Mr.. Meekly Sibyl for lending the book related on the study and for teaching us how to make our product. Mr.. And Mrs.. Romeo F. Aquinas and Mr.. And Mrs.. Ariel Peter M. Seeding for their support to the researchers not only financially but also morally. Their batches from Ill-Titanium. Especially, Sherry Barras, Anomie Lazars, and Jenny Pictorial. ABSTRACT A candle is a solid block of wax with an embedded wick which is ignited to provide light, and sometimes heat, and historically was used as a method of keeping time. A candle manufacturer is traditionally known as a chandler.
Various devices have been invented to hold candles, from simple tabletop candle holders, to elaborate chandeliers. For a candle to burn, a heat source is used to light the candles wick, which melts and vaporizes a small amount of fuel, the wax. Once vaporized, the fuel combines with oxygen in the atmosphere to form a flame. This flame provides sufficient heat to keep the candle burning via a self-sustaining chain of events: the heat of the flame melts the top of the mass of solid fuel; the liquefied fuel then moves upward through the wick via capillary action; the liquefied fuel finally vaporizes to urn within the candle's flame.
Chapter I I. Introduction Candles were once used as a source of light and were simple and plain, without color or fragrance. They came in standard sizes and shapes. Now candle making is an art form and candles have become decorative works of art that come in an infinite variety of shapes, sizes, colors and fragrances. They are generally used to create a peaceful, romantic ambiance and are treasured for their relaxing effect. Candles have recently become a big part of home decor and this has encouraged the development of new techniques and materials.
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The materials you use will determine the quality of your candles but each candle will require a different combination of materials and techniques. Good note taking will allow you to determine what works and what doesn't and when you perfect your candle, you will be able to reproduce it. Whatever doesn't work, can be melted down again and re used. Candle scraps and pieces of shaved wax can all be kept and recycled so nothing goes to waste. Candles were meant to be burned so no matter how beautiful your candle comes out, remember it isn't done until it burns well so keep working t it until you get a good smokeless, even burning candle.
Ill. Statement of the Problem This study aims to determine the compare commercial candles to a homemade candle. The objectives of this study are the following: ; To know how long is the duration of the candle ; To know if the candle is smokeless IV. Significance of the Study Candles represent a classic example of the process of combustion. When enough heat is applied, the wax of a candle starts to oxidize. The paraffin reacts with oxygen to produce carbon dioxide and water, and also heat and light. The flame is the visible part Of this exothermic reaction - where the reaction is energetic enough to produce visible light.
Here are some more facts about candles. V. Scope and Limitation of the Study Our study is about candles using the materials we will use. To know how to make candles and the duration of the candles. To know more about candles and to enhance our knowledge about candles. VI. Definition of Terms Fragrance- a pleasant, sweet smell. Duration- time during which something continues. Exothermic reaction- chemical reaction accompanied by the evolution of heat. Oxidize- combine or become combined chemically with oxygen. Combustion- the process of burning something.
Ambiance- atmosphere of a place. Http://www. Overexploitation. Com/library/complaining. Asp CHAPTER II Review Of Related Literature I. Local Literature In the Philippines candles have come a long way since their initial use. Although no longer man's major source of light, they continue to grow in popularity and use. Today, candles symbolize celebration, mark romance, soothe the senses, define ceremony, and accent home decors casting a warm and lovely glow for all to enjoy. II. Foreign Literature Candles were also commonplace throughout Europe.
In England and France, Candle making had become a guild craft by the 1 13th century. These candle makers made candles from fats saved from the kitchen or sold their own candles from within their shops. During the middle Ages in Europe, The popularity of candles is shown by their use in Candles and in Saint Lucy festivities. Tallow, fat from cows or sheep, became the standard material used in candles in Europe. The Tallow Chandlers Company of London was formed in about 1300 in London, and in 1456 was granted a coat of arms. Dating from about 1330, the Wax Chandlers Company acquired its charter in 1484.
By 141 5, Tallow candles Were used in Street lighting. The trade of the chandler is also recorded by the more picturesque name of "congresswomen", since they oversaw the manufacture of sauces, vinegar, soap and cheese. The unpleasant smell of tallow candles is due to the glycerin they contain. For churches and royal events, Candles from beeswax were used, as the smell was usually less unpleasant. The smell of the manufacturing process was so unpleasant that it was banned by ordinance in several cities. The first candle mould comes from 15th century Paris.
The first American colonists discovered that bayberries could be used to make candles, but the yield was very poor. Fifteen pounds of boiled bayberries would provide only one pound of wax. Http://en. Wisped. Org/wick/History_of_candle_making http://www. Candles. Org/about_history. HTML CHAPTER Ill l. Methods and Procedures Materials Paraffin Wax Palette Knife Wick Scent Spoon Double Boiler Crayons Water Scissors Methods Twisted Candles 1. Roll out the upper part of the candle until it is about mm (1/4 in) thick. Leave the bottom 2. CM (in) unrolled so that it can fit into a candle holder.
If the candle cracks whilst rolling, then it has become too hard. Soften it by dipping it for three seconds at 71 co (1 60 OF) and then waiting for thirty seconds. 2. Hold the candle upside-down, with the unrolled base in one hand and the flattened part nearest the base between the thumb and forefinger of your other hand. 3. Pull the candle slowly upwards, sliding it between your thumb and forefinger and turning it steadily. 4. Repeat the process to give a more exaggerated twist. 5. Trim the base flat and allow the candle to cool for one hour. Floating Rose Candles 1.
Melt the wax, heat it to 71 co (OFF), and prime the wicks. 2. Switch off the heat, and add twelve drops of perfume to the wax. 3. Carefully pour out the wax on to the paper so that it forms layers about mm (h in) thick, and allow it to cool until it is rubbery. 4. Cut petal shapes with the pastry cutter or palette knife. You will need petals of different sizes. Curve them with your fingers. 5. Squeeze two small petals around a wick and build up a rose flower. Wax that has cooled too much and become brittle can be softened with a hair dryer. 6.
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