Ch.1 abnormal

deviant behavior
violates vultural and societal norms, but norms are always changing
goodness of fit
the idea that behaivor is problematic or not problematic depending on the environment in which it occurs – derek normal is 1st, but abnormal in 2nd
normative
what people usually do
individualate
seperate
culture
the shared behaviorial patterns and lifestyles that differentiate one group of people from another
culture-bound syndrome
the abnormal behaviors that are specific to a particular location or group
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is it required to be dangerous to be abnormal?
no
according to piaget, children ages 2 to 7 are in the ____ stage of devlopment, during which time they are apt to engage in play that involves symbolic representations and magical thinking
preoperational
The anchor in the video states that it’s okay for children, but not necessarily for adults, to engage in magical thinking. Adolescents have their own sort of magical thinking, in which they believe that every aspect of their appearance and behavior is magnified in its visibility to everyone around them. This phenomenon, as described by Elkind, is called ________.
imaginary audience
wundt wanted to study ____ which together create ___
immediate experiences, mediate experiences
regression
a young child who is lost in a strange city sits down and cries for “mama” like a baby
a husband whose wife is about to leave him becasuse of problems in their marriage refuses to believe that she would ever go or that anything significant is wrong
denial
a woman’s desire to cheat on her husband is so upsetting to her that she complettes represses the thought
repression
a woman’s desire to cheat on her husband causes her to accuse her husband of wanting her to cheat
projection
a fanatical racist uses ambiguous passages from the scriptures to justify his hostile actions toward minorities
rationalization
a woman’s boss makes her so angry she could scream, rather than jeopardizing her job, she goes home and screams at her children
displacement
a man troubled by homosexual urges initiates a zealous community campaign to stamp out gay bars
reaction formation
a person channels angry impulses into a single-minded drive to become the best at something
sublimation
denial, projection relationalization, displacement, reaction formation, sublimation all are
defense mechanism
freuds psychosocial stage of devel: oral
activities such as feeding, thumb sucking, and cooling bring gratification
freuds psychosocial stage of devel: anal
child responds to some parental demands such as for bowel and bladder contro
freuds psychosocial stage of devel: phallic
child experiences the oedipus complex
freuds psychosocial stage of devel: latency
development continues, but sexual urges are relatively quiet
freuds psychosocial stage of devel: genital
child shakes off old dependencies
behavioral perspectives
behavior results from learning and experience
cognitive perspective
behavior results from mental processes involved in decision making and problem solving
-typically look at depression (critical self talk), unrealistic ideas, look at cognitive therapy
evolutionary perspective
behavior results from natural selection of advantagous traits
humanistic perspective
behavior results from free will and the innate need for self-actualization
neuroscience / biological perspective
behavior results from genes, the brain, and other biological processes
-most likely rely on antidepressants
psychodynamic perspective
behavior results from unconscious memories, conflicts, and desires
sociocultural perspective
behavior results from the social environment and cultural presssures
which of the following might be a research topic for a psychologist
sexual orientation
Which psychological perspective typically focuses on traits advantageous to survival?
evolutionary
Which psychological perspective focuses on behavior resulting from unconscious memories and desires?
psychodynamic
Of the seven psychological perspectives, which would most likely consider brain functions when assessing a patient?
neuroscience
The humanistic psychological perspective focuses on behavior that results from _____________.
free will and self-actualization
before conditioning
unconditioned stimulus – food
salivating- unconditioned response
during conditioning
bell- food-
neutrual stimulus become conditioned stimulus
In the context of a classical conditioning experiment, when a dog salivates as he eats his food, the food is considered the _______.
unconditioned stimulus
In the context of a classical conditioning experiment, when a dog salivates as he eats his food, the dog’s salivations is called the _______.
unconditioned response
If researchers are looking to create a conditioned response, what is one thing that must occur to make that happen?
repetition
Which scientist is associated with discovering the classically conditioned response?
pavlov
How can classical conditioning play a role in panic disorder?
If the sufferer typically fears they are dying during panic attacks, they may learn to fear they are dying every time their heart rises, whether the increased heart rate is due to a panic attack or normal activities.
In the footage from the “Little Albert” experiment, how many pairings of the CS and US took place prior to the scene in which Albert displayed a fear response to the white rat?
6
In the footage from the “Little Albert” experiment, what term was used to describe the generalization of the fear response to additional stimuli, such as the rabbit and the Santa Claus mask?
transferred
Review the section in your text covering learning and conditioning. The type of learning Watson is demonstrating with the young infant in the clip is termed _________
classical conditioning
the ucs in waston’s demonistration is:
the “loud sound”
An example of positive reinforcement would be _______.
receiving a treat for good behavior
What increases the probability of a behavior recurring?
reinforcement
is learning behaviors through successive approximations of desired behaviors in response to consequences.
shaping
What is an example of a fixed interval reinforcement?
receiving a paycheck every two weeks
An example of negative punishment would be ________.
being grounded
physical punishment
not good for longterm
-tells people not to do, but not what to do (not informative)
-increases anxiety, which iterferes with learning (not good for retention)
-reward positive behavior, ignore the unpleaseant, conistently reinforacing adaptive
What has proven to be a more effective punishment than physical punishment?
positive reinforcement of preferred behaviors
Which of the following has proven to stop bad behavior in the short term only?
physical punishment
According to Dr. Lilienfeld, which of the following is a major problem with physical punishment?
it tells people what NOT to do instead of what TO do
What is the best way to eliminate bad behavior and illicit good behavior in a child?
iGNORE the bad behavior and REWARD the good behavior
Punishment increases __________, which has been shown to interfere with learning.
anxiety
chapter 1 review
•Abnormal behavior is sometimes difficult to define. It is not just behavior that is different because certain differences can sometimes be positive for the individual and perhaps for society. Behavior that is deviant may be different but not necessarily abnormal. New trends often start as deviant but then become accepted by mainstream society. Dangerous behavior may be abnormal, but many individuals who have psychological disorders do not engage in dangerous behavior. Dangerous behavior is not necessary or sufficient to meet the definition of abnormal behavior. Two primary considerations for determining whether a behavior is abnormal is whether it creates dysfunction (interferes with daily activities) and/or emotional distress.

•Abnormal behavior is defined as behavior that is inconsistent with the individual’s developmental, cultural, and societal norms, and creates significant emotional distress or interferes with daily functioning. Behavior must always be considered in context. Context includes culture as defined by both individual and social spheres of influence as well as cultural traditions. It also includes consideration of developmental age, physical and emotional maturity, and SES.

•Historically, spirit possession was among the first proposed causes of abnormal behavior. However, as early as the classical Greek and Roman periods, biological and environmental explanations were given for some of the major psychiatric disorders (depression, schizophrenia). Such theories fell out of favor in Western Europe shortly afterward although they continued to flourish in the Middle East. It was not until the Renaissance period that theories based on biology and environmental factors re-emerged in Europe.
•To understand abnormal behavior, adopting a scientist-practitioner approach is a distinct advantage. Critically applying a scientific perspective to theories of etiology and examining the evidence behind proposed theories prevent adhering to explanations that are without a firm scientific basis (such as witchcraft or pseudoscience). “Treatments” based on such ideas could have quite negative results and, in some cases, might even be deadly

Today biological, psychological, sociocultural, and biopsychosocial explanations dominate the explanations for the development of abnormal behavior. Each of the etiological theories has strengths and weaknesses, and each alone is inadequate to fully explain the presence of abnormal behavior. Determining abnormal behavior is complex, and it is likely that a combination of factors is responsible for any specific psychological disorder. There are many competing theories, and as science progresses, new theories will be developed and others will be discarded.

abnormal behavior
conduct that is inconsistent with the individuals development, cultural, and societal norms, and that creates emotional distress or interferes with daily funcitoning
animal magnetisism
a force that mesmer believed flowed within the bod and, when impeded, resulted in disease
behaviorial genetics
the field of study that explores the role of genes and environment n the transmission of behavioral traits
behaviorism
the theory that only the appropriate objects of scientific study are behaviors that can be observed and measured directly
biological scarring
the process by which years of living with a disorder causes changes in the brain
biopsychosocial perspective
the idea that biological, psychological, and social factors probably contribute to thedevelopment of abnormal behavior aand that different factors are important for different individuals
culture-bound syndrome
the abnormal behavior that are specific to a particular location or group
culture
the shared behavioral patterns and lifestyles that differentiate one group of people from another
classical conditioning
a form of learning in which a conditioned stimlulus (CS) is paired with an unconditioned stimlus (UCS) to produce a conditioned response (CR).
diathesis-stress model of abnormal behavior
the idea that psychological disorders may have a biological or psychological predisposition (diathesis that
dementia praecox
kraepelins name for a psychological disorder characterized by deterioration of mental faculties (now called schizophrenia)
developmental trajectory
the idea that common symptoms of a disorder may vary depending on a person’s age
dimensional approach
an approach to understanding behavior that considers it from a quantitative perspective (a little shy, moderately shy, a lot shy), not a qualitative perspective (shy or not shy)
ego psychology
a form of psychodynamic hteory that focuses on conscious motivations and healthy forms of human functions
emotional contagion
the automatic mimicry and synchronization of expressions, vocalizations, postures, and movements of one person by another
goodness to fit
the idea that behavior is problematic depending on the environment in which it occurs
mass hysteria
a situation in which a gorup
neurotransmitter
a chemical substance that is released into the ysnapse and transmits information from one neuron to another
neuron
a nerve cell found through out the body including the brain
neuroscience
the study of the structure and function of the nervous system and interaction of that system and behavior
operant conditioning
a form of learning in which behavior is acquired of charnged by the events that happen afteward
placebo effect
effect in which symptoms are diminished or elimated not because of any specific treatment but because the patient believes that a treatment is effective
psychoanalysis
a theory of abnormal behavior originated by sigmund freud that was based on the belief that many aspects of behavior were controlled by unconscious innate biological urges that existed from infancy
phenomenology
a school of thought that holds that one’s subjective perception of the world is more important than the world in actuality
punishment
the application of something painful or the removal of something positive
reinforcement
a contingent event that strengthens the response that precedes it
schitzophrenia
a severe psychological disorder characterized by disorganization in thought, perception, and behavior
scientist-practitioner model
an approach to psycholoigcal disorders based on the concept that when providing treatment to people with psychological disorders, the psychologist relies on the findings of research and in turn when conducting research, the psychologist investigates top
sociocultural model
the idea that abnormal behavior must be understood within the context of social and cultural forces
synapse
a space beteen neurons
trephination
the process in which a circular instrument was used to cut away sections of the skull, possibly in an attempt to release demons from the brain
talking cure
a therapy in the form of discussion of psychological distress with a trained professional, leading to the elimination of distressing symptoms
viral infection theory
the theory that during the prenatal period or shortly after birth, viral infections could cause some psychological disorders
vicarious conditioning
a distinct ytpe of learning in which the person need not actually do the behavior in order to acquire it