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Routers and Routing Basics CCNA 2 Labs and Study Guide Instructor Edition Allan Johnson Cisco Press 800 East 96th Street Indianapolis, Indiana 46240 USA ii Routers and Routing Basics CCNA 2 Labs and Study Guide Routers and Routing Basics CCNA 2 Labs and Study Guide Instructors Edition Allan Johnson Copyrigh© 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. Cisco Press logo is a trademark of Cisco Systems, Inc. Published by: Cisco Press 800 East 96th Street Indianapolis, IN 46240 USA All rights reserved.

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No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without written permission from the publisher, except for the inclusion of brief quotations in a review. Printed in the United States of America 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 First Printing July 2006 Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Number: 2006920176 ISBN: 1-58713-167-6 Warning and Disclaimer This book is designed to provide information about the labs for the Routers and Routing Basics CCNA 2 course of the Cisco Networking Academy Program.

Every effort has been made to make this book as complete and as accurate as possible, but no warranty or fitness is implied. The information is provided on an “as is” basis. The author, Cisco Press, and Cisco Systems, Inc. shall have neither liability nor responsibility to any person or entity with respect to any loss or damages arising from the information contained in this book or from the use of the discs or programs that may accompany it. The opinions expressed in this book belong to the author and are not necessarily those of Cisco Systems, Inc. Feedback Information

At Cisco Press, our goal is to create in-depth technical books of the highest quality and value. Each book is crafted with care and precision, undergoing rigorous development that involves the unique expertise of members from the professional technical community. Readers’ feedback is a natural continuation of this process. If you have any comments regarding how we could improve the quality of this book, or otherwise alter it to better suit your needs, you can contact us through e-mail at [email protected] com. Please make sure to include the book title and ISBN in your message. We greatly appreciate your assistance.

Publisher Paul Boger Cisco Representative Anthony Wolfenden Cisco Press Program Manager Jeff Brady Executive Editor Mary Beth Ray Production Manager Patrick Kanouse Senior Development Editor Christopher Cleveland Senior Project Editor San Dee Phillips Copy Editor John Edwards Technical Editor Tom Knott Team Coordinator Vanessa Evans Book and Cover Designer Louisa Adair Composition Louisa Adair Proofreader Gayle Johnson iii Trademark Acknowledgments All terms mentioned in this book that are known to be trademarks or service marks have been appropriately capitalized. Cisco Press or Cisco Systems, Inc. cannot attest to the accuracy of this information. Use of a term in this book should not be regarded as affecting the validity of any trademark or service mark. iv Routers and Routing Basics CCNA 2 Labs and Study Guide About the Author Allan Johnson entered the academic world in 1999 after ten years as a business owner/operator to dedicate his efforts to his passion for teaching. He has an M. B. A. and an M. Ed. in occupational training and development. Allan is currently pursuing an M. S. in information security. He is an information technology instructor at Mary Carroll High School and Del Mar College in Corpus Christi, Texas.

Since 2003, Allan has committed much of his time and energy to the CCNA Instructional Support Team, providing services for instructors worldwide and creating training materials. He is a familiar voice on the Cisco Networking Academy Community forum “Ask the Experts” series. He currently holds CCNA and CCAI certifications. About the Technical Reviewer Tom Knott is a Networking Academy instructor and IT career–focused learning community director in the Career and Technical Education department at Southeast Raleigh Magnet High School, Raleigh, N. C. Tom has taught all versions of the CCNA curriculum since v1. 1.

He coauthored Networking Basics CCNA 1 Companion Guide (ISBN: 1-58713-164-1), the only authorized Companion Guide for the Cisco Networking Academy Program. v Dedication To my wife, Becky, and my daughter, Christina. Thank you both for your love and patience. vi Routers and Routing Basics CCNA 2 Labs and Study Guide Acknowledgments As technical editor, Tom Knott served admirably as my second pair of eyes, finding and correcting technical inaccuracies as well as grammatical errors, helping to make this project a first-class production. Mary Beth Ray, executive editor, did an outstanding job steering this project from beginning to end.

I can always count on Mary Beth to make the tough decisions. Christopher Cleveland, development editor, has a dedication to perfection that pays dividends in countless, unseen ways. Thank you for providing me with much-needed guidance and support. This book could not be a reality without your persistence. Last, I cannot forget to thank all my students—past and present—who have helped me over the years to create engaging and exciting activities and labs. There is no better way to test the effectiveness of an activity than to give it to a team of dedicated students.

They excel at finding the obscurest of errors! I could have never done this without all your support. vii Contents at a Glance Chapter 1 WANs and Routers 1 Chapter 2 Introduction to Routers Chapter 3 Configuring a Router Chapter 4 Learning About Other Devices 119 Chapter 5 Managing Cisco IOS Software 197 Chapter 6 Routing and Routing Protocols 239 Chapter 7 Distance Vector Routing Protocols Chapter 8 TCP/IP Suite Error and Control Messages Chapter 9 Basic Router Troubleshooting Chapter 10 Intermediate TCP/IP Chapter 11 Access Control Lists (ACLs) Appendix A CCNA 2 Skills-Based Assessment Practice

Appendix B Router Interface Summary Appendix C Erasing and Reloading the Router 21 55 271 351 357 425 439 557 559 551 viii Routers and Routing Basics CCNA 2 Labs and Study Guide Contents Chapter 1: WANs and Routers Study Guide WANs 1 2 2 Vocabulary Exercise: Matching 3 Vocabulary Exercise: Completion 4 Concept Questions 4 Routers 5 Vocabulary Exercise: Completion 5 Internal Components of a Router 6 Label the External Components of a Router 8 Label the Topology Components Exercise 9 Concept Questions 10 Lab Exercises 11 Curriculum Lab 1-1: Connecting Console Interfaces (1. 2. ) 11 Task 1: Identify Connectors and Components 11 Task 2: Identify the Computer Serial Interface (COM 1 or 2) 11 Task 3: Locate the RJ-45–to–DB9 Adapter 12 Task 4: Locate or Build a Rollover Cable 12

Task 5: Connect Cabling Components 13 Curriculum Lab 1-2: Connecting Router LAN Interfaces (1. 2. 6) 13 Task 1: Identify the Ethernet or Fast Ethernet Interfaces on the Router 14 Task 2: Identify the Proper Cables and Connect the Router to a Hub or Switch 14 Task 3: Connect the Workstation Ethernet Cabling 15 Task 4: Verify the Connection 15 Curriculum Lab 1-3: Connecting WAN Interfaces (1. . 7) 15 Task 1: Identify the Serial Interfaces on the Router 16 Task 2: Identify and Locate the Proper Cables 16 Task 3: Cable the Routers 17 Challenge Lab 1-4: Build a Two-Router Topology 18 Task 1: Choose the Devices 18 Task 2: Choose the Cables 18 Task 3: Connect the Devices 19 Task 4: Verify Connectivity 19 Chapter 2: Introduction to Routers Study Guide 21 22 Cisco IOS and the IOS Command-Line Interface 22 Vocabulary Exercise: Matching 22 Vocabulary Exercise: Completion 23 Concept Questions 24 Internet Research 25 Starting, Configuring, Accessing, and Using a Router CLI 26 ix

Router Boot Sequence Exercise 26 Using the Router CLI Exercise 27 Interpreting Command Output Exercise 28 Concept Questions 29 Lab Exercises 31 Command Reference 31 Curriculum Lab 2-1: Router Configuration Using Setup (2. 2. 1) 31 Task 1: Start the Router and Begin Setup Mode 32 Task 2: Continue with the Setup Dialog Box 32 Task 3: Show the Current Interface Summary 32 Task 4: Configure the Global Parameters 33 Task 5: Configure the Interface Parameters 33 Task 6: Specifying Whether to Use the Configuration Command Script 33 Curriculum Lab 2-2: Establishing a Console Session with

HyperTerminal (2. 2. 4) 34 Task 1: Connect a Rollover Cable to the Console Port 34 Task 2: Start HyperTerminal 34 Task 3: Name the HyperTerminal Session 34 Task 4: Specify the Computer’s Connecting Interface 35 Task 5: Specify the Interface Connection Properties 35 Task 6: Close the Session 36 Task 7: Reopen the HyperTerminal Connection, as Shown in Task 2 37 Task 8: Terminate the HyperTerminal Session 37 Curriculum Lab 2-3: Command-Line Fundamentals (2. 2. 9) 37 Task 1: Start HyperTerminal 38 Task 2: Log In to the Router 38 Task 3: Use the Help Feature 38 Task 4: Enter Privileged EXEC Mode 38

Task 5: Use the Help Feature 39 Task 6: List the show Commands 39 Task 7: Examine the Running Configuration 39 Task 8: Examine the Configuration in More Detail 39 Task 9: Use the Command History Feature 39 Task 10: Log Off and Turn Off the Router 39 Comprehensive Lab 2-4: Exploring the Router and IOS 40 Task 1: Physically Connect to a Router and Start a HyperTerminal Session 40 Task 2: Exploring Setup Mode 42 Task 3: Use the Help Feature 45 Task 4: Examining the Router 47 Task 5: Configure a Workstation on the Router’s LAN 48 Task 6: Troubleshooting Connectivity 49

Task 7: Restore Equipment Configurations 50 Challenge Lab 2-5: Configure a Two-Router Topology 51 Task 1: Cable the Topology 51 Task 2: Design and Document Addressing Scheme 51 x Routers and Routing Basics CCNA 2 Labs and Study Guide Task 3: Configure IP Addressing on the Two Routers 52 Task 4: Configure Static Routing Between the Two Routers 52 Task 5: Configure IP Addressing on the Two PCs 53 Task 6: Test Connectivity and Troubleshoot 53 Chapter 3: Configuring a Router Study Guide 55 56 Configuring a Router for Basic Routing 56 Router Prompt Exercise 56 Basic Configuration Exercise 56 how Commands Exercise 59 Documenting the Router Configuration Finishing the Configuration Exercise 62 Managing the Configuration File Exercise 63 Lab Exercises 62 64 Command Reference 64 Curriculum Lab 3-1: Command Modes and Router Identification (3. 1. 2) 65 Task 1: Log in to the Router in User Mode 66 Task 2: Log in to the Router in Privileged Mode 66 Task 3: Enter Global Configuration Mode 66 Task 4: Enter Router Configuration Mode 67 Task 5: Exit from Router Mode and Enter Interface Configuration Mode 67 Task 6: Assign a Name to the Router 67 Task 7: Exit the Router and Global Configuration Mode 68

Curriculum Lab 3-2: Configuring Router Passwords (3. 1. 3) 68 Task 1: Log in to the Router in User EXEC Mode 68 Task 2: Log in to the Router in Privileged EXEC Mode 69 Task 3: Enter Global Configuration Mode 69 Task 4: Enter a Hostname of GAD for This Router 69 Task 5: Configure the Console Password on the Router and Exit Line Mode 69 Task 6: Configure the Password on the Virtual Terminal Lines and Exit Line Mode 70 Task 7: Configure the Enable Password and Exit 70 Task 8: Return to User EXEC Mode 70 Task 9: Enter Privileged EXEC Mode Again 70 Task 10: Return to Configuration Mode 70

Task 11: Configure the Enable Secret Password and Exit Global Configuration Mode 70 Task 12: Return to User EXEC Mode 71 Task 13: Enter Privileged EXEC Mode Again 71 Task 14: Enter Privileged EXEC Mode Again 71 Task 15: Show the Router’s Running Configuration 71 Curriculum Lab 3-3: Using Router show Commands (3. 1. 4) 73 Task 1: Log in to the Router 74 xi Task 2: Enter the help Command 74 Task 3: Display Help for the show Command 74 Task 4: Display the IOS Software Version and Other Important Information 74 Task 5: Display the Router’s Time and Date 75 Task 6: Display a Cached List of Hostnames and Addresses 75

Task 7: Display Users Who Are Connected to the Router 75 Task 8: Display the Command Buffer 75 Task 9: Enter Privileged Mode 75 Task 10: Enter the help Command 75 Task 11: Display the Router Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) Table 76 Task 12: Display Information About the Flash Memory Device 76 Task 13: Show Information About the Active Configuration File 76 Task 14: Display Information About the Backup Configuration File 76 Task 15: Display Statistics for All Interfaces Configured on the Router 76 Task 16: Display the Protocols Configured on the Router 77

Curriculum Lab 3-4: Configuring a Serial Interface (3. 1. 5) 77 Task 1: Connect the Router and Workstation Cabling 78 Task 2: Configure the Name and Passwords for Router 1 78 Task 3: Configure Serial Interface Serial 0 78 Task 4: Save the Running Configuration to the Startup Configuration in Privileged EXEC Mode 78 Task 5: Display Information About Serial Interface 0 on GAD 79 Task 6: Configure the Name and Passwords for Router 2 80 Task 7: Configure Serial Interface Serial 0 81 Task 8: Save the Running Configuration to the Startup Configuration in Privileged EXEC Mode 81

Task 9: Display Information About Serial Interface 0 on BHM 82 Task 10: Verify That the Serial Connection Is Functioning 83 Curriculum Lab 3-5: Making Configuration Changes (3. 1. 6) 84 Task 1: Connect the Router and Workstation Cabling 84 Task 2: Configure Hostname and Passwords 85 Task 3: Configure the Serial 0 Interface 85 Task 4: Save the Configuration 85 Task 5: Verify the Configuration 85 Task 6: Modify the Configuration 85 Task 7: Bring Down Serial Interface 0 86 Task 8: Bring Up the Serial 0 Interface 86 Task 9: Verify the Configuration 87 Curriculum Lab 3-6: Configuring an Ethernet Interface (3. . 7) 89 Task 1: Configure the Hostname and Passwords on the GAD Router 89 Task 2: Configure the FastEthernet 0 Interface 89 Task 3: Save the Configuration 90 Task 4: Display the FastEthernet 0 Configuration Information 90 Curriculum Lab 3-7: Configuring Interface Descriptions (3. 2. 3) 92 Task 1: Configure the Hostname and Passwords on the Router 93 Task 2: Enter Global Configuration Mode 93 xii Routers and Routing Basics CCNA 2 Labs and Study Guide Task 3: Enter Interface Configuration Mode 93 Task 4: Display Help for the description Command 93 Task 5: Choose a Description for the Interface 93

Task 6: Enter a Description for Interface Serial 0 94 Task 7: Examine the Active Configuration File 94 Task 8: Confirm That the Interface Description Is Correct 95 Curriculum Lab 3-8: Configuring Message of the Day (MOTD) (3. 2. 5) 96 Task 1: Configure Basic Router Information 97 Task 2: Enter Global Configuration Mode 97 Task 3: Display Help for the banner motd Command 97 Task 4: Choose the Text for MOTD 97 Task 5: Enter the Desired Banner Message 97 Task 6: Test the MOTD Display 98 Task 7: Verify the MOTD by Looking at the Router Configuration 98 Curriculum Lab 3-9: Configuring Host Tables (3. . 7) 99 Task 1: Configure the Hostname and Passwords on the GAD Router 100 Task 2: Configure the Interfaces and Routing Protocol on the GAD Router 100 Task 3: Save the GAD Router Configuration 101 Task 4: Configure the Hostname and Passwords on the BHM Router 101 Task 5: Configure the Interfaces and Routing Protocol on the BHM Router 101 Task 6: Save the BHM Router Configuration 101 Task 7: Verify That the Internetwork Is Functioning 101 Task 8: Configure the IP Host Table for the Network 102 Task 9: Exit Configuration Mode and Test 102 Curriculum Lab 3-10: Backing Up Configuration Files (3. . 9) 106 Task 1: Configure the Hostname and Passwords on the GAD Router 107 Task 2: Configure the Interfaces and Routing Protocol on the GAD Router 107 Task 3: Save the GAD Router Configuration 107 Task 4: Configure the Hostname and Passwords on the BHM Router 107 Task 5: Configure the Interfaces and Routing Protocol on the BHM Router 107 Task 6: Save the BHM Router Configuration 108 Task 7: Verify That the Internetwork Is Functioning 108 Task 8: Start Capturing the Configuration File 108 Task 9: Stop Capturing the Configuration File 110 Task 10: Clean Up the Captured Configuration File 110

Task 11: Test Your Backup Configuration 112 Task 12: Restart the Router to Remove the Running Configuration 112 Task 13: Reconfigure the Router from the Saved Text File 112 Task 14: Verify That the Internetwork Is Functioning Again 113 Comprehensive Lab 3-11: Basic Router Configuration and File Management 113 Task 1: Set Up Lab Equipment and Document 114 Task 2: Document Interface Descriptions and Banner 114 Task 3: Basic Router Configurations 115 Task 4: Interface Configurations 115 xiii Task 5: Routing Configurations 115 Task 6: Configure Hosts and Verify Full Network Connectivity 116 Task 7: Capture Configurations and Clean Up . xt Scripts 116 Task 8: Erase Routers and Reload with . txt Files 116 Task 9: Return Equipment to Former State 116 Challenge Lab 3-12: Basic Router Configuration Challenge 117 Task 1: Edit Script with a New Configuration 117 Task 2: Load Scripts into the Routers 117 Task 3: Attach and Configure Hosts 118 Task 4: Verify Routing and Test Connectivity 118 Chapter 4: Learning About Other Devices Study Guide 119 120 Discovering Neighbors Using CDP 120 CDP Concepts and Commands Exercise 120 Network Topology Discovery Exercise 1 123 Network Topology Discovery Exercise 2 128

Getting Information and Troubleshooting Remote Devices Concept Questions 135 Lab Exercises 135 139 Command Reference 139 Curriculum Lab 4-1: Creating a Network Map Using CDP (4. 1. 4) 139 Task 1: Log in to Router 1 (GAD) 140 Task 2: Configure the Routers 140 Task 3: Gather Information About GAD’s Interfaces 140 Task 4: Display the CDP Updates Received on the Local Router 140 Curriculum Lab 4-2: Using CDP Commands (4. 1. 6) 143 Task 1: Configure the Routers 144 Task 2: Gather Information About the GAD Router’s Interfaces 144 Task 3: Enable the Interfaces on GAD 145

Task 4: Gather Information About the GAD Router Interfaces 145 Task 5: Display the Values of the CDP Timers, the Interface Status, and Encapsulation Used 145 Task 6: Display the CDP Updates Received on the Local Router 146 Task 7: Enable Serial 0 Interface on BHM 146 Task 8: Display Details About CDP Updates Received on the Local Router GAD 147 Task 9: Observe CDP Packets Being Sent and Received on Router GAD 147 Task 10: Observe CDP Packet Traffic 148 Curriculum Lab 4-3: Establishing and Verifying a Telnet Connection (4. 2. 2) 149 Task 1: Configure the Routers 150

Task 2: Log in to Router 1 and Verify the Connection to Router 2 150 Task 3: Use help with the Telnet Command 150 Task 4: Telnet to a Remote Router 150 xiv Routers and Routing Basics CCNA 2 Labs and Study Guide Task 5: Look at the Interfaces on the Remote Router 150 Task 6: Display the Protocols on the Remote Router 151 Task 7: Enter Privileged EXEC Mode 151 Task 8: Look at the Running Configuration 151 Task 9: Look at the Saved Configuration 151 Task 10: Look at the Neighbor Configuration 151 Curriculum Lab 4-4: Suspending and Disconnecting Telnet Sessions (4. 2. 3) 154 Task 1: Configure the Routers 155

Task 2: Log in to GAD and Verify the Connection to BHM 155 Task 3: Telnet to a Remote Router 155 Task 4: Look at the Interfaces on the Remote Router 155 Task 5: Suspend the Current Telnet Session 156 Task 6: Resume a Telnet session 156 Task 7: Close a Telnet Session 156 Curriculum Lab 4-5: Advanced Telnet Operations (4. 2. 4) 158 Task 1: Configure the GAD, BHM, and PHX Routers Using the Tables 160 Task 2: Log in to Router 1 and Verify the Connection to Routers 2 and 3 160 Task 3: Telnet to a Remote Router 160 Task 4: Look at the Interfaces on the Remote Router 160 Task 5: Suspend the Current Telnet Session 162

Task 6: Establish Another Telnet Session 162 Task 7: Suspend the Current Telnet Session 162 Task 8: Use the show sessions Command to See the Connections 162 Task 9: Resume the Previously Suspended Telnet Session 162 Task 10: Use the show sessions Command to See the Connections 162 Task 11: Close a Telnet Session 163 Task 12: Use the show sessions Command to See the Connections 163 Task 13: Resume the Previously Suspended Telnet Session 163 Task 14: Close a Telnet Session 163 Task 15: Problems with Linked Telnet Sessions on Multiple Routers 164 Task 16: Telnet to the BHM Router 164

Task 17: Telnet Back to the PHX Router 164 Task 18: Telnet to the GAD Router 164 Task 19: Telnet to the BHM Router 164 Task 20: Exiting from All Sessions 164 Curriculum Lab 4-6: Connectivity Tests—Ping (4. 2. 5a) 168 Task 1: Configure the GAD and BHM Routers 169 Task 2: Log in to GAD and Verify the Connection to BHM 170 Task 3: Display Information About Host to Layer 3 Address Mappings 170 Task 4: Use the ping Command 170 Task 5: Examine the Results of the ping Command 171 Task 6: Configure the Workstations 171 Task 7: Use the ping command from the Workstation 171 Task 8: Test Layer 3 Connectivity 172

Task 9: From the Host, Telnet to the Directly Connected Router 172 xv Task 10: Perform an Extended ping 172 Task 11: Perform Another Extended ping 172 Task 12: Perform an Extended ping from the Host 173 Curriculum Lab 4-7: Connectivity Tests—Traceroute (4. 2. 5b) 176 Task 1: Configure the Routers 177 Task 2: Configure the Workstations 177 Task 3: Use the ping Command from the Workstation 177 Task 4: Test Layer 3 Connectivity 177 Task 5: Log in to the Router in User Mode 178 Task 6: Discover the traceroute Options 178 Task 7: Use the Help Function with traceroute 178 Task 8: Continue Discovering the traceroute Options 178

Task 9: Use the traceroute Command 179 Task 10: Continue Using traceroute 179 Task 11: Use the tracert Command from a Workstation 179 Task 12: Trace to Cisco and Other Common Websites 180 Task 13: Compare the IP Route traces to Cisco, Yahoo, and AOL 181 Curriculum Lab 4-8: Troubleshooting IP Address Issues (4. 2. 6) 182 Task 1: Configure the Routers 183 Task 2: Configure the Workstations 183 Task 3: Use the ping Command from the Workstation 183 Comprehensive Lab 4-9: CDP Commands 186 Task 1: Cabling, Basic Router Configuration, Workstation Configuration, and Verification 187

Task 2: Display the Values of the CDP Timers, the Interface Status, and the Encapsulation Used 190 Task 3: Display CDP Information About Other Devices 191 Task 4: Monitoring and Observing CDP Traffic 191 Comprehensive Lab 4-10: Network Troubleshooting Commands 192 Task 1: Cable and Configure the Topology 192 Task 2: Verify Network Layer Connectivity 193 Task 3: Verify the Path from Source to Destination 194 Task 4: Advanced Telnet Operations 195 Task 5: Finalize Documentation and Restore Equipment Configurations 196 Chapter 5: Managing Cisco IOS Software Study Guide 197 198

Router Boot Sequence and Loading IOS Images 198 Vocabulary Exercise: Completion 198 Router Boot Sequence Exercise 199 Boot System Commands Exercise 199 Configuration Register Exercise 199 Journal Entry 200 Managing Cisco Router IOS and Configuration Files 200 IOS Naming Convention Exercise 200 xvi Routers and Routing Basics CCNA 2 Labs and Study Guide Backing Up an IOS and Configuration File Exercise 202 Using ROMMON and the tftpdnld Command Exercise 203 Command Reference 205 Lab 5-1: Using the boot system Command (5. 1. 3) 206 Task 1: Log in to the Router 206 Task 2: Enter Privileged EXEC Mode 206

Task 3: Save the Existing running-config to the startup-config 207 Task 4: Configure the Router and View the Running Configuration File 207 Task 5: Show Information About the Backup Configuration File 207 Task 6: Display the IOS Version and Other Important Information 207 Task 7: Create the Statements to Perform the Following Functions 208 Task 8: Show Information About the Flash Memory Device 209 Task 9: Specify a Fallback Boot Sequence 209 Lab 5-2: Troubleshooting Configuration Register Boot Problems (5. 1. 5) 211 Task 1: Log in to the Router 211 Task 2: Configure the Router Name and Configuration Register Setting 211 Task : Save the Existing running-config to the startup-config 212 Task 4: Restart the Router 212 Task 5: View the Running Configuration File 212 Task 6: Reload the Saved Configuration 213 Task 7: Display the IOS Version and Other Important Information 213 Task 8: Change the Configuration Register to Load the Startup Configuration File from NVRAM, Save, and Reload the Router 214 Task 9. Verify the Configuration Register Setting and Log Out of the Router 214 Lab 5-3: Managing Configuration Files with TFTP (5. 2. 3) 216 Task 1: Configure the GAD Router 217 Task 2: Configure the Workstation 217

Task 3: Start and Configure the Cisco TFTP Server 218 Task 4: Verify Connectivity by Pinging the TFTP Server 218 Task 5: Copy the running-config to the TFTP Server 218 Task 6: Verify the Transfer to the TFTP Server 218 Task 7: Copy the startup-config from the TFTP Server 218 Task 8: Save the New running-config 219 Task 9: Test the Restored File 219 Lab 5-4: Managing IOS Images with TFTP (5. 2. 5) 219 Task 1: Configure the GAD Router 220 Task 2: Configure the Workstation 220 Task 3: Collect Information to Document the Router 220 Task 4: Collect More Information to Document the Router 220

Task 5: Start and Configure the Cisco TFTP Server 221 Task 6: Verify Connectivity by Pinging the TFTP Server 221 Task 7: Prepare to Copy the IOS to the TFTP Server 221 Task 8: Copy the IOS Image to the TFTP Server 221 Task 9: Verify the Transfer to the TFTP Server 222 Task 10: Copy the IOS Image from the TFTP Server 222 xvii Task 11: Test the Restored IOS Image 223 Lab 5-5: Password Recovery Procedures (5. 2. 6a) 224 Task 1: Attempt to Log in to the Router 225 Task 2: Document the Current Configuration Register Setting 225 Task 3: Enter ROM Monitor Mode 225 Task 4: Examine the ROM Monitor Mode Help 225

Task 5: Change the Configuration Register Setting to Boot Without Loading the Configuration File 226 Task 6: Restart the Router 226 Task 7: Enter Privileged EXEC Mode and Change the Password 226 Task 8: Verify the New Password and Configuration 227 Lab 5-6: Managing IOS Images with ROMMON and Xmodem (5. 2. 6b) 227 Task 1: Enter the ROM Monitor Mode 228 Task 2: Find a Valid Image in Flash Memory 228 Task 3: Recover from the Listed Images if You See Any 228 Task 4: Record Information Using show version 228 Task 5: Configure the Boot Register to Enter ROMMON Mode 229 Task 6: View Available Commands from the ROMMON Prompt 229

Task 7: Reset the Terminal Speed for a Faster Download 230 Task 8: Use the xmodem Command to Request a File from the Host 231 Task 9: Send the File from the HyperTerminal Program 231 Task 10: Reset the Boot Register and the Console Speed 233 Task 11: Review the New Settings 233 Challenge Lab 5-7: Use TFTP to Load IOS and Configuration File 234 Task 1: Cable the Lab and Gather Information 234 Task 2: Change the Configuration Register Setting 235 Task 3: Add Statements to Specify a Different Boot Sequence 236 Task 4: Test Your Boot System Commands 236 Task 5: Back Up the Configuration File to a TFTP Server 237

Task 6: Back Up the IOS Stored in Flash to a TFTP Server 237 Instructor Confirmation 238 Chapter 6: Routing and Routing Protocols Study Guide 239 240 Adding Connected and Static IP Routes 240 Dissecting a Routing Table Entry Exercise 240 Static Routing Configuration Exercise 1 241 Static Routing Configuration Exercise 2 242 Internet Research: What Is Administrative Distance? 244 Concept Questions 245 Routing Protocols Overview 245 Vocabulary Exercise: Matching 246 Vocabulary Exercise: Completion 247 xviii Routers and Routing Basics CCNA 2 Labs and Study Guide Routing Protocols Flow Chart Exercise 247

Concept Questions 248 Routing Protocols: Survey and Configuration Routing Protocol Characteristics Exercise 248 248 RIP Configuration Exercise 1 249 RIP Configuration Exercise 2 250 Concept Questions 252 Lab Exercises 253 Command Reference 253 Curriculum Lab 6-1: Configuring Static Routes (6. 1. 6) 253 Task 1: Configure Both Routers 254 Task 2: Configure the Workstations with the Proper IP Address, Subnet Mask, and Default Gateway 254 Task 3: Check the Interface Status 255 Task 4: Check the Routing Table Entries 255 Task 5: Add Static Routes 256 Task 6: Verify the New Routes 256 Task 7: Try to Ping Host to Host Again 256

Comprehensive Lab 6-2: Static Routing with Migration to Dynamic Routing 259 Task 1: Cable the Lab 260 Task 2: Basic Router Configurations 260 Task 3: Interface Configurations 260 Task 4: Static Routing Configurations 261 Task 5: Migrate to Dynamic Routing 262 Challenge Lab 6-3: Static and Dynamic Routing Configuration 264 Task 1: Cabling, Basic Router Configuration, and Verification 265 Task 2: Configure RIP Routing on HQ and BRANCH 266 Task 3: Configure Static and Default Routing 268 Chapter 7: Distance Vector Routing Protocols Study Guide 271 272 Avoiding Loops When Converging Using Distance Vector Routing Protocols 272

Vocabulary Exercise: Matching 272 Vocabulary Exercise: Completion 273 Routing Loop Avoidance Exercise 273 Routing Information Protocol 275 RIP v1 and RIP v2 Comparison Exercise 275 Advanced RIP Concepts and Configuration Exercise 275 Troubleshooting with show Commands 280 Troubleshooting with debug Commands 282 Lab Exercises 284 Command Reference 284 Lab 7-1: Configuring RIP (7. 2. 2) 285 xix Task 1: Configure the Routers 286 Task 2: Check the Routing Table Entries 286 Task 3: Configure the Routing Protocol on the GAD Router 286 Task 4: Save the GAD Router Configuration 287

Task 5: Configure the Routing Protocol on the BHM Router 287 Task 6. Save the BHM Router Configuration 287 Task 7: Configure the Hosts with the Proper IP Addresses, Subnet Masks, and Default Gateways 287 Task 8: Verify That the Internetwork Is Functioning by Pinging the FastEthernet Interface of the Other Router 287 Task 9: Show the Routing Tables for Each Router 287 Lab 7-2: Troubleshooting RIP (7. 2. 6) 290 Task 1: Configure the Routers 291 Task 2: Configure the Hosts with the Proper IP Addresses, Subnet Masks, and Default Gateways 291 Task 3: Make Sure That Routing Updates Are Being Sent 291

Task 4: Show the Routing Tables for Each Router 292 Task 5: Show the RIP Routing Table Entries for Each Router 293 Task 6: Verify That the Internetwork Is Functioning by Pinging the FastEthernet Interface of the Other Router 293 Lab 7-3: Preventing Routing Updates Through an Interface (7. 2. 7) 295 Task 1: Configure the Routers 296 Task 2: Configure the Hosts with the Proper IP Addresses, Subnet Masks, and Default Gateways 296 Task 3: Check the Basic Routing Configuration 296 Task 4: Observe RIP Routing Updates 297 Task 5: Stop Routing Updates from GAD to BHM 298

Task 6: Add a Default Route to BHM 298 Lab 7-4: Load Balancing Across Multiple Paths (7. 2. 9) 301 Task 1: Configure the Routers 302 Task 2: Configure the Hosts with the Proper IP Addresses, Subnet Masks, and Default Gateways 303 Task 3: Check the Basic Routing Configuration 303 Task 4: Ensure That the Router Load-Balances on a Per-Packet Basis 304 Task 5: Verify Per-Packet Load Balancing 304 Task 6: Verify Per-Destination Load Balancing 305 Lab 7-5: Configuring IGRP (7. 3. 5) 306 Task 1: Configure the Routers 307 Task 2: Configure the Routing Protocol on the GAD Router 307 Task 3.

Save the GAD Router Configuration 307 Task 4: Configure the Routing Protocol on the BHM Router 308 Task 5: Save the BHM Router Configuration 308 Task 6: Configure the Hosts with the Proper IP Addresses, Subnet Masks, and Default Gateways 308 Task 7: Verify That the Internetwork Is Functioning by Pinging the FastEthernet Interface of the Other Router 308 xx Routers and Routing Basics CCNA 2 Labs and Study Guide Task 8: Show the Routing Tables for Each Router 308 Task 9: Verify the Routing Protocol 309 Task 10: Verify the IGRP Statements in the Running Configuration of Both Routers 310

Task 11: Verify the IGRP Routing Updates Using the debug ip igrp events Command 310 Task 12: Verify the IGRP Routing Updates Using the debug ip igrp transactions Command 311 Task 13: Analyze Specific Routes 311 Lab 7-6: Default Routing with RIP and IGRP (7. 3. 6) 314 Task 1: Configure the Routers 316 Task 2: Configure the Hosts with the Proper IP Addresses, Subnet Masks, and Default Gateways 316 Task 3: Check the Basic Routing Configuration 316 Task 4: Verify Connectivity 316 Task 5: Configure Centre as the Connection to the Internet Service Provider (ISP) 316 Task 6: Set Up a Default Route on the Centre Router 316

Task 7: Verify the Routing Tables 317 Task 8: Migrate the Network from RIP to IGRP 317 Task 9: Check Centre’s Routing Table for the Static Default Route 318 Task 10: Create a Second Loopback Interface on Centre to Test the Default Route 318 Lab 7-7: Unequal-Cost Load Balancing with IGRP (7. 3. 8) 322 Task 1: Configure the Routers 323 Task 2: Configure Bandwidth on the MAD Router Interfaces 323 Task 3: Configure the Hosts with the Proper IP Addresses, Subnet Masks, and Default Gateways 324 Task 4: Use the variance Command to Configure Unequal-Cost Load Balancing 324 Task 5: Check the Basic Routing Configuration 326

Task 6: Verify Per-Packet Load Balancing 327 Task 7: Verify Per-Destination Load Balancing 328 Comprehensive Lab 7-8: Advanced RIP Configuration and Troubleshooting 332 Task 1: Cable the Lab 332 Task 2: Basic Router Configurations 333 Task 3: Interface Configurations 333 Task 4: Dynamic Routing Configurations 334 Task 5: Migration to RIP v2 335 Task 6: Configure and Redistribute a Default Route 339 Task 7: Optimize and Verify RIP Routing 340 Challenge Lab 7-9: RIP and Default Routing to ISP 342 Task 1: Cable the Lab 343 Task 2: Basic Router Configurations 343 Task 3: Interface Configurations 343

Task 4: Dynamic Routing Configuration for BRANCH and HQ 344 xxi Task 5: Configure Static Routing on ISP 345 Task 6: Configure Primary Default Routing on HQ 346 Task 7: Configure BRANCH with a Floating Static Default Route 347 Task 8: Test the Backup Route 347 Task 9: Capture and Document Your Configurations 349 Chapter 8: TCP/IP Suite Error and Control Messages Study Guide 351 352 TCP/IP Error Messages: ICMP 352 Vocabulary Exercise: Completion 352 IP Packet Header Exercise 353 ICMP Message Type Exercise 353 ICMP Destination Unreachable Codes Exercise 354 Concept Questions 355 Lab Exercises Chapter 9: 356

Basic Router Troubleshooting Study Guide 357 358 Examining the Routing Table 358 Vocabulary Exercises: Completion 358 Interpreting a Routing Table Entry Exercise 360 The show ip route Options Exercise 361 Layer 2 and Layer 3 Address Exercise 361 Complete the Administrative Distance Table Exercise 362 Concept Questions 363 Network Testing Methods and Tips 363 Using the OSI Model to Troubleshoot 364 Match the Tool to the Layer Exercise 365 Concept Questions 365 Router and Routing Troubleshooting Tips 365 The show Command Exercise 366 The debug Command Exercise 371 Concept Questions 372 Lab Exercises 373

Command Reference 373 Lab 9-1: Using show ip route to Examine Routing Tables (9. 1. 1) 373 Task 1: Configure the Routers 374 Task 2: Configure the Hosts with the Proper IP Addresses, Subnet Masks, and Default Gateways 374 Task 3: Verify That the Internetwork Is Functioning by Pinging the FastEthernet Interface of the Other Router 374 Task 4: Make Sure That Routing Updates Are Being Sent 375 Task 5: Show the Routing Tables for Each Router 376 Task 6: Enable IGRP Routing on Both Routers 376 xxii Routers and Routing Basics CCNA 2 Labs and Study Guide Task 7: Show the Routing Tables for Each Router Again 376

Task 8: Add a Second Serial Cable Between Routers 377 Task 9: Clear the Routing Tables on Both Routers 377 Task 10: Use show ip route to See Different Routes by Type 377 Lab 9-2: Gateway of Last Resort (9. 1. 2) 380 Task 1: Configure the Routers 381 Task 2: Configure the Hosts with the Proper IP Addresses, Subnet Masks, and Default Gateways 381 Task 3: Verify That the Internetwork Is Functioning by Pinging the FastEthernet Interface of the Other Router 381 Task 4: Make Sure That Routing Updates Are Being Sent 381 Task 5: Show the Routing Tables for Each Router 382 Task 6: Add the Default Route to the BHM Router 382

Task 7: Add the Default Route to the GAD Router 382 Task 8: Remove RIP Routing from Both Routers 382 Task 9: Remove the Default Route from Only the GAD Router 382 Task 10: Remove RIP Routing from the Routers and Use IGRP Instead 383 Task 11: Enter a Default Network Entry on the BHM Router 383 Lab 9-3: Last Route Update (9. 1. 8) 386 Task 1: Configure the Routers 386 Task 2: Configure the Hosts with the Proper IP Addresses, Subnet Masks, and Default Gateways 387 Task 3: Verify That the Internetwork Is Functioning by Pinging the FastEthernet Interface of the Other Router 387

Task 4: Make Sure That Routing Updates Are Being Sent 387 Task 5: Show the Routing Tables for Each Router 387 Task 6: Check the Routing Table for a Specific Route 388 Task 7: Check the IP RIP Database on the BHM Router 389 Task 8: Configure IGRP Using AS Number 101 on All Routers 389 Task 9: From BHM, Enter show ip route 390 Task 10: Check the Routing Protocol on Router BHM 390 Lab 9-4: Troubleshooting Using ping and telnet (9. 2. 6) 393 Task 1: Configure the Routers 394 Task 2: Configure the Hosts with the Proper IP Addresses, Subnet Masks, and Default Gateways 395 Task 3: Check the Connections 395

Task 4: Troubleshoot 395 Task 5: List the Findings 395 Task 6: Perform the Lab Again with Team Members 1 and 2 Switching Roles 395 Lab 9-5: Troubleshooting Using traceroute (9. 3. 4) 398 Task 1: Configure the Routers 399 Task 2: Configure the Workstations with the Appropriate IP Address Subnet Masks and Default Gateways 399 Task 3: Ping from the Workstations 399 Task 4: Test Layer 3 Connectivity 400 Task 5: Log in to the Router in User Mode 400 Task 6: Discover the trace Options 400 xxiii Task 7: Use the traceroute Command 401 Task 8: Continue Using traceroute 401 Task 9: Use the tracert Command from a Workstation 401

Lab 9-6: Troubleshooting Routing Issues with show ip route and show ip protocols (9. 3. 5) 404 Task 1: Configure the Hostname, Passwords, and Interfaces on the GAD Router 405 Task 2: Configure the Routing Protocol on the GAD Router 405 Task 3: Save the GAD Router Configuration 405 Task 4: Configure the Hostname, Passwords, and Interfaces on the BHM Router 406 Task 5: Configure the Routing Protocol on the BHM Router 406 Task 6: Save the BHM Router Configuration 406 Task 7: Verify That the Internetwork Is Functioning by Pinging the FastEthernet Interface of the Other Router 406 Task 8: Examine the Routing Table 406

Task 9: Examine the Routing Protocol Status 406 Task 10: Change the Configuration to Route the Correct Networks 407 Task 11: Confirm That RIP Is Routing the Correct Networks 407 Task 12: Verify the Routing Table 408 Task 13: Verify Connectivity Between the GAD Router and the Host in BHM 408 Lab 9-7: Troubleshooting Routing Issues with debug (9. 3. 7) 412 Task 1: Configure the Hostname, Passwords, and Interfaces on the GAD Router 413 Task 2: Configure the Routing Protocol on the GAD Router 413 Task 3: Save the GAD Router Configuration 413 Task 4: Configure the Hostname, Passwords, and Interfaces on the BHM Router 413

Task 5: Configure the Routing Protocol on the BHM Router 413 Task 6: Save the BHM Router Configuration 413 Task 7: Gather Facts—Ask and Listen 414 Task 8: Gather Facts—Test Basic Functionality 414 Task 9: Gather Facts—Start Testing to Isolate the Problem 414 Task 10: Examine the Routing Table 414 Task 11: Examine the Routing Protocol Status 415 Task 12: Gather Facts—Identify the Exact Problem 415 Task 13: Consider the Possibilities 416 Task 14: Create an Action Plan 416 Task 15: Implement the Action Plan 416 Task 16: Observe the Results 416 Challenge Lab 9-8: Basic Routing Troubleshooting 420

Task 1: Cable the Lab 420 Task 2: Determine an Appropriate Addressing Scheme 420 Task 3: Router, Routing, and PC Configuration 421 Task 4: Verify and Troubleshoot Your Network Configuration 422 xxiv Routers and Routing Basics CCNA 2 Labs and Study Guide Chapter 10: Intermediate TCP/IP Study Guide 425 426 TCP and UDP Operation 426 Vocabulary Exercise: Completion 426 TCP Segment Format Exercise 427 UDP Segment Format Exercise 427 Concept Questions 427 Operation of Transport Layer Ports 428 Vocabulary Exercise: Completion 428 TCP and UDP Port Numbers Exercise 429 Comparing Layer 2, Layer 3, and Layer 4 Addresses 429

Lab Exercises 431 Command Reference 431 Curriculum Lab 10-1: Multiple Active Host Sessions (10. 1. 6) 431 Task 1: Configure the Hostname, Passwords, and Interface on the GAD Router 432 Task 2: Save the Configuration Information from Privileged EXEC Command Mode 432 Task 3: Configure the Host 432 Task 4: Allow HTTP Access to the Router 432 Task 5: Use the Workstation Browser to Access the Router 432 Task 6: Telnet to the Ethernet Interface on the Router from the Host 432 Task 7: Start a Second Telnet Session to the Router 432 Task 8: Check the Sessions on the Host 433

Curriculum Lab 10-2: Well-Known Port Numbers and Multiple Sessions (10. 2. 5) 434 Task 1: Configure the Hostname, Passwords, and Interface on the GAD Router 434 Task 2: Save the Configuration Information from Privileged EXEC Command Mode 435 Task 3: Configure the Host 435 Task 4: Allow HTTP Access to the Router 435 Task 5: Use the Workstation Browser to Access the Router 435 Task 6: Telnet to the Ethernet Interface on the Router from the Host 435 Task 7: Start a Second Telnet Session to the Router 435 Task 8: Start a Third Telnet Session to the Router 435 Task 9: Start a Fourth Telnet Session to the Router 436

Task 10: Check the Number of Sessions on the Host 436 Task 11: Check the Number of Sessions on the Router 437 Chapter 11: Access Control Lists (ACLs) Study Guide 439 440 Access Control List Fundamentals 440 Basic ACL Concepts and Rules Exercises 440 ACL Flow Chart Exercise 441 xxv Standard ACL Syntax Exercise 443 Determine the Wildcard Mask Exercise 443 Concept Questions 444 Access Control Configuration 445 Standard ACL Configuration Exercises 445 Standard ACL Scenario 1 446 Standard ACL Scenario 2 447 Standard ACL Scenario 3 447 Extended ACL Scenario 1 447 Extended ACL Scenario 2 448

Extended ACL Scenario 3 449 Extended ACL Scenario 4 449 Extended Named ACL Scenario 450 Restricting vty and HTTP Access 450 Lab Exercises 452 Command Reference 452 Lab 11-1: Configuring Standard Access Lists (11. 2. 1a) 453 Task 1: Configure the Hostname and Passwords on the GAD Router 453 Task 2: Configure the Hosts on the Ethernet Segment 454 Task 3: Save the Configuration Information from Privileged EXEC Command Mode 454 Task 4: Confirm Connectivity by Pinging the Default Gateway from Both Hosts 454 Task 5: Prevent Access to the Ethernet Interface from the Hosts 454 Task 6: Ping the Router from the Hosts 454

Task 7: Apply the ACL to the Interface 454 Task 8: Ping the Router from the Hosts 455 Task 9: Create a New ACL 455 Task 10: Apply the ACL to the Proper Router Interface 455 Task 11: Ping the Router from Each Host 455 Lab 11-2: Standard ACLs (11. 2. 1b) 457 Task 1: Perform Basic Router Interconnection 458 Task 2: Perform Basic Configuration 458 Task 3: Establish Access List Requirements 458 Task 4: Plan the Access List Requirements 458 Task 5: Write and Apply the ACL 459 Task 6: Verify the ACL 460 Task 7: Document the ACL 461 Lab 11-3: Configuring Extended Access Lists (11. 2. 2a) 464

Task 1: Configure the Host Name and Passwords on the GAD Router 464 Task 2: Configure the Hosts on the Ethernet Segment 465 Task 3: Save the Configuration Information from Privileged EXEC Command Mode 465 Task 4: Confirm Connectivity by Pinging the Default Gateway from Both Hosts 465 Task 5: Connect to the Router Using the Web Browser 465 xxvi Routers and Routing Basics CCNA 2 Labs and Study Guide Task 6: Prevent Access to HTTP (Port 80) from the Ethernet Interface Hosts 465 Task 7: Apply the ACL to the Interface 465 Task 8: Ping the Router from the Hosts 465 Task 9: Connect to the Router Using the Web Browser 466

Task 10: Telnet to the Router from the Hosts 466 Lab 11-4: Simple Extended Access Lists (11. 2. 2b) 467 Task 1: Perform Basic Router and Host Configurations 468 Task 2: Prevent the Production Users from Accessing the Gadsden Network 470 Task 3: Allow a Production User Access to the Gadsden Network 472 Task 4: Allow Gadsden Users Access to the Administration Payroll Server 473 Task 5: Document the ACL 474 Lab 11-5: Configuring a Named Access List (11. 2. 3a) 477 Task 1: Configure the Hostname and Passwords on the GAD Router 478 Task 2: Configure the Hosts on the Ethernet Segment 478

Task 3: Save the Configuration Information from Privileged EXEC Command Mode 479 Task 4: Confirm Connectivity by Pinging the Default Gateway from Both Hosts 479 Task 5: Prevent Access to the Ethernet Interface from the Hosts 479 Task 6: Ping the router from the Hosts 480 Task 7: Apply the ACL to the Interface 480 Task 8: Ping the Router from the Hosts 480 Lab 11-6: Simple DMZ Extended Access Lists (11. 2. 3b) 481 Task 1: Perform Basic Router and Host Configurations 482 Task 2: Protect the Corporate Network 486 Task 3: Protect the DMZ Network 490 Task 4: Deter Spoofing 495 Task 5: Document the ACL 498

Lab 11-7: Multiple Access Lists Functions (11. 2. 3c) 502 Task 1: Perform Basic Router Interconnection 503 Task 2: Design the Internetwork Addressing Scheme 504 Task 3: Perform Basic Router Configuration 504 Task 4: Configre the Clients 505 Task 5: Secure the Intranet Server 505 Task 6: Secure the Intranet Documents 506 Task 7: Deter Internet Abuse 506 Task 8: Deter DoS Attacks 507 Task 9: Stop Telnet into the Routers 508 Task 10: Verify the Access Lists 509 Lab 11-8: VTY Restriction (11. 2. 6) 510 Task 1: Perform Basic Router Interconnection 511 Task 2: Perform Basic Configuration 511

Task 3: Create the Access List That Represents the Gadsden LAN 511 Task 4: Apply the Access List to Permit Only the Gadsden LAN 511 Task 5: Test the Restriction 512 xxvii Task 6: Create the Restrictions for the BHM Router 513 Task 7: Document the ACL 514 Comprehensive Lab 11-9: Standard, Extended, and Named ACLs 518 Task 1: Cable and Document the Lab 518 Task 2: Router, Routing, and PC Configuration 519 Task 3: Verify and Troubleshoot Your Network Configuration 524 Task 4: Configure and Verify Access Control Lists 525 Challenge Lab 11-10a: Three Routers with Multiple ACL Configurations (Form A) 533

Task 1: Cable the Lab 534 Task 2: Router, Routing, and PC Configuration 534 Task 3: Verify and Troubleshoot Your Network Configuration 534 Task 4: Configure and Verify Access Control Lists 535 Challenge Lab 11-10b: Three Routers with Multiple ACL Configurations (Form B) 541 Task 1: Cable the Lab 542 Task 2: Router, Routing, and PC Configuration 542 Task 3: Verify and Troubleshoot Your Network Configuration 542 Task 4: Configure and Verify Access Control Lists 543 Appendix A: CCNA 2 Skills-Based Assessment Practice Appendix B: Router Interface Summary Appendix C: Erasing and Reloading the Router 557 559 551 xxviii

Routers and Routing Basics CCNA 2 Labs and Study Guide Icons Used in This Book Communication Server PC PC with Software Terminal File Server Macintosh Access Server ISDN/Frame Relay Switch Cisco Works Workstation ATM Switch Modem Sun Workstation Token Ring Token Ring Printer Laptop Web Server IBM Mainframe Front End Processor Cluster Controller Multilayer Switch FDDI Gateway Router Network Cloud Bridge Line: Ethernet Hub Line: Serial DSU/CSU DSU/CSU FDDI Catalyst Switch Line: Switched Serial Command Syntax Conventions The conventions that present command syntax in this book are the same conventions used in the IOS Command Reference.

The Command Reference describes these conventions as follows: ¦ Bold indicates commands and keywords that are entered literally as shown. In actual configuration examples and output (not general command syntax), bold indicates commands that are manually input by the user (such as a show command). ¦ Italic indicates arguments for which you supply actual values. ¦ Vertical bars (|) separate alternative, mutually exclusive elements. ¦ Square brackets ([ ] ) indicate optional elements. ¦ Braces ({ }) indicate a required choice. ¦ Braces within brackets ([{ }] ) indicate a required choice within an optional element. xxix Introduction

Routers and Routing Basics CCNA 2 Labs and Study Guide is a supplement to your classroom and laboratory experience with the Cisco Networking Academy Program. Specifically, this book covers the second of four courses. To be successful in this course and achieve your CCNA certification, you should do everything possible to arm yourself with a variety of tools and training materials to support your learning efforts. This book is just such a collection of tools. Used to its fullest extent, it can help you gain the knowledge as well as practice the skills associated with the content area of the CCNA 2 Routers and Routing Basics course.

Specifically, this book can help you work on these main areas of CCNA 2: ¦ Configuring a router ¦ Managing the Cisco IOS ¦ Selecting a routing protocol ¦ Verifying and troubleshooting a network ¦ Implementing basic security with access control lists Books similar to this one are also available for the other three courses: Networking Basics CCNA 1 Labs and Study Guide, Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing CCNA 3 Labs and Study Guide, and WAN Technologies CCNA 4 Labs and Study Guide. Goals and Methods One of the most important goals of this book is to help you prepare for either the CCNA exam (640-801) or the INTRO exam (640-821).

Whether you are studying for the full exam or the first part of your CCNA, passing either of these exams means that you not only have the required knowledge of the technologies covered by the exam, but that you can also plan, design, implement, operate, and troubleshoot these technologies. In other words, these exams are rigorously application-based. In fact, if you view the main objectives for the CCNA exam at http://www. cisco. com/go/certifications, you can see the following four categories of objectives: ¦ Planning & Design ¦ Implementation & Operation ¦ Troubleshooting ¦ Technology

Although Technology is listed last, a CCNA student cannot possibly plan, design, implement, operate, and troubleshoot networks without first fully grasping the technology. So you must devote large amounts of time and effort in the Study Guide section of each chapter, learning the concepts and theories before applying them in the Lab Exercises. The Study Guide section offers exercises that help you learn the concepts and configurations that are crucial to your success as a CCNA exam candidate. Each chapter is slightly different and includes some or all of the following types of exercises: ¦

Vocabulary Matching and Completion ¦ Skill-Building Activities and Scenarios ¦ Configuration Scenarios ¦ Concept Questions ¦ Journal Entries ¦ Internet Research xxx Routers and Routing Basics CCNA 2 Labs and Study Guide The Lab Exercises section includes a Command Reference table, all the online Curriculum Labs, and new Comprehensive Labs and Challenge Labs. The Curriculum Labs typically walk you through the configuration tasks step by step. The Comprehensive Labs include many, if not all, of the configuration tasks of the Curriculum Labs without actually providing you with the commands.

The Challenge Labs take this a step further, often giving you only a general requirement that you must implement fully without the details of each small step. In other words, you must use the knowledge and skills you gained in the Curriculum Labs to successfully complete the Comprehensive and Challenge Labs. In fact, you should not attempt the Comprehensive or Challenge labs until you have worked through all the Study Guide activities and the Curriculum Labs. Avoid the temptation to work through the Comprehensive and Challenge Labs by flipping back through the Curriculum Labs when you are unsure of a command.

Do not try to short-change your CCNA training. You need a deep understanding of CCNA knowledge and skills to ultimately be successful on the CCNA exam. How This Book Is Organized Because the content of Routers and Routing Basics CCNA 2 Companion Guide and the online course is sequential, you should work through this book in order, beginning with Chapter 1. Chapters 1 through 11 cover the following topics: Chapter 1, “WANs and Routers”—After presenting a few vocabulary exercises covering the topic of WANs, this chapter delves into the internal and external components of routers.

Understanding how a router works and how you connect to a router are important concepts and skills you need throughout the rest of your CCNA studies. The three Curriculum Labs focus your attention on connecting LANs and WANs using routers. An additional Challenge Lab helps you review the skills learned in the Curriculum Labs. Chapter 2, “Introduction to Routers”—This chapter discusses the basics of using the command-line interface (CLI). Several exercises help you solidify your skills with using the CLI.

In addition, you work through exercises that focus on understanding the router boot sequence and interpreting output from the show version command. The three Curriculum Labs focus your attention on the configuration tasks covered in the chapter. Two additional labs, a Comprehensive Lab and Challenge Lab, help you review the commands and skills learned in the Curriculum Labs. Chapter 3, “Configuring a Router”—This chapter first focuses on basic router configuraion, including learning the commands that every router uses as well as activating interfaces and setting up basic routing.

Then your attention turns to file-management issues: backing up the configuration and the IOS. The ten Curriculum Labs focus your attention on the router configuration and file-management tasks covered in the chapter. Two additional labs, a Comprehensive Lab and Challenge Lab, help you review the commands and skills learned in the Curriculum Labs. Chapter 4, “Learning About Other Devices”—The Cisco IOS software offers a powerful tool for gathering information about other directly connected devices through its Cisco Discovery Protocol (CDP).

This chapter’s exercises center your attention on the benefits of using CDP as a network engineer. Other commands, including telnet and traceroute, are also part of your tool kit for learning about other network devices. So you spend some time on these as well. The eight Curriculum Labs focus your attention on the configuration tasks covered in the chapter. Two additional Comprehensive Labs help you review the commands and skills learned in the Curriculum Labs. Chapter 5, “Managing Cisco IOS Software”—This chapter examines in detail how a router boots and loads the IOS.

Knowing the default boot sequence as well as how to change the sequence is an important part of your network engineer’s skill set. Exercises focus on the boot sequence, the boot system commands, the configuration register, the IOS naming convention, and methods for uploading and downloading an IOS. The six Curriculum Labs focus your attention on the configuration tasks covered in the chapter. An additional Challenge Lab helps you review the commands and skills learned in the Curriculum Labs. xxxi Chapter 6, “Routing and Routing Protocols”—This chapter covers a crucial topic for any CCNA candidate: routing.

Exercises focus on reading routing table output from the show ip route command, using static routing, choosing a routing protocol, understanding dynamic routing, and learning basic Routing Information Protocol (RIP) configuration. The Curriculum Lab focuses your attention on configuring static routes. Two additional labs, a Comprehensive Lab and Challenge Lab, help you review the commands and skills learned in the chapter. Chapter 7, “Distance Vector Routing Protocols”—This chapter covers how distance vector routing avoids loops.

In addition, you extend your skills in configuring RIP and you learn some valuable troubleshooting tools. The seven Curriculum Labs focus your attention on the configuration tasks covered in the chapter. Two additional labs, a Comprehensive Lab and Challenge Lab, help you review the commands and skills learned in the chapter. Chapter 8, “TCP/IP Suite Error and Control Messages”—This chapter takes a brief look at the Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP). A basic understanding of the IP packet header and the most important ICMP messages are covered.

There are no labs in this chapter. Chapter 9, “Basic Router Troubleshooting”—This chapter focuses exclusively on your troubleshooting skills. For a major part of the CCNA exam, you must be proficient at troubleshooting a simple internetwork. Exercises include dissecting a routing table entry, knowing troubleshooting steps, matching a problem to the correct layer, and reviewing the most powerful show and debug commands. The seven Curriculum Labs focus your attention on the configuration tasks covered in the chapter.

An additional Challenge Lab helps you review the commands and skills learned in the Curriculum Labs. Chapter 10, “Intermediate TCP/IP”—This chapter is mostly a review of material covered in your CCNA 1 studies. Exercises include learning vocabulary, reviewing TCP and User Datagram Protocol (UDP) segments, understanding port numbers, and comparing Layers 2, 3 and 4. The two Curriculum Labs focus your attention on how port numbers work to allow multiple sessions for the same host or application. Chapter 11, “Access Control Lists (ACLs)”—This chapter covers the fundamentals of access control lists.

Having a basic understanding of ACLs and knowing how to implement them are crucial to your success on the CCNA exam and in the networking field. Therefore, the exercises in this chapter are extensive. First, you work through some exercises that help you understand what ACLs are and how they operate. Then you work through eight ACL configuration exercises and scenarios that focus on CCNA-level security implementations. The eight Curriculum Labs focus your attention on the configuration tasks covered in the chapter. An additional Challenge Lab helps you review the commands and skills learned in the Curriculum Labs.

Appendix A, “CCNA 2 Skills-Based Assessment Practice”—This appendix contains a practice lab for the Skills-Based Assessment in which you are required to demonstrate all the skills covered in the CCNA 2 course. Appendix B, “Router Interface Summary”—This appendix provides a chart of the router interface identifiers that you need for the curriculum-based labs in each chapter. Appendix C, “Erasing and Reloading the Router”—This appendix guides you through the procedure for clearing out previous configurations and starting with an unconfigured router for use in the Curriculum Labs in each chapter. This page intentionally left blank