affect their interests.

D) believe that some policies of one party are balanced by other policies of the other party.

E) none of the above

D
41) Anthony Downsʹ theory of rational voting behavior predicts that people will vote if they

A) can afford the time and energy to do so.

B) think one party will give them more policy benefits than the other.

C) think their vote will make the difference for a particular candidate.

D) identify with a particular candidate, even though they doubt that one vote can make a

difference.

E) feel obligated to do so.

B
42) Those largely indifferent to the results of an election, but who decide to vote anyway to show

support for democratic government are called ________ voters.

A) guilt-driven

B) civic-duty

C) regime-maintenance

D) patriotic disaffected

E) disaffected

B
43) The greater oneʹs sense of political efficacy, the

A) less likely one is to vote.

B) more likely one is to vote.

C) greater oneʹs chance of being defeated in an election.

D) less likely one is to view the election process in the United States as legitimate.

E) more likely one is to see differences between the parties.

B
44) Political efficacy refers to the belief that

A) the costs of voting outweigh the benefits.

B) significant policy differences exist between the parties.

C) one should always support democratic government.

D) ordinary people can influence the government.

E) government is very inefficient and needs to be streamlined.

D
45) Largely to prevent corruption associated with stuffing ballot boxes, states adopted ________

around the turn of the twentieth century.

A) the electoral college

B) primary elections

C) voting machines

D) voter registration

E) the secret ballot

D
46) Voter registration was begun around the turn of the twentieth century

A) to encourage voting through advance notice.

B) by party bosses to discourage people from voting.

C) to make elections more ethical.

D) to allow for the secret ballot.

E) to discourage patronage.

C
47) Voter registration procedures were adopted around the turn of the century as a means to

A) prevent African Americans from voting.

B) increase voter participation.

C) prevent corruption associated with stuffing ballot boxes.

D) increase the number of potential voters.

E) establish minimum voting qualifications, such as passing the Political Literacy Test or a

civic education course.

C
48) Compared to other countries, the United States holds ________ elections for various offices.

A) far fewer

B) somewhat fewer

C) about the same number of

D) more

E) twice as many

D
49) A major reason cited for Americaʹs level of voter turnout compared to other industrialized

countries is

A) bad weather in certain parts of the United States on election day.

B) greater interest in democracy in the United States.

C) registration is more cumbersome in the United States.

D) registration is more cumbersome in other nations.

E) Americansʹ high sense of political efficacy.

C
50) Compared to other industrialized democracies, the United States has a ________ voter turnout.

A) much higher

B) slightly higher

C) slightly lower

D) much lower

E) rising

D
51) Which of the following countries has a lower voter turnout rate than the United States?

A) Australia

B) Great Britain

C) Switzerland

D) Italy

E) France

C
52) Which of the following countries has the lowest voter turnout rate?

A) Australia

B) United States

C) Italy

D) France

E) Bulgaria

B
53) Voter turnout in the United States is much lower than in other countries in part because

A) of the unique American requirement of voter registration.

B) Americans are asked to vote less often and do not sustain interest in the electoral process.

C) Americans vote for fewer political offices and lack a sense of political efficacy.

D) the choice offered Americans is greater than in other countries, which confuses potential

voters.

E) of the strident positions taken by the parties, which alienate middle-of-the-road voters.

A
54) Which of the following statements is FALSE?

A) Unlike the United States, the governments of most democracies take the responsibility of

seeing to it that all of their eligible citizens are on the voting lists.

B) American government asks citizens to vote far more often than most democracies.

C) Americans are expected to vote for a much narrower range of political offices than most

democracies.

D) The choice offered Americans at elections is not as great as in other democracies.

E) none of the above

C
55) Which of these would be most likely to vote?

A) a well-educated, middle-aged government worker

B) a young southerner without a high school diploma

C) a well-educated senior citizen who used to work for a big corporation

D) a young southern high school teacher

E) a middle-aged professor at a private university

A
56) Which of the following is INCORRECT?

A) Congress requires voter registration nationwide.

B) The Motor Voter Act allows eligible voters to register by checking a box on their driverʹs

license application.

C) In North Dakota, you donʹt have to register to vote.

D) In a few states, you can register to vote on election day.

E) Some states let you register at supermarkets.

A
57) Among the states that allow voter registration at the polls on election day, voter turnout rates are

A) higher than in other states.

B) impossible to compute.

C) no different than in other states.

D) lower than the national average.

E) declining over time and at a higher rate than in other states.

A
58) Approximately how many states allow voters to register at the polls on election day?

A) 6

B) 14

C) 34

D) 44

E) 49

A
59) The Motor Voter Act of 1993

A) requires states to provide transportation for citizens who are unable to get to the polls on

their own efforts.

B) requires states to mail voter registration forms to all individuals holding driverʹs licenses.

C) requires states to register individuals to vote when they apply for, or renew, their

driverʹs license.

D) established drive-in polling places to make voting more convenient and increase voter

turnout.

E) requires the federal government to register individuals to vote when they apply for or

renew their driverʹs license.

C
60) The impact of the Motor Voter Act of 1993 was evidenced in

A) higher registration and higher turnout in 1996 and 2000.

B) higher registration and lower turnout in 1996 and 2000.

C) no changes in either registration or turnout in 1996 and 2000.

D) lower registration and higher turnout in 1996 and 2000.

E) none of the above

B
61) The group of people with the lowest voter turnout rate is

A) college graduates.

B) young people.

C) women.

D) senior citizens over 70.

E) union members.

B
62) According to the text, the most important factor affecting voter turnout is

A) education.

B) gender.

C) ideology.

D) race.

E) geography.

A
63) Highly educated individuals are more likely to vote because

A) they are smarter.

B) they see more policy differences between candidates.

C) they have a lower sense of political efficacy.

D) most of them are white males.

E) they have more influence.

B
64) Which of the following statements about voter participation is FALSE?

A) As people age, their likelihood of voting increases.

B) Minority groups with high levels of income and education have a higher turnout rate

than whites with comparable status.

C) Men are more likely to vote than women.

D) Individuals who have lived at the same address longer are more likely to vote than those

who have moved.

E) none of the above

C
65) Which of the following characteristics would make one more likely to vote in an election?

A) having a college degree

B) being a young adult

C) having a low income

D) being a college student

E) bring a welfare recipient

A
66) People with higher than average education

A) are no more and no less likely to vote than people of lower educational levels.

B) are more likely to vote than people of lower educational levels.

C) are somewhat less likely to vote than people of lower educational levels.

D) are much less likely to vote than people of lower educational levels because they know it

wonʹt do any good.

E) are more likely to vote than high school dropouts, but less likely to vote than those with

high school diplomas.

B
67) The mandate theory of elections

A) is based on the economic theory of rational decision making.

B) explains votersʹ decisions according to an evaluation of the candidatesʹ personality.

C) says that people vote for candidates because they want them to carry out certain policies.

D) explains votersʹ decisions according to party identification.

E) is based on the sociological theory of irrational behaviorism.

C
68) The mandate theory of elections is most often cited as the proper way to view elections by

A) the defeated candidate.

B) the winning candidate.

C) political scientists.

D) everybody.

E) the media.

B
69) The mandate theory of elections is the idea that

A) a candidate must get at least sixty percent of the vote to win.

B) a candidate must get a majority of the votes cast (fifty percent plus one) in order to take

office.

C) the election winner has authorization from the voters to carry out his or her promised

policies.

D) in order to improve turnout rates in the United States, voting must be made a legal

requirement of all citizens, with the failure to vote resulting in a small fine.

E) a candidate must get at least seventy-five percent of the vote to win.

C
70) ________ are crucial for many voters because they provide a regular perspective through which voters can view the political world.

A) Party identifications

B) Civic duties

C) Direct primary elections

D) Initiative petitions

E) Party platforms

A
71) Political scientists tend to focus on each of the following major elements of votersʹ decisions

EXCEPT

A) votersʹ party identification.

B) votersʹ ideology and world view.

C) votersʹ evaluation of the candidates.

D) the match between votersʹ policy positions and those of the candidates and parties.

E) none of the above

B
72) Studies have shown that during the 1960s and 1970s,

A) voting according to political party identification increased.

B) Democrats voted along party lines more than Republicans.

C) the hold of the parties on voters eroded substantially.

D) political party identification no longer affected voting behavior.

E) large numbers of people who had been eligible to vote but never voted surged into the

electorate.

C
73) Over the last five decades, voting based primarily on party identification has

A) completely disappeared.

B) declined sharply.

C) stayed almost exactly the same.

D) increased.

E) increased sharply.

B
74) Many voters have come to feel that they no longer need the parties to guide their electoral

choices because

A) the parties have become so much alike that it makes little difference.

B) modern technology makes it possible for them to evaluate and make their own decisions

about the candidates.

C) the parties tend to rely on groups that lean heavily in their favor.

D) once in office, candidates rarely follow the party line anyway.

E) parties have become the captives of powerful interest groups that control the candidates,

and the candidates donʹt look out for the interests of ordinary people.

B
75) Research by Rosenberg and McCafferty discovered that

A) a candidateʹs image and appearance is the most important factor in how a person votes.

B) less educated voters are more likely to view candidates in terms of their personal

attributes.

C) it is possible to manipulate a candidateʹs appearance in a way that affects votersʹ choices.

D) a candidateʹs image and appearance has no real impact on voting behavior.

E) none of the above

C
76) Which of these is the least important dimension of a candidateʹs image?

A) intelligence

B) integrity

C) reliability

D) competence

E) experience

A
77) ________ occurs when people base their choices in an election on their own issue preferences.

A) Civic duty

B) Suffrage

C) Retrospective voting

D) Policy voting

E) Agenda setting

D
78) A voter supporting a candidate based specifically on comparing the candidateʹs stances on the

issues of abortion rights, health care, and government aid to education to the voterʹs own

preferences on such issues is an example of

A) retrospective voting.

B) policy voting.

C) civic duty.

D) initiative.

E) agenda setting.

B
79) Research has found that those most likely to view the candidates in terms of their personal

attributes are

A) minority voters.

B) college-educated voters.

C) low-income voters.

D) women voters.

E) non-voters.

B
80) Which of the following is TRUE about the electoral college?

A) On very rare occasions, an elector has voted differently from the popular vote winner of

his state.

B) It is scheduled to be phased out in 2006, though some still argue its usefulness and want

to rescind the phase-out.

C) It is used in nearly half of the democratic nations around the world.

D) An elector has never voted differently from the popular vote winner of his state.

E) none of the above

A
81) The ʺelectorsʺ in the electoral college are

A) the members of Congress from each state, who vote strictly according to who won the

majority of their stateʹs votes.

B) the members of the House from each state, who vote strictly according to who won the

majority of their districtʹs votes.

C) selected by state parties, usually as a reward for faithful service to the party over the

years.

D) a bipartisan group of political scientists, public officials, jurists, and other respected

individuals chosen by the governor of each state.

E) selected by state legislatures well in advance of the presidential election, and each elector

votes his or her own conscience as to who would be the best president.

C
82) The electoral college was originally established in order to

A) provide direct election of the president by the people, although its operation has had the

opposite effect.

B) merely certify the results of the peopleʹs choice for president and vice president.

C) give the nationʹs elite the power to choose the president and vice president rather than

the people directly.

D) insure high voter turnouts in elections throughout the country.

E) give legitimacy to the presidency, which was regarded suspiciously by most people as

another potential monarchy.

C
83) As provided in the Constitution, how are electoral votes allocated for each state?

A) Each state has as many electoral votes as it has members in the House of Representatives.

B) Each state has as many electoral votes as it has members in both the House and the

Senate.

C) Each state has as many electoral votes as it has members in the Senate.

D) Each state is proportioned to their population, with all states having at least one vote.

E) Each state casts two electoral votes.

C
84) Electors in the electoral college meet in their states in December (following the November

general election) to officially cast their ballots, then mail their votes to

A) the House of Representatives.

B) the president.

C) the vice president.

D) the Supreme Court.

E) the Federal Election Commission.

C
85) If no candidate receives an electoral college majority,

A) a runoff election is held nationwide between the top two vote-getters.

B) the candidate with the plurality of electoral votes is automatically elected.

C) the House of Representatives chooses among the top three electoral vote winners.

D) the electoral college takes a second ballot between the top two vote-getters, and the

candidate who wins the majority is elected.

E) Congress is free to elect the president.

C
86) If the presidential election is thrown into the House of Representatives,

A) each stateʹs House delegation may cast only one vote, regardless of its number of

representatives.

B) each stateʹs House delegation casts as many votes as it has electoral votes.

C) each House member has one vote and majority rules.

D) the House vote is subject to veto by the president.

E) each House member has one vote but a sixty percent majority is required to win the

presidency.

A
87) Except in Maine and Nebraska, the electoral college system operates in each state on the

principle of allocating electoral votes on the basis of

A) winner-take-all.

B) proportional representation.

C) allocating electoral votes based on the winner in each congressional district.

D) a mixture of winner-take-all and proportional representation.

E) majority rule.

A
88) Which of the following statements about the electoral college is FALSE? w

A) Each state has as many electoral votes as it has United States senators and

representatives.

B) Every state has a winner-take-all system where electors vote as a bloc for the winner.

C) Electors meet in their states in December and mail their votes to the vice president.

D) If no candidate receives an electoral majority, then the election is thrown into the House

of Representatives.

E) Some states have a winner take all system where electors vote as a bloc for the winner.

B
89) If a presidential candidate does not receive a majority of electoral college votes, then the

president is chosen

A) by popular vote.

B) by the Justices of the Supreme Court.

C) by the House with one vote for each state.

D) by the Senate with two votes for each state.

E) by majority vote of the entire Congress in a joint session.

C
90) Research on voting behavior has shown that

A) policy voting has become somewhat easier than in the past.

B) a candidateʹs image is not as important today as it was in the past.

C) Americans tend to identify with the underdog.

D) party identification has become more important in voting decisions.

E) policy voting has become harder than in the past.

A
91) Policy voting has increased in recent years primarily because

A) the media is paying closer attention to the issues rather than the horse race.

B) candidates are regularly forced to take some clear stands in order to appeal to their own

partyʹs primary voters.

C) voters in general have become more sophisticated and educated about the issues.

D) policy issues are of greater consequence than they were in the past.

E) voters frustrated by the inaction of Congress have turned to the initiative process to enact

specific policies placed right on the ballot.

B
92) Which is FALSE regarding the electoral college?

A) Whoever wins the most votes in the electoral college wins, even if that isnʹt a majority.

B) Maine and Nebraska do not use the ʺwinner-take-allʺ system.

C) Electors can vote for whomever they want, regardless of how their stateʹs voters voted.

D) In most states ALL the electors vote for whomever won the most votes in their state, even

if that wasnʹt a majority.

E) The electors themselves are selected by state parties.

A
93) The greater the policy differences between the candidates,

A) the closer the election.

B) the more likely voters will be able to steer government policies by their choices.

C) the lower the turnout in the general election.

D) the more likely voters will make choices based on personality traits.

E) the higher the voter turnout in the election.

B
94) In ________, incumbents who provide desired results are rewarded; those who fail to do so are

punished.

A) indirect primaries

B) initiatives

C) referendums

D) retrospective voting

E) incentive voting

D
95) If engaged in retrospective voting, an individual would ask:

A) What have you done for me lately?

B) Who will do more for me next year?

C) Who is the more attractive candidate?

D) Why should I vote at all?

E) Who will be lowering taxes?

A
96) When President Herbert Hoover and the Republicans were crushed in the election of 1932,

voters were responding to the severity of the Great Depression under Hooverʹs presidency by

A) retrospective voting.

B) indirect primary voting.

C) direct primary voting.

D) initiative.

E) irrational choice voting.

A
97) Retrospective voting refers to voting for

A) a candidate who promises to continue policies that have made you feel better off.

B) a candidate because of his or her past stands on the issues.

C) the same party and candidates election after election.

D) different parties and candidates election after election.

E) candidates for nostalgic reasons because they promise to return the country to some

golden age in its past.

A
98) The type of public policy that seems to have the greatest effect on elections today is

A) foreign policy.

B) social policy.

C) economic policy.

D) military policy.

E) racial policies.

C
99) Elections have a tendency to expand the scope of government because

A) so many people become involved in the process.

B) voters like to feel that they are sending a message to government to accomplish

something.

C) so much money is involved in campaigns.

D) elections open opportunities for more government employment.

E) because they are so expensive to conduct.

B
100) While the threat of electoral punishment constrains policymakers, it also helps to increase

generalized support for

A) the private sector.

B) individualistic, rather than, collective policy solutions.

C) government and its powers.

D) incumbents who have done a good job.

E) unelected government officials in the bureaucracy.

C