Ch. 1 sociology

major sets of theories
is a statment of how and why specific facts are related.
Hypothesis 25
an educated guess about how variables are linked, usually as an if-then statement. if one thig were to happen, then something else will result.
Structural-functionalism 14-15,18
a framewrok for builign thory tha sees society as a complex system whose parts work togethr to promote solidarity adn stability. Ex. family system, politcal system, education
social conflict perspective
framwrok for builing theory that ses society as an arena of inequality that generates conflict and change. it aporaches highlights how fators such as class, race, ethnicity, gender, and age are linked to inequlaity in terms of money, power, education, and social prestige
symbolic interactionism 17-18
the framework for buling theory that sees society as teh product of the every day interaction of individulas
structure 14-15,18
any reltivley stable pattern of socila behavior. it gives our lives shpe in families, the workplace, or the college classroom
manifest function
the recognized and intended consequences of any social pattern,
laten function
the unrecognized and unintended consequences of any social pattern. for example, the obvious funtion of this countr’s system of higher education is to give young people the information and skills they will need to perform jobs after graduation
concept 19
a mental consturch that represent some part of the world in a simplified form. sociolgis categorize people in terms of thier gender or social class
a concept whose value changes from case to case.
a prcedure for determining the value of a variable in a specific case.
reliabilty and validity
consistency in measurement- actually measuring exactly what you intend to measure.
a relationship in which two variables change together.
a relationship in which change in one variable causes change in another.
research methods
a systematic plan for doing research.
is a research method for investigating cause and effect under highly controlled conditions.
social research
refers to research conducted by social scientists (primarily within sociology and social psychology), but also within other disciplines such as social policy, human geography, political science, social anthropology and education. Sociologists and other social scientists study diverse things: from census data on hundreds of thousands of human beings, through the in-depth analysis of the life of a single important person to monitoring what is happening on a street today – or what was happening a few hundred years ago
participant observation 28,30-31
a research method i which investigators systematically observe people while joining them in their routine
using existing data
sociologst make use of existing sources, data collected by others to, which saves time and money
consistency in measurement
actually measuring exactly what you intend to measure
what is sociology?
it is a systematic study of human society
which French sociologist is regarded as one of the founder of socoiology?
Auguste Comete
Auguse Comte identifies three staes of social develpoment. what are they? in what way do these three stages are different
theological stage, metaphysical stage, scientific stage
how many theortical paradigms in sociology are identified in the textbook Society: The Basics?
what are the basic components of the structural- functional paradigm?
structure and funtion
what are the basic comoponents of the social- conflict paradigm?
class, race,ethinicity, gender, age
what are the three necessary coditions for determining whether a relatioship between tow variables is causal?
corretaion, time order, non-spuriousness
there are four resarch methods used by social scientists. Waht are they?
experiments, survey, participant observario, existin sources
the consquence of a social pattern for the operation of society as a whole. ex. handshake, keep society going
participant observation
research go into the nature enviroment and becoming a participant of the observation; they don’t send someone else. lo comprueban por ellos mismos.
an example of realibility
getting in a scale and weighing 100, then getting on right back and weighing 50…etc.
an example of validity
getting in a scale and it says the user weighs 175 and get again and the scale stills says 175 yet, the user really weighs 185. it needs to be adjusted
me- what is theological stage
from the beginning of an history up to the end of teh European Middle Ages
me- what is metaphysical stage
people saw society as a nautral rather than supernature phenomneon
me- what is scientific stage
work of early scientists such as the Polish astronmer and physicist Galieo Galilei, and the English physicist and mathematicain Isaac Newtoan.
me- theological stage—-
me-metaphysical stage———
me- scientific stage———-
me- what are the three theological paradigm?
manifest funtion, latent function, and dysfuntion< (this is the only one not made by merton)
me – what is dysfuntion
any social patern tha may disrupt the operation of societyhow many theortical paradigms in sociology are identified in the textbook Society: The Basics?eople often disagree on what is helpful and what is harmful for society as a whole