The earliest period of human culture, the Paleolithic Age, dates from the _____
earliest use of stone tools
The earliest Neolithic societies appeared in _____
the Near East
The first civilization arose in _____
The first empire in history was established by the _____
After one century, the kingdom of Ur disintegrated due to _____ and invasion
The Sumerians invented the writing system known as _____
Shortly before 1500, the process of smelting _____ was discovered
The great Persian Empire arose in the region that is now modern _____
What became the chief religion of the Persians by the middle of the 6th century B.C.E.
The Israelites lost to history became known as the _____
ten lost tribes
The Greek school of medicine, led by _____, attempted to understand, diagnose, and cure diseases without any attention to supernatural forces
The _____ gets its name from advances in stone tool technology
What was revealed in the Code of Hammurabi?
a society divided by class
Chattel slaves were considered luxuries during most of Mesopotamian history because, unlike debt slaves, ,chattel slaves had to be _____
When the Nile floodwaters receded each year, the left _____
a rich layer of organically fertile silt
What decision associated with the smelting of iron was made in northern Anatolia around 1100 B.C.E.?
to use iron rather than copper or bronze to manufacture weapons and tools
By the fifth century B.C.E., most Greek believed that laws should be obeyed because they are _____
made by humans and represented the consent of the citizens
The earliest Bronze Age settlements were _____
on the island of Crete
Some scholars have suggested that a group of pirates known as _____ destroyed Pylos
Which of the following correctly identifies the four classes in Homeric society?
nobles, thetes, landless laborers, and slaves
The Acropolis in Athens s an example of a(n) _____
Until defeated by the Roman legion, the dominant military force in the eastern Mediterranean was the _____
Colonization encouraged trade, industry, and the manufacturing of items as _____
tools, weapons, pottery, and fine artistic metalwork
Greek colonies, established for the good of the colonists, were sponsored by _____
the mother city
A tyrant was a _____ who gained power in an unorthodox way
The Spartan constitution contained which element(s) of government?
monarchy, oligarchy, and democracy
Who ruled the Spartan government?
The Spartan assembly consisted of
all males over thirty
Which of the following poleis is located in Attica
Who was fairly called the “father of Athenian democracy”?
Hesiod’s Work and Days gives insight into the life of a(n) _____
The Persians controlled both sides of the _____, the route to the grain fields beyond the Black Sea.
Miltiades, who had fled from Persian service, led the Greeks to a vital victory over the Persians at _____
The Athenians came across a rich vein of _____ in the state mines
Of the hundreds of Greek states in 480 B.C.E. only _____ were willing to fight the Persians
Aristotle argued that humans can be either the best of animals of the most dangerous of animals depending on whether or not they have _____.
law and justice
During the Great Invasion, one advantage for the Greeks was _____.
a strong Athenian Navy
The principal reason the agora-a marketplace and civic center-became the heart of Greek social life was because _____
conversation and argument were carried on in the open air
In the fifth century B.C.E, _____were the leading naval powers in Greece
What is the name given to the protracted struggle between Athens and Sparta?
The Peloponnesian Wars
Pericles proposed a law introducing compensation pay of _____, opening that important duty to the poor
In the Athenian democracy, the people had to approve
all decisions of the state
Evidence leads historians to believe that the prime responsibility of a respectable Athenian woman was to
produce male heirs for the oikos, or household, of her husband
The Great Peloponnesian War was ignited by a civil war in the Corcyraean colony at _____.
The _____ brought an end to Sparta’s expansion in Asia and caused the eventual destruction of its maritime empire
Considered “the father of history,” _____ was the first to attempt to explain human actions in history and to draw instructions from them.
In 339 B.C.E., an Athenian jury condemned _____ to death on the charges of bringing new gods into the city and of corrupting the youth
_____ felt that moral and political reform was the solution to internal stress, class struggle, and to repairing the factional division of the polis.
_____ studied marine biology, which played a large part in his thinking.
Aristotle considered the middle class to be the most stable because it possessed the quality of _____, which gave power to neither the rich nor the poor
King Philip II of Macedon took advantage of his appointment as regent to become king by _____
overthrowing his infant nephew
The acquisition of Greek state of _____ by Philip of Macedon gave him control of gold and silver mines and allowed him to undermine Athenian control of the northern Aegean.
In 338 B.C.E, Philip of Macedon called a meeting of the Greek states to form the _____
League of Corinth
When Alexander the Great conquered _____ in 333 B.C.E., he was greeted as there liberator
Epicureans believed that falling _____ swerved in unpredictable ways to produce the things seen in the world
What new city in Egypt was the center of literary production in the third and second centuries B.C.E.?
A Hellenistic scientist named _____ was able to calculate the circumference of the earth within 200 miles
The main purpose of the formation of the Delian League was too_____
free the Greeks under Persian rule and protect against a Persian return
After Cimon’s ostracism in the spring of 461 B.C.E. Athens made an alliance with the city-state of _____, Sparta’s traditional enemy.
After peace was achieved with Persia, why did the Athenians continue collecting funds from the Delian League members?
It was necessary to maintain Athens’s navy and rebuild temples
According to the citizenship bill introduced by Pericles, citizenship was limited to those who _____
had two citizen parents
Greek religion emphasized _____
a faithful practice of rituals
The disastrous Great Peloponnesian War was ignited in 435 B.C.E., ten years after the Thirty Year’s Peace of 445 B.C.E., because of a dispute between _____
Corcyra and Corinth
Which of the following best describes the military strategy employed by the Spartans?
invade, threaten crops, and force the enemy to defend them
Dramatists such as Aeschylus and Sophocles are considered prime examples of what genre of Greek writing?
By Greek standards, Macedon was considered to be a backward , semibarbaric land because _____
it had no poleis and was ruled loosely by a king
In 335 B.C.E., Alexander III (Alexander the Great), pursuing his father’s goal, began his plan to conquer _____.
When Darius of Persia made a peace offering to Alexander the Great of his entire empire west of the Euphrates River and his daughter to end the invasion, Alexander _____
turned down the offer and continued the invasion
Alexander the Great avenged the earlier Persian invasion of Greece by _____
burning down Persepolis, the capital of Persia
After the time of Alexander the Great, the Greeks turned to _____ for solutions to their problems
religion, philosophy, and magic
What important contribution did Heraclides of Pontus make to the field of astronomy in the fourth century B.C.E.?
He made important suggestions leading to the heliocentric model of the universe