Buford US History Benchmark #3

Abraham Lincoln
16th President of the United States saved the Union during the Civil War and emancipated the slaves; was assassinated by Booth (1809-1865)
John Wilkes Booth
was an American stage actor who, as part of a conspiracy plot, assassinated Abraham Lincoln, the 16th President of the United States, at Ford’s Theatre in Washington, D.C. on April 14, 1865.
Andrew Johnson
A Southerner form Tennessee, as V.P. when Lincoln was killed, he became president. He opposed radical Republicans who passed Reconstruction Acts over his veto. The first U.S. president to be impeached, he survived the Senate removal by only one vote. He was a very weak president.
Reconstruction
the period after the Civil War in the United States when the southern states were reorganized and reintegrated into the Union.
10% plan
This was Lincoln’s reconstruction plan for after the Civil War. Written in 1863, it proclaimed that a state could be reintegrated into the Union when 10% of its voters in the 1860 election pledged their allegiance to the U.S. and pledged to abide by emancipation, and then formally erect their state governments. This plan was very lenient to the South, would have meant an easy reconstruction.
Presidential Reconstruction
Andrew Johnson’s plan for reconstruction which was less severe than Radical Reconstruction and only required that southerners swear allegiance to the Union and that states denounce their secession and ratify the 13th Amendment.
Radical Republican Reconstruction
punish south, protect former slaves; US military occupation of South, Confederate military leaders needed pardon to hold office, protect Blacks right to vote
Amnesty
a warrant granting release from punishment for an offense
Impeachment
a formal accusation of misconduct in office against the President
13th Amendment
abolished slavery
14th Amendment
Declares that all persons born in the U.S. are citizens and are guaranteed equal protection of the laws
15th Amendment
citizens cannot be denied the right to vote because of race, color , or precious condition of servitude
Black Codes
Southern laws designed to restrict the rights of the newly freed black slaves
Morehouse College
College founded in Atlanta to educate freedmen after the Civil War
Freedman’s Bureau
federal agency set up in 1865 to provide food, schools, and medical care to freed slaves in the South
KKK
Southern society formed in 1866 to prevent freed men and women from exercising their rights and to help whites regain power
Civil Rights Act 1866
Passed by Congress on 9th April 1866 over the veto of President Andrew Johnson. The act declared that all persons born in the United States were now citizens, without regard to race, color, or previous condition.
Carpet Baggers
a northerner who came to or stayed in the South after the civil war for political or financial gain
Scalawags
southern whites who supported republican policy throughout reconstruction
Graft
The illegal use of political influence for personal gain
Tenant Farmers
a farmer who pays rent or the land they farm
Sharecroppers
people who farm land for the owner in return for part of the crops
Crop Lein
they put up future crops as pay back ; the crops would yeild less and less – always causing them to stay in debt ( farmers )
Panic 1873
Four year economic depression caused by overspeculation on railroads and western lands, and worsened by Grant’s poor fiscal response (refusing to coin silver)
Ulysess S. Grant
18th president; served two terms and was involved in lots of corruption; Republican; a civil war general
Compromise 1877
Ended Reconstruction. Republicans promise 1) Remove military from South, 2) Appoint Democrat to cabinet (David Key postmaster general), 3) Federal money for railroad construction and levees on Mississippi river
“New South”
a term coined by henry w. grady and used to describe the southern states after reconstruction
Rutherford B. Hayes
19th President, ended reconstruction by removing federal troops, disputed Tilden/Hayes election resulted in the Compromise of 1877
Boomtown
a town that experiences a major increase, or boom, in population+$$$ due to sudden rapid economic growth

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