Broward College ENV1009 ONLINE: Test #3

Microorganisms
_________such as cryptosporidium, giardia, and fecal coliform bacteria are found in human and animal waste
disinfectants
___________including chlorine, bromate, and chlorite are caused by human activities and emissions from industrial facilities
inorganic chemicals
_________such as arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury
(some, such as arsenic, occur naturally in geologic deposits)
Organic chemicals
_________such as benzene, dioxin, and vinyl chloride, fertilizers, pesticides. By industrial facilities,mining, agricultural activities
Radionuclides
________including uranium and radium
(many occur naturally geologic deposits)
Sedimentation
_______ (soil particles) in rivers, lakes, and coastal waters. from erosion, excavation, or construction
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Organic liquids; less
___________ that are relatively insoluble in water and _____ dense than water are referred to as non-aqueous phased liquids (NAPLs)
gasoline and diesel fuels
float on water
denser
Chlorinated hydrocarbons and carbon tetrachloride are ______ than water and will sink
faster
The more permeable the aquifer, the _______ groundwater moves through and the quicker contaminants get dispersed through the subsurface.
Contaminants
__________ may come out of solution by adhering to soil particles as the plume moves through the soil on its way to the water table.
high organic material
Adherence may be greater in ___________ and clay rich soils due to the chemical reactivity and because they provide a large surface are
adsorption
Adherence to the soil particles, a process known as ________
Point Source Pollution
An identifiable and confined discharge point for one or more water pollutants, such as a pipe, channel, vessel, or ditch.
non-point
involves pollution that cannot be traced to a single source. It is a diffuse, unconfined discharge of water from the land to a receiving body of water.
Non-point
The following approach is the reduce which kind of pollution?

* reduce fertilizer and pesticide runoff by limiting broad application of pesticides, herbicides, and fertilizer
* better managing livestock feedlots

* reforest watersheds

* improve urban stormwater management systems

* regulate land uses
* restoring wetlands to help absorb and filter runoff

Wetlands
___perform water purification. Examples:

– Microbes (bacteria, fungi, algae, and protozoa) break down nutrients and some organic contaminants.
– Vegetation slows inflowing water, which causes sediments and other particles to settle out and sink to the bottom. They prevent floods and erosion.
– Plants also act as a “sponge” by taking up some nutrients, trace metals, and other compounds. In so doing they improve water quality.
– Wetland soils provide reactive surfaces for biogeochemical reactions and habitat for microbes.
– Wetland soils provide a habitat for wildlife

basins
_____ with more wetlands tend to have . . . lower concentrations of chloride, lead, inorganic nitrogen, suspended solids, and total and dissolved phosphorus than basins with fewer wetlands.
Estuaries
_________ are coastal waters where seawater is measurably diluted with freshwater; also identified as a marine ecosystem where freshwater enters the ocean, mixing salt and fresh water.
estuaries
Pollution what causes these effects?
– kills fish, seabirds, and marine mammals
– damages aquatic ecosystems
– causes outbreaks of human illness
– causes considerable economic damage by affecting tourism and fishing.
nitrogen
Fertilizer use and fossil fuel combustion, have added much _______ to the the global environment such that plankton bloom has become more frequent
Water borne diseases
cholera, typhoid, and dysentery
water washed
skin and eye infections, are caused by lack of clean water for washing by what kind of disease?
water based diseases
What kind of diseases are schistosomiasis,who spread by organisms that develop in water and then become human parasites. They are spread by contaminated water and by eating insufficiently cooked fish
Water-related insect vectors
mosquitoes, breed in or near water and spread diseases, including dengue and malaria. This category is not directly related to water supply or quality.
The Clean Water Act
It’s initial focus was on point source pollution regulating emission and discharge by requiring permits when controlled pollutants are discharged into “navigable waters”.
True
Water pollution from point sources have been considerably reduced in the United States as a result of the CWA regulations
Total Maximum Daily Load
the maximum levels of specific pollutants allowed into impaired bodies from all point and nonpoint sources
the safe drinking water act
regulate the contaminants in public water supplies.
law of seas
The 1982 convention outlines each country’s rights and responsibilities within its territorial boundaries and in international waters for issues including

pollution control,
scientific research,
resource management, and
seabed mining.

exclusive economic zones
______ (EEZ) are areas extending 200 miles outward from shore (the 200 mile limit). coastal states have the jurisdiction to the protect marine environment in their EEZ.
Exclusive Economic Zones
Activities that are protected include coastal development, overfishing, offshore drilling, and pollution from ships
principals of sustainability
– Understand our relationship with the biosphere and our effect on it – value nature’s life sustaining services
– Realize “everything is connected” & “everything is not as it seems”
– Implement systems analysis – think across disciplines in solving problems
– Turn to nature for solutions
– Choose solutions that are best in the long run
– Minimize use of resources by eliminating over-consumption & waste
low oxygen levels
Hypoxia refers to
Estuary
a partly enclosed body of water
often formed at river mouths
can be found in coastal bays
has a salinity intermediate between saltwater and freshwater
clouds water
Sedimentation is a pollutant primarily because it
wetlands
prevent floods and erosion

acts as a sponge

slows inflowing water

increases sedimentation

The Clean Water Act
The initial focus of the _______________ was on point source pollution regulating emission and discharge by requiring permits when controlled pollutants are discharged into “navigable waters.
The Clean Water Act (CWA)
The law that regulates public water quality is known as the
agricultural runoff
The most common non-point source of pollution is
water borne diseases
Thyphoid and dysentery are examples of _______________.
the world health organization
Learning how water-related diseases spread and how the infectious organism behaves is the focus of
true
Native plants have adaptations to make them naturally resistant to pests.
pesticides
What action causes these effects, making it a bad long-term solution for controlling pests?

It encourages the creation of pesticide-resistant insect populations

It harms predator insects that provide natural insect control

It releases poisons into the environment that harm wildlife and people

less is more
Consuming less energy through efficiency and conservation will enhance the quality of life of future generations.

Using less or no pesticides can be a more effective insect control while keeping toxins out of the environment.

Food with less processing (fresh vegetables as opposed to canned) is more nutritious and uses less energy and resources to produce.

nutrient overload
Eutrophication is related to
bioaccumulates
What is a reason spraying insecticides reduces biodiversity?
people
Fair trade coffee addresses which of the “3 P’s” of sustainability?
oxygen-demanding
waste that enters a body of water and feeds the growth of the microbes that are decomposes
waste water
undergoes decomposition/crates demand for oxygen
nutrients make water fertile
disease causing organism
live bottom fauna
Echinoderms, sponges, and coral polyps are
Neritic
Which zone has high productivity for all of upwelling, estuary transport, tidal current and phytoplankton?
5000 to 7000
The Florida reefs started growing about ______ yrs. B.P.
Barrier
Reefs that grow parallel to the shoreline are called _____ reefs.
Sea Fan
Which of the following is considered a soft coral?
patch, atoll, barrier, fringe
Types of reef formation are:
euphotic
Coral reefs form primarily in the ___________ zone of the ocean.
temperature and light
the 2 main abiotic factors affecting coral reef formation are:
true
Because corals are living organisms, they are susceptible to diseases and are damaged by pollution.
false
The coral polyp is a soft bodied algae.
false
Reef building corals require warm, deep, polluted, clear water in order to survive.
benthos
The decomposers of the ocean are found primarily in the
true
Estuaries and coral reefs are usually found in the Neritic province.
false
Coral reefs grow only in shallow, warm, clear waters.
fringing reef
it form along a coastline. They grow on the continental shelf in shallow water.
epipelagic
The zone where most photosynthesis in the open sea occurs
ocean currents
the result of all of the following:
wind mixing of warm water with cold water, Correct Response cloud formations, temperature and salinity
gyres
are circular or spiral ocean currents

centered around 25° to 30° north and south latitudes

rotate clockwise in the Northern Hemisphere and counter-clockwise in the Southern Hemisphere

driven by easterly winds at low latitudes and westerly winds at high latitudes.

continental shelf
The gently sloping shallow submerged surface surrounding a continent and extending from the shoreline toward the deep ocean is termed
Upwelling
offshore winds are more likely responsible for which of the following?
active tectonic plate margins
Deep-ocean trenches are associated with:
continental slope
Which portion of the continental margin is steepest?
ocean basin floor, continental margin, oceanic ridge
the three broad subdivisions of the ocean floor?
mid-ocean ridge
The ________ system is a broad, rugged, elevated feature on the ocean floor that forms a continuous belt that winds around the globe.
rises
Estuaries form when sea level ________.
low pressure zones
Cyclone is another name for __________.
It is the biggest water mass in the oceans.
Which of the following is true of the North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW)?
prevailing winds
The energy that drives surface ocean currents such as the Gulf Stream (and Florida Current, and North Atlantic Current) comes from
light and nutrients
Which of the following increases the oceans effectiveness as a carbon sink?
phytoplankton
The producers in the ocean food chain are
rise
The continental margin is comprised of the continental shelf, slope and ___.
oceanic crust
The continental shelf is identified as the continental land mass submerged under the ocean and extends to where it meets the____.
continental margin
Together, the continental shelf, continental slope, and continental rise are called
trench
continental margin is found along a subduction zone or transform fault, is very narrow, and very steep. Thus, you will have a ______
14.7
At sea level atmospheric pressure is_____ pounds per square inch
10
pressure increases by an additional atmosphere for every ____ meters (32.81 ft) of descent under water.
Abyssopelagic
The Ocean is composed of Epipelagic (Euphotic), Mesopelagic, Bathypelagic, _____.
The Epipelagic Zone
Vertically it extends to approximately the first 200 meters below the surface
epipelagic
This zone is kept warm and mixed by winds and wave action
epipelagic
This zone is also known as the euphotic or sunlight zone because most visible light in the oceans is found here
mesopelagic
this zone extends to about 1,000m and exhibits a rapid decline in temperature to less than 5°C.
The Mesopelagic Zone.
This zone is under the The Epipelagic Zone
bathypelagic
This zone, also referred to as the midnight zone, starts at about 1,000 meters
bathypelagic
This zone receives no sunlight and has very high pressures – about 5880 psi at around 4,000 meters in depth. At this level there are very few organisms.
abyssopelagic
this zone extends from about 4000 meters to the ocean floor.
abyssopelagic
No light penetrates to this zone, and the pressure at this point is extremely high.
abyssopelagic
Very little life exists at this zone, other than the benthic dwellers and detritovores.
The Abyssopelagic Zone
Together with the bathypelagic zone, these cold, deep layers contain about 80 percent of the total volume of the ocean.
Oceanic province
Horizontal layers: Pelagic, Neritic province, ______.
Neritic province
0pen ocean from the shoreline to 200 meters. It includes the coral reefs and estuaries and has high productivity
tidal currents
Nutrient mixing is effected by means of upwelling, estuary transport, and____
Oceanic province
extends from 200 m to the open ocean. It is generally nutrient poor with little life other than phytoplankton, zooplankton and nekton – large fish, whales, tuna, squid.
pelagic
area of the ocean is the open sea where organisms swim freely and actively (Nekton) or free floating (Plankton) in the mass of sea water rather than living at the bottom (benthos)
hadal
The zone is part of the convergence of dense oceanic plates at the ocean floor followed by subduction of one plate under the other, creates long, narrow trenches along the convergence zones.
The Hadal zone
Highly specialized life forms, including fish, shrimps, sea cucumbers, and microbes, survive even at these depths.
Ocean currents
______ are created by mixing of cold, deep waters and warm surface waters
Ocean currents
heat distribution from the low, tropical regions to the higher latitudes,
nutrients transport from deep waters to the surface, and
influencing the climates of coastal regions.
Density currents
________ are localized within a body of water. High salt and/or cooling water create areas of high density that sink and flow under the surface
Gyres
are the result of the combined effects of surface and density currents, thermohaline circulation, upwelling and the Earth’s rotation.
upwelling
_______is an oceanographic phenomenon that involves wind-driven motion of dense, cooler, and usually nutrient-rich water towards the ocean surface, replacing the warmer, usually nutrient-depleted surface water
Downwelling
_______ is the process of accumulation and sinking of higher density material beneath lower density material, such as cold or saline water beneath warmer or fresher water or cold air beneath warm air
western boundary
Which currents are swift, narrow and deep? (e.g. the Gulf stream)
eastern boundary
Which currents are slower, broader and shallower?
true
currents on the western boundaries of ocean gyres are narrower and flow faster than eastern boundary currents.
true
Warm surface currents flow out of ocean gyres from the tropics to higher latitudes
true
cold surface currents flow from colder latitudes toward the equator
true
The excess heat received in the equatorial regions drives everything, including the strong Western Boundary Currents such as the familiar Gulf Stream and the East Australian Current
equator toward the poles
Ocean currents move and redistribute heat from high to low latitudes by moving warm water from the
true
Water has a high specific heat, which means that water gains and looses heat slowly, it takes more energy input to increase its temperature
true
The thermohaline circulation is analogous to a “global conveyor belt” that moves large volumes of water throughout the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian oceans.
true
Cold water sinks in polar areas and warmer, less dense water floats on top.
North Atlantic Deep Water
(NADW), the biggest water mass in the oceans, forms in the North Atlantic and runs down the coast of Canada, eastward into the Atlantic, and south past the tip of South America.
antarctic bottom water
(AABW), is the densest water mass in the oceans. It forms when cold, salty water sinks in the seas surrounding Antarctica, carrying oxygen and nutrients with it, and flows northward along the sea floor underneath the North Atlantic Deep Water, displacing the waters above it and helping to propel the Thermohaline Circulation
bend to the right
As a result of the Coriolis effect, water currents in the Northern Hemisphere _____.
true
The North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) is a climate cycle that occurs over several decades
saturated ground
Which one of the following factors does NOT favor increased infiltration?
calorie
The quantity of heat a liquid must absorb for 1 gram to be converted from a liquid to a gas
Artesian
The term ________ applies to any situation in which groundwater under pressure rises on its own above the level of the aquifer.
Aquifer
This term refers to rock strata or sediments that readily transmit groundwater
wetlands
prevent flood and erosion, filter out heavy metals ,protect wildlife habitats, act as a sponge for nutrients and water
groundwater
Any water drawn from below the water table is:
limestone
Caves most commonly form in areas rich in:
hydrologic cycle
The continuous movement of water from the oceans to the atmosphere, from the atmosphere to the land, and from the land back to the sea is known as
permeability
A measure of a material’s ability to transmit groundwater through interconnected pore spaces is known as its ________.
Saltwater Intrusion
With increased demands for freshwater from agriculture and population increases, a major threat the aquifers face is
Irrigation
In the United States, more groundwater is used for this purpose than for any other.
Evaporation and Transpiration
Which two aspects of the hydrologic cycle are responsible for water vapor in the atmosphere?
Porosity
A measure of a rock’s ability to store water
Biscayne Aquifer
The four South Florida counties draw most of their freshwater from the
salt water intrusion
excessive removal of fresh water is permitting salt water to move backwards into aquifers
condensation
The process by which water in the gas form (water vapor) changes to liquid water is referred to as __________.
true
More water evaporates from the oceans than is returned to the oceans by precipitation
false
Over land, precipitation equals runoff.
Stream
The single most important agent sculpting Earth’s surface is __________ erosion.
amazon
Which one of the following rivers has the greatest average discharge?
Transpiration
The release of water vapor to the atmosphere by plants is called __________.
Mississipi
The largest river in North America in terms of discharge is the __________ River.
Glaciers
We know that the oceans contain most of Earth’s water. Which one of the following ranks second?
true
Sea level drops when water is stored in expanding glaciers.
Drainage Basin
The area that contributes water to a stream is its __________.
water repositories
Below Ground (22.22), Glaciers/ice (77.28), Atmospheric Water(.03), Water bodies (.47), fresh water (2.78)
found in the oceans (97.41% saltwater
3%
Less than _____ of water on earth is usable
1/3
of usable water is underground
50%
About ____ of all precipitation returns immediately to the atmosphere via evaporation and transpiration.
mesotrophic
lakes with moderate level of nutrients such as phosphorus and nitrogen
floodplain
the excess water that spreads onto the land adjacent to the river is called a
springs
Water from aquifers naturally percolates up to the surface as
Recharge Area
a confined aquifer that cannot be recharged unless the impermeable layer has an opening at the land’s surface that can serve
groundwater recharge
When Water from precipitation percolates through the soil and works its way into an aquifer
Water Table
The uppermost level at which the water in a given area fully saturates the rock or soil and is considered to be the surface of the groundwater in an area
Confined aquifers
are surrounded by a layer of impermeable rock and clay which impedes water to flow
unconfined aquifers
May aquifers are porous rock covered by soil where water and easily flow in and out. These are
Cohesion
is the phenomenon of a substance being held together by hydrogen bonds. It refers to the attraction of substances of the same kind to each other, like one water molecule to another, as opposed to adhesion in which substances of different kinds bond to each other.
aquitards
These impermeable rock layers hinder or prevent groundwater movement and are called
sources of groundwater recharge
rain water and snowmelt
water that leaks through the bottom of some lakes and rivers
leaking water-supply systems (pipelines and canals)
irrigation of crops with more water than the plants can use.
irrigation
The single greatest use of groundwater in the United States is for
Drip irrigation
80% – 90% efficient
above- or below-ground pipes or tubes deliver water directly to the roots of individual plants.
Center-pivot
70% – 80% efficient
water is usually pumped from underground and sprayed from mobile boom with sprinklers
Gravity flow
50% – 60% efficient
water from an aqueduct or a nearby river is pumped to flood a field.