# Ch 1-6

The Sun is a star in the ____ galaxy
Milky Way
Earth’s Diameter is CLOSEST to _____ kilometers
12,000
The response to Earth’s rotation is
polar flattening
The first nearly correct measurement of the Earth’s circumference was made by ______.
Eratostenes
“Greenwich Mean Time” is also known as _____.
Universal Time Coordinated
The Sun’s rays are directly overhead at the ______ on or about December 21.
Tropic of Capricorn
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The north end of Earth’s axis points towards
Polaris
How many degrees of latitude are there between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn?
47
The Greenwich Meridian is also known as the _____________.
Prime Meridian
At the Equator (0 degrees), a given point on Earth’s surface travels about _______ kilometers per hour.
1,600
Near the North Pole, one degree of latitude extends _____ kilometer(s) on the ground.
111
At the North Pole, one degree of longitude extends_____ kilometers on the ground.
The world is divided into _________ standard zones.
24
Before time zones were created in the 1880s, one could encounter ____________ time standards on a rail trip across the United States.
more than 20
Of the following, which is a great circle?
Equator
Of the following, which is the first day of spring?
vernal equinox
The maximum distance between Earth and Sun occurs in July and is called the ________.
aphelion
On June 21, the Sun’s rays are directly over the
Tropic of Cancer
The fact that at any time during the year, the Earth’s axis is parallel to its orientation at all other times is called parallelism, or ______
polarity
Russia is the country containing the most time zones. It contains ______ zones
9
The altitudinal difference (relief) between the top of the tallest mountain and the bottom of the deepest ocean trench is CLOSEST to ______ kilometers
20
The U.S. spans _____ time zones
6
The closest position taken by the Earth relative to the Sun is _____ million kilometers
147
When the circle of illumination just touches the Arctic Circle and the North Pole is dark, the date is closest to
December 21
The geographic grid line 180 degrees of longitude from the Prime Meridian is the ______
180th Meridian
Our solar system contains________moons revolving around the planets
more than one hundred (100+)
A cross section of Earth cut from pole to pole would reveal which shape?
ellipse
How many time zones are contained within Alaska?
1
A ________ separates Earth into two hemisphers
great circle
Longitude is divided into multiples of ______ degrees for the purpose of delimiting standard time zones.
15
Eratostenes was the first to accurately measure the Earth’s _______
circumfrence
Universal Time Coordinated is also known as ______________
Greenwich Mean Time
The 0 degree Meridian is the same line as the ______
Prime Meridian
A spot on Earth’s surface rotates fastest at the __________
Equator
One degree of longitude equals 0 miles on the ground at the ______________
North Pole
The distance of 150,000,000 kilometers is CLOSEST to being ___________
the average Earth/Sun distance
The Milky Way is one of, at least, _______ galaxies in the Universe
two hundred billion
The Earth/Sun aphelion occurs once per year during the month of _______
July
When the Sun’s rays are directly overhead at the Tropic of Capricorn, it is _____________-
December 21
At the time of the aphelion, Earth is _________ million kilometers from the Sun.
152
The Milky Way is a galaxy some _______light years in diameter
100,000
The solar system’s Jovian planets are most likely composed of ___________
gas
The moon is some _______ kilometers distant from Earth
385,000
In science, the term “theory” is
the highest order of understanding
At the International Date Line, there is a change of ______
day
The farthest north the vertical rays of the Sun ever reach north of the Equator occurs on or about _______
June 21
Standardization in world time zones dates from ________
1884
the Earth is 3.3 percent closer to the Sun during the Northern Hemisphere ________ than when it is the farthest away.
winter
On both the Spring and Fall equinoxes, the Sun’s rays are vertically overhead at the ____________
Equator
The highest numbered latitude used in the geographic grid is ______ degrees.
90
Which of the following is out of order in the ideal application of the scientific method?
A) observe a phenomenon that stimulates a question
B) design an experiment
C) observe the outcome of an experiment
D) formulate a rule
E) make a hypothesis
E) make a hypothesis
Which of the following is a central meridian in the standardized time system?
5 d W, 10 d W, 15 d W, 20 d W, 25 d W
15 degrees West
A(n) _________ is a vertical piece of metal on a sundial.
gnomon
The constant angle between Earth’s axis and the Plane of the Ecliptic is called Earth’s ______
polarity
The circle of illumination just touches the Antarctic Circle on or about _______
June 21
The acceptance of a theory or hypothesis is based on ________
a preponderance of evidence
Numbered meridians
are semicircles
The most important physical effect of the Earth’s rotation is ________
the alternation of sunlight and darkness
The solid, inorganic portion of the Earth’s system is known as the ________
lithosphere
The size of the Universe is best described as
vast beyond comprehension
A nebula is
a cloud of gas and dust
The surfaces of the inner planets of our solar system seem to be composed of
mineral matter
The Milky Way is one of over _________ galaxies in the Universe
many billions
After it was part of a nebula and before it was the Sun, our Sun was a
protostar
Mt. Everest is the tallest mountain on Earth and its altitude is closest to ______ meters
9,000
The best description of the actual shape of the Earth is as a(n)
oblate spheroid
The Earth is one of ______ planets in our solar system
8
axis
Which of the following is NOT defined by latitude?
A) parallel
B) Arctic Circle
C) Antarctic Circle
D) North Pole
E) meridian
E) Meridian
Which of the following distances is CLOSEST to the actual distance associated with one degree of latitude?
100 km
Which of the following best describes the latitude and longitude of North America?
Northern and Western Hemispheres
Suppose you are standing on the standard time meridian of 75 degrees West. Which would be the next standard time meridian west?
90 degrees west
Which of the below takes the LONGEST time?
a revolution of the Earth
The angular inclination of the Earth’s axis with respect to a line perpendicular to the Plane of the Ecliptic
is 23.5 degrees
At the June solstice, day length varies from _____ hours at the Equator to _____ hours at the North Pole.
12, 24
The perihelion is during the month of
January
Which of the following subsystems includes all living things on Earth?
biosphere
Pluto is now classified as a
dwarf planet
The Earth’s polar and equatorial diameters vary by _____ percent.
.3
The line connecting the points of maximum flattening on Earth’s surface is called the
axis
Which of the following is also an entire great circle?
the Equator
In angular measurement, a minute contains _______ seconds.
60
At the equator, one degree of latitude is approximately equal to
one degree of longitude
The “natural” baseline which serves as a baseline to measure longitude (such as the Equator, which is used as a baseline for latitude) _______.
does not exist
The term “a.m.”
means “before solar noon”
Any standard time zone extends ______ degrees of latitude to the east and west of the central meridian.
7.5
Rotation of the Earth causes _________.
A) tides
B) Coriolis effect
C) local variations in temperature
D) day and night
E) all of the above
E) all of the above
An equinox has the property of
12 hours of daylight and 12 hours of night at all latitudes.
When the vertical rays of the Sun cross the Equator on their way northward, the date is known as _______ in the northern Hemisphere.
the vernal equinox
Which of the following is a topic of study in a physical geography course?
A) land forms
B) soil
C) climate
D) flora
E) all of the above
E) all of the above
Geography is
a combination of physical and social sciences
Earth is
one of the inner planets
The Universe is thought to be on the order of _______ billion years old.
13.7
Our earthly grid system is also referred to as a ________ and consists of lines of latitude and longitude.
graticule
Which of the following is not contained within Earth’s system of latitude and longitude?
A) longitude of 5 W
B) longitude of 185 E
C) latitude of 0
D) longitude of 165 W
E) latitude of 36 N
B) longitude of 185 E
The cause of Earth’s seasons is the
polarity of the axis
In New York City, this is the shortest day of the year and the Sun is also lowest in the sky.
December solstice
At times, latitude higher than _____ degrees can have 24 hours or more of continuous darkness.
66.5
The Plane of the Ecliptic is
at an angle from the plane of the Equator
Using gnomon, one can
tell local time
The shape of the Milky Way is similar to a(n)
spiral-shaped disk
The amount of time the Earth takes to revolve around the Sun is most properly known as a(n)
tropical year
_________ is considered a dwarf planet
Pluto
________ is the deepest spot in the ocean.
The Mariana Trench
To Earth people, Polaris is an important star because it
The graticule of the Earth is also known as __________
latitude and longitude.
The __________ is a basic unit of distance in the Systeme International (metric system).
meter
One can tell when it is solar noon by observing
What happened between 4.5 and 5 billion years ago?
The beginning of our solar system occurred.
The ________ is a basic Systeme International (metric system) unit of mass.
gram
The word geography comes from the Greek meaning
Earth description
Which of the following is not a major topic taught in a course of introductory physical geography?
A) climate
B) flora
C) soil
D) landforms
E) population
E) population
The shape of Earth’s orbit around the Sun is a(n)
ellipse
The ________ is the name of the orbital plane on which the Earth revolves.
Ecliptic
Pluto’s orbit is in the
Kuiper belt
The ______ equinox of the Southern Hemisphere takes place when the vertical rays of the Sun cross the Equator on the journey southward.
vernal
The “living zone” in the atmosphere extends from Earth’s surface to an altitude of approximately _______ kilometers.
5
The origin of the Universe is incompletely understood and is called __________
the “Big Bang”
Earth rotates around its rotational axis. A plane at a right angle to and bisecting Earth’s axis is known as the _________
plane of the Equator
Earth revolves around the North Star. True or False.
False
The North Star is also known as Polaris. True or False.
True
Almost all countries in the world base their time on UTC. True or False.
True
The circle of illumination divides the Earth into a light and a dark hemisphere. True or False.
True
The Prime Meridian was adopted as a result of an international conference in 1884. True or False
True
The Plane of the Ecliptic is the same thing as the perihelion. True or False.
False
The Equator is an example of a great circle in the geographic grid. True or False.
True
The vertical rays of the Sun take one year to travel from the Tropic of Cancer to the Tropic of Capricorn and return to the Tropic of Cancer. True or False.
True
The northern hemisphere’s vernal equinox occurs on September 23. True or False.
False
The Tropic of Cancer is an example of a great circle. True or False.
False
The Plane of the Ecliptic and plane of the Equator are the same plane. True or False.
False
The Earth’s circumference is close to 40,000 kilometers. True or False.
True
In the Northern Hemisphere the longest day of the year is at the vernal equinox. True or False.
False
The shortest distance between the Earth and Sun during the year is approximately 147 million kilometers. True or False
True
The northern hemisphere’s shortest day of the year is at the autumnal equinox. True or False.
False
At the Equator, the Sun’s rays at noon strike the Earth at the angle of 90 degrees above the horizon twice each year. True or False.
True
On December 22, all areas inside the Antarctic Circle are in daylight for a full 24 hours. T or F
True
The Earth year’s length of 365.25 days is known as the perihelion. T or F
False
At the North Pole, the speed of rotation of the Earth is 0 kilometers per hours. T or F
True
Larger angles of solar incidence concentrate solar energy in smaller areas of Earth’s surface. T or F
True
The International Date Line and the 180th meridian are the same line. T or F
False
At one time, several nations had their own separate prime meridians. T or F
True
There are 24 minutes for each degree of latitude. T or F
False
There is a parallel or meridian for every degree, minute, and second on the globe. T or F
True
The International Date Line follows the Arctic and Antarctic Circles. T or F
False
Earth years are based on the rotation of the moon around the Earth. T or F
False
The Sun and Moon are the astronomical bodies exerting the most gravitational influence on the Earth. T or F
True
One rotation of the Earth takes approximately 24 hours to complete. T or F
True
The vertical distance between Earth’s highest mountain and the deepest ocean trench is close to 20 kilometers. T or F
True
The Earth has the shape of a true sphere. T or F
False
The circle of illumination is a small circle. T or F
False
Magellan’s expedition — the first to go around the world — found that their log was incorrect by one day. This was because the world had yet to adopt the International Date Line. T or F
True
On the globe, meridians cross all parallels perpendicularly. T or F
True
Previous to the 1880s, the U.S. had more than 20 time zones. T or F
True
Time zones are universally divided into zones of 24 degrees longitude. T or F
False
The lowest point of the sea bottom is approximately 11,000 meters below sea level. T or F
True
The International Date Line is in the middle of a time zone. T or F
True
Russia occupies 3 time zones. T or F
False
In the Northern Hemisphere, days become continuously shorter after March 22. T or F
False
The Prime Meridian is, by design, shorter than other meridians. T or F
False
The adoption of Daylight Savings Time would be of little value for most nations in the tropics. T or F
True
The apparent motion of the Sun, moon, and stars is actually an illusion created by the easterly spin of the Earth. T or F
True
The plane of the Equator and the Plane of the Ecliptic are the same plane. T or F
False
The planets in our solar system rotate from east to west. T or F
False
The atmosphere, biosphere, lithosphere, and hydrosphere are considered to be discrete and independent subsystems of the Earth. T or F
False
The Sun makes up more than 99 percent of the mass of our solar system. T or F
True
The Mariana Trench of the Pacific Ocean is the deepest depth of the ocean. T or F
True
Of seconds, degrees, and minutes of latitude, minutes are associated with the shortest distances. T or F
False
When one crosses the Prime Meridian, the time zone does not change. T or F
True
Our solar system is known as the Milky Way. T or F
False
The vertical rays of the Sun are present at the Arctic Circle during the June solstice. T or F
False
The vertical rays of the Sun migrate between 23.5 degrees N and 23.5 degrees S. T or F
True
The Coriolis effect deflects wind and water currents. T or F
True
One rotation of the Earth approximates 24 hours. T or F
True
The best scientific guess is that there are a few hundred suns in our galaxy. T or F
False
A great circle route is always the shortest distance between two points on the surface of the Earth. T or F
True
The International Date Line is not strictly a line of longitude because it has been constructed to avoid land. T or F
True
The “geosphere” is NOT one of the four environmental spheres. T or F
True
Most of Earth’s land surface is classified as “habitable”. T or F
True
The planets in our solar system formed from a cold, rotating disk of gas and dust surrounding the Sun. T or F
True
The fact that the Earth is round has been known for more than 2,000 years. T or F
True
Earth’s axis is tilted ______ degrees from a line perpendicular to the Plane of the Ecliptic.
23.5
He was first to correctly calculate the circumferences of the Earth: _____________
Eratostenes
In the Northern Hemisphere in July, day lengths are progressively ________ as one travels northward.
Longer
The _____________________ points at the star Polaris.
North Pole or Earth’s axis
If the axis of the Earth was not tilted, Earth would not experience __________.
seasons
_____________ is a country which has adopted permanent Daylight Savings Time, with double Daylight Saving Time in the summer.
Russia
The network of intersecting parallels and meridians over the entire Earth is known as the _________________
geographic grid or graticule
Science understands the solar system to be on the order of _________________ billion years old.
4.5 to 5
If you walked along a meridian, in what direction(s) would you be walking?
North or South
If you walked along a parallel, in what direction(s) would you be walking?
East or West
The two major branches of geography are cultural geography and _______ geography.
physical
The ___________ is the environmental sphere that encompasses water in all its forms and locations.
hydrosphere
The textbook asserts that human activities have accelerated global change. T or F
True
Global environmental change seems to be all natural. T or F
False
The South Pole is nearest the Sun during the ______.
December Solstice
If Earth rotated at one-half its current rotational speed, which would be true?
Days would be exactly 48 hours
Lines of longitude have the greatest distance between each other at which of the following locations?
Equator
If the time is 12:00 A.M. in Greenwich, England, what time is it in New York City, NY (EST)?
7:00 P.M.
The Sun’s heating ability over Earth gets stronger when
the Sun’s rays strike Earth perpendicularly (at a 90 degree angle)
If you fly west from Australia to the U.S., departing on April 1, what day is it when you arrive in the U.S.?
April 1
Northern Hemisphere summer solstice is experienced on June 21. On this date, at solar noon, the Sun is directly overhead at the
Tropic of Cancer
The speed of rotation of Earth’s surface is highest at the
Equator
The solid, inorganic portion of Earth is represented by the
Lithosphere
A map scale which says “1 in. = 21 mi” is a
verbal map scale
_______ are automated systems for the capture, storage, retrieval, analysis, and display of spatially referenced data.
Geographic Information systems
Radar systems use radio waves as a means for remote sensing. Radio waves are shorter than which of these waves in the electromagnetic spectrum? Microwaves, X-rays, visible waves, Infrared waves, radio waves
Radio waves are the longest waves
Isoline is a generic term that refers to lines joining places of equal value or something. Isolines joining places of equal elevation are known as
contour lines
Map projections that preserve the correct shapes of places and compromise area are known as
conformal
Globes are less frequently used than maps except for classroom purposes. This is because globes
are cumbersom
Which of the following is not an example of remote sensing system?
A) Satellites
C) Global positioning system
D) Aerial photography
E) Lambert-conformal maps
E) Lambert-Conformal maps
The map legend tells you
how to interpret the map
Maps nearly always have a special purpose. (Fig 2-2b) This purpose is to
show the distribution of selected phenomena.
The global positioning system (GPS)
uses satellite measurements to provide navigation on Earth’s surface
The main surface currents in the major ocean basins assist in the heat transfer around the world by moving
cool water from the poles to the tropics
An example of climate (versus weather) for a given area is
the average rainfall in April is 15 inches
Temperature decreases with increasing elevation in which thermal atmospheric layers? (Fig 3-5)
Troposphere and mesosphere
_________ is the most plentiful variable gas in the atmosphere. However, it varies in location, not in time.
Water vapor
Oxygen accounts for what proportion of the volume of gases in the atmosphere?
21%
If a wind of 55mph were subjected to a Coriolis force that is double what exists on Earth, what would its new speed be?
55mph
The aurora borealis typically occurs in
the ionosphere
Which of the following is an example of a secondary pollutant?
A) carbon monoxide
B) carbon dioxide
C) particulates
D) smog
E) CFCs
D) Smog
Ozone is depleted by CFCs. What is the primary atom in the CFC molecule that is responsible for ozone depletion?
Chlorine
Los Angeles, California and Dallas, Texas have vastly different climates, despite existing at the same latitude. What causes the climate difference?
Dallas is continental; Los Angeles is maritime.
In the first 11 miles above Earth’s surface, air temperature generally ______ with increasing elevation.
decreases
The west wind drift forms as a results of
fewer landmasses near the poles of the Southern Hemisphere.
Even though no heat is taken in from an external source, adiabatic warming involves warming by compression in _______ air.
sinking
_________heat is required when water is converted into ice.
Latent heat of freezing
Incoming solar energy is redirected by particulate matter and gas molecules in the atmosphere, therefore lost to Earth through what process?
Scattering
The main source of energy for Earth’s atmosphere is heat from
solar insulation (Sun)
The world’s largest annual temperature range typically occurs in the interior of what latitudes?
High
Which of these geographic regions would be characterized by a high albedo?
The Arctic
Which of the following could NOT be a cause for land warming faster than water?
A) water has lower sensible heat
B) water has higher sensible heat
C) water has more evaporative cooling
D) water is in constant motion
E) water has limited transmission
Water has lower sensible heat
Which phrase best describes global warming?
The greenhouse effect is increasing
The force exerted by gas molecules on some area of Earth’s surface or any other body is called what?
Atmospheric pressure
Lines drawn on maps joining areas of equal atmospheric pressure are called what?
Isobars
Due to Coriolis force, freely moving objects in the Northern Hemisphere appear to be deflected to
the right
The air that descends and spirals out of the subtropical high pressure belt is the source of
A sea breeze is experienced
during the day
The semi-permanent area of high pressure over the poles of Earth is an example of
a thermal high
An El Niño is observed as
a warming of eastern equatorial Pacific waters
Waves in the jet stream pattern are called
Rossby waves
Which type of wind is an example of a katabatic wind?
Bora
Air which has decreased in density and temperature will
have a lower air pressure
The continuous interchange of our planet’s water supply between Earth and the atmosphere is called what?
the hydrologic cycle
The condition of the atmosphere when it contains as much water as it can hold at a given temperature (state of total wetness) is known as
saturation
There is an inverse relationship between temperature and relative humidity such that relative humidity tends to
be lowest in the afternoon and highest just before dawn
When atmospheric lifting results from the meeting of two air masses of different physical properties (moisture and temperature), the resulting form of precipitation is ________ rainfall.
frontal
The most conspicuous feature of the worldwide annual precipitation pattern is that the _______ contain the wettest areas of Earth.
tropical latitudes
Which humidity measure shows how near, in terms of percentage, an air mass is to saturation?
relative humidity
What property of water makes it “sticky”?
Hydrogen bonding
Condensation is not sufficient to explain large drop growth in warm clouds. What is the primary process responsible for this?
Collision and coalescense
Which of the following pH values is characteristic of acid rain?
4.5 (typical rainfall pH 5-5.5, lower than 5 is an indication of acid rain)
In order to grow hail in a cloud, the cloud must have
strong updrafts