In a published paper, a researcher offers several specific examples of children’s behaviors and verbalizations during the course of the experiment, identifying the children by name. Which of the following research rights did the investigator violate?
A correlation coefficient of -.52 indicates a _________ relationship between two variables.
Compared with agemates, adolescents from immigrant families are ___________ likely to _____________.
less; use drugs and alcohol or to have early sex
Many parents of first- and second- generation youths from ethnic groups face considerate financial hardships. Why are their children able to be successful, despite these hardships?
They maintain family values and strong ethnic-community ties.
Today’s researchers recognize both consistency and variability in children’s development and have adopted a dynamic systems perspective that
views the child’s mind, body, and physical and social worlds as an integrated system
Unlike Piaget, Vygotsky viewed cognitive development as a _______ process.
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The new area of research called evolutionary development psychology seeks to understand
the adaptive value of species-wide competencies as they change with age
Lev Vygotsky believed that _________ is necessary for children to acquire they ways of thinking and behaving that make up a community’s culture
In Bronfenbrenner’s ecological systems theory, the microsystem consists of
activities and interaction patterns in the child’s immediate surroundings
The design of digital computers that use mathematically specified steps to solve problems inspired the _________________ perspective.
Freud’s theory has been criticized for
overemphasizing the influence of sexual feelings in development.
____________ believe that directly observable events are the appropriate focus of study
Unlike Freud, Erikson pointed out that
development extends beyond adolescence, through the lifespan
According to Piaget’s cognitive-development theory, children are
Which of Freud’s psychosexual stages corresponds to Erikson’s psychosocial stage of autonomy versus shame and doubt?
The psychoanalytic perspective
is no longer in the mainstream of child development research
The three broad domains of human development are
physical, cognitive, and emotional and social
The nature-nurture controversy in child development refers to a debate about
whether genetic or environmental factors are more important
Which of the following has been linked to resilience?
associating with peers who value school achievement
Dr. Manning believes that children who are high or low in a characteristic, such as sociability, will remain so at later ages. Dr. Manning emphasizes
Which of the following statements regarding theories of child development is true?
There are many theories that offer very different ideas about what children are like
Along with Benjamin Spock’s and Child Care, _______’s books on child development became a central part of a rapidly expanding popular literature for parents
John Locke viewed the child as a tabula rasa. According to this philosophy, children
do little to influence their own destinies
G. Stanley and Arnold Gesell launched the normative approach, in which
measures of behavior are taken on large numbers of individuals
Charles Darwin’s theories prompted other researchers to make careful observations of all aspects of children’s behavior. Out of these first attempts to document an idea about development, __________ was born
scientific child study
In his socio-cognitive theory, Albert Bandura believed that from watching others engage in self-praise and self-blame and through feedback about the worth of their own actions, children develop
a sense of self-efficacy
Resilience is the ability to
adapt effectively in the face of threats to development
Which of the following has been linked to resilience
associating with peers who value school achievement
The study of child development provides no ultimate truth because
investigators do not always agree on the meaning of what they see
Which of the following is a hallmark of middle childhood period
improved athletic abilities
According to the dynamic systems perspective
development is the process of transmitting cultural values, beliefs, customs, and skills to the next generation
The design of digital computers that use mathematically specified steps to solve problems inspired the _____________ perspective
In Brofenbrenner’s ecological systems theory, the macro system consists of
cultural values, laws, customs, and resources
contributes to children’s behavior problems
Jean- Jacques Rousseau viewed children as
Darwin’s emphasis on _________________ found its way into important development theories
the adaptive value of physical characteristics and behavior
The ______________ variable is the one the investigator expects to cause changes in another variable
Longitudinal studies permit investigator to
examine relationships between early and later events and behaviors
Which of the following statements about the use of deception in studies with children is true?
Deception may have serious emotional consequences for some youngsters
Unlike Piaget, Vygotsky viewed cognitive development as a ______________ process
In a _____________- design, the researcher presents children with novel task and follows their master over a series of closely spaced sessions
Research on Piaget’s cognitive-development theory indicates that
he underestimated the competencies of infants and preschoolers