Organic liquids; less
___________ that are relatively insoluble in water and _____ dense than water are referred to as non-aqueous phased liquids (NAPLs)
gasoline and diesel fuels
float on water
Chlorinated hydrocarbons and carbon tetrachloride are ______ than water and will sink
The more permeable the aquifer, the _______ groundwater moves through and the quicker contaminants get dispersed through the subsurface.
__________ may come out of solution by adhering to soil particles as the plume moves through the soil on its way to the water table.
high organic material
Adherence may be greater in ___________ and clay rich soils due to the chemical reactivity and because they provide a large surface are
Adherence to the soil particles, a process known as ________
Point Source Pollution
An identifiable and confined discharge point for one or more water pollutants, such as a pipe, channel, vessel, or ditch.
involves pollution that cannot be traced to a single source. It is a diffuse, unconfined discharge of water from the land to a receiving body of water.
The following approach is the reduce which kind of pollution?
* reduce fertilizer and pesticide runoff by limiting broad application of pesticides, herbicides, and fertilizer
* better managing livestock feedlots
* reforest watersheds
* improve urban stormwater management systems
* regulate land uses
* restoring wetlands to help absorb and filter runoff
___perform water purification. Examples:
– Microbes (bacteria, fungi, algae, and protozoa) break down nutrients and some organic contaminants.
– Vegetation slows inflowing water, which causes sediments and other particles to settle out and sink to the bottom. They prevent floods and erosion.
– Plants also act as a “sponge” by taking up some nutrients, trace metals, and other compounds. In so doing they improve water quality.
– Wetland soils provide reactive surfaces for biogeochemical reactions and habitat for microbes.
– Wetland soils provide a habitat for wildlife
_____ with more wetlands tend to have . . . lower concentrations of chloride, lead, inorganic nitrogen, suspended solids, and total and dissolved phosphorus than basins with fewer wetlands.
_________ are coastal waters where seawater is measurably diluted with freshwater; also identified as a marine ecosystem where freshwater enters the ocean, mixing salt and fresh water.
Pollution what causes these effects?
– kills fish, seabirds, and marine mammals
– damages aquatic ecosystems
– causes outbreaks of human illness
– causes considerable economic damage by affecting tourism and fishing.
Fertilizer use and fossil fuel combustion, have added much _______ to the the global environment such that plankton bloom has become more frequent
Water borne diseases
cholera, typhoid, and dysentery
skin and eye infections, are caused by lack of clean water for washing by what kind of disease?
water based diseases
What kind of diseases are schistosomiasis,who spread by organisms that develop in water and then become human parasites. They are spread by contaminated water and by eating insufficiently cooked fish
Water-related insect vectors
mosquitoes, breed in or near water and spread diseases, including dengue and malaria. This category is not directly related to water supply or quality.
The Clean Water Act
It’s initial focus was on point source pollution regulating emission and discharge by requiring permits when controlled pollutants are discharged into “navigable waters”.
Water pollution from point sources have been considerably reduced in the United States as a result of the CWA regulations
Total Maximum Daily Load
the maximum levels of specific pollutants allowed into impaired bodies from all point and nonpoint sources
the safe drinking water act
regulate the contaminants in public water supplies.
law of seas
The 1982 convention outlines each country’s rights and responsibilities within its territorial boundaries and in international waters for issues including
resource management, and
exclusive economic zones
______ (EEZ) are areas extending 200 miles outward from shore (the 200 mile limit). coastal states have the jurisdiction to the protect marine environment in their EEZ.
Exclusive Economic Zones
Activities that are protected include coastal development, overfishing, offshore drilling, and pollution from ships
principals of sustainability
– Understand our relationship with the biosphere and our effect on it – value nature’s life sustaining services
– Realize “everything is connected” & “everything is not as it seems”
– Implement systems analysis – think across disciplines in solving problems
– Turn to nature for solutions
– Choose solutions that are best in the long run
– Minimize use of resources by eliminating over-consumption & waste
low oxygen levels
Hypoxia refers to
a partly enclosed body of water
often formed at river mouths
can be found in coastal bays
has a salinity intermediate between saltwater and freshwater
Sedimentation is a pollutant primarily because it
prevent floods and erosion
acts as a sponge
slows inflowing water
The Clean Water Act
The initial focus of the _______________ was on point source pollution regulating emission and discharge by requiring permits when controlled pollutants are discharged into “navigable waters.
The Clean Water Act (CWA)
The law that regulates public water quality is known as the
The most common non-point source of pollution is
water borne diseases
Thyphoid and dysentery are examples of _______________.
the world health organization
Learning how water-related diseases spread and how the infectious organism behaves is the focus of
Native plants have adaptations to make them naturally resistant to pests.
What action causes these effects, making it a bad long-term solution for controlling pests?
It encourages the creation of pesticide-resistant insect populations
It harms predator insects that provide natural insect control
It releases poisons into the environment that harm wildlife and people
less is more
Consuming less energy through efficiency and conservation will enhance the quality of life of future generations.
Using less or no pesticides can be a more effective insect control while keeping toxins out of the environment.
Food with less processing (fresh vegetables as opposed to canned) is more nutritious and uses less energy and resources to produce.
Eutrophication is related to
What is a reason spraying insecticides reduces biodiversity?
Fair trade coffee addresses which of the “3 P’s” of sustainability?
waste that enters a body of water and feeds the growth of the microbes that are decomposes
undergoes decomposition/crates demand for oxygen
nutrients make water fertile
disease causing organism
live bottom fauna
Echinoderms, sponges, and coral polyps are
Which zone has high productivity for all of upwelling, estuary transport, tidal current and phytoplankton?
5000 to 7000
The Florida reefs started growing about ______ yrs. B.P.
Reefs that grow parallel to the shoreline are called _____ reefs.
Which of the following is considered a soft coral?
patch, atoll, barrier, fringe
Types of reef formation are:
Coral reefs form primarily in the ___________ zone of the ocean.
temperature and light
the 2 main abiotic factors affecting coral reef formation are:
Because corals are living organisms, they are susceptible to diseases and are damaged by pollution.
The coral polyp is a soft bodied algae.
Reef building corals require warm, deep, polluted, clear water in order to survive.
The decomposers of the ocean are found primarily in the
Estuaries and coral reefs are usually found in the Neritic province.
Coral reefs grow only in shallow, warm, clear waters.
it form along a coastline. They grow on the continental shelf in shallow water.
The zone where most photosynthesis in the open sea occurs
the result of all of the following:
wind mixing of warm water with cold water, Correct Response cloud formations, temperature and salinity
are circular or spiral ocean currents
centered around 25° to 30° north and south latitudes
rotate clockwise in the Northern Hemisphere and counter-clockwise in the Southern Hemisphere
driven by easterly winds at low latitudes and westerly winds at high latitudes.
The gently sloping shallow submerged surface surrounding a continent and extending from the shoreline toward the deep ocean is termed
offshore winds are more likely responsible for which of the following?
active tectonic plate margins
Deep-ocean trenches are associated with:
Which portion of the continental margin is steepest?
ocean basin floor, continental margin, oceanic ridge
the three broad subdivisions of the ocean floor?
The ________ system is a broad, rugged, elevated feature on the ocean floor that forms a continuous belt that winds around the globe.
Estuaries form when sea level ________.
low pressure zones
Cyclone is another name for __________.
It is the biggest water mass in the oceans.
Which of the following is true of the North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW)?
The energy that drives surface ocean currents such as the Gulf Stream (and Florida Current, and North Atlantic Current) comes from
light and nutrients
Which of the following increases the oceans effectiveness as a carbon sink?
The producers in the ocean food chain are
The continental margin is comprised of the continental shelf, slope and ___.
The continental shelf is identified as the continental land mass submerged under the ocean and extends to where it meets the____.
Together, the continental shelf, continental slope, and continental rise are called
continental margin is found along a subduction zone or transform fault, is very narrow, and very steep. Thus, you will have a ______
At sea level atmospheric pressure is_____ pounds per square inch
pressure increases by an additional atmosphere for every ____ meters (32.81 ft) of descent under water.
The Ocean is composed of Epipelagic (Euphotic), Mesopelagic, Bathypelagic, _____.
The Epipelagic Zone
Vertically it extends to approximately the first 200 meters below the surface
This zone is kept warm and mixed by winds and wave action
This zone is also known as the euphotic or sunlight zone because most visible light in the oceans is found here
this zone extends to about 1,000m and exhibits a rapid decline in temperature to less than 5°C.
The Mesopelagic Zone.
This zone is under the The Epipelagic Zone
This zone, also referred to as the midnight zone, starts at about 1,000 meters
This zone receives no sunlight and has very high pressures – about 5880 psi at around 4,000 meters in depth. At this level there are very few organisms.
this zone extends from about 4000 meters to the ocean floor.
No light penetrates to this zone, and the pressure at this point is extremely high.
Very little life exists at this zone, other than the benthic dwellers and detritovores.
The Abyssopelagic Zone
Together with the bathypelagic zone, these cold, deep layers contain about 80 percent of the total volume of the ocean.
Horizontal layers: Pelagic, Neritic province, ______.
0pen ocean from the shoreline to 200 meters. It includes the coral reefs and estuaries and has high productivity
Nutrient mixing is effected by means of upwelling, estuary transport, and____
extends from 200 m to the open ocean. It is generally nutrient poor with little life other than phytoplankton, zooplankton and nekton – large fish, whales, tuna, squid.
area of the ocean is the open sea where organisms swim freely and actively (Nekton) or free floating (Plankton) in the mass of sea water rather than living at the bottom (benthos)
The zone is part of the convergence of dense oceanic plates at the ocean floor followed by subduction of one plate under the other, creates long, narrow trenches along the convergence zones.
The Hadal zone
Highly specialized life forms, including fish, shrimps, sea cucumbers, and microbes, survive even at these depths.
______ are created by mixing of cold, deep waters and warm surface waters
heat distribution from the low, tropical regions to the higher latitudes,
nutrients transport from deep waters to the surface, and
influencing the climates of coastal regions.
________ are localized within a body of water. High salt and/or cooling water create areas of high density that sink and flow under the surface
are the result of the combined effects of surface and density currents, thermohaline circulation, upwelling and the Earth’s rotation.
_______is an oceanographic phenomenon that involves wind-driven motion of dense, cooler, and usually nutrient-rich water towards the ocean surface, replacing the warmer, usually nutrient-depleted surface water
_______ is the process of accumulation and sinking of higher density material beneath lower density material, such as cold or saline water beneath warmer or fresher water or cold air beneath warm air
Which currents are swift, narrow and deep? (e.g. the Gulf stream)
Which currents are slower, broader and shallower?
currents on the western boundaries of ocean gyres are narrower and flow faster than eastern boundary currents.
Warm surface currents flow out of ocean gyres from the tropics to higher latitudes
cold surface currents flow from colder latitudes toward the equator
The excess heat received in the equatorial regions drives everything, including the strong Western Boundary Currents such as the familiar Gulf Stream and the East Australian Current
equator toward the poles
Ocean currents move and redistribute heat from high to low latitudes by moving warm water from the
Water has a high specific heat, which means that water gains and looses heat slowly, it takes more energy input to increase its temperature
The thermohaline circulation is analogous to a “global conveyor belt” that moves large volumes of water throughout the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian oceans.
Cold water sinks in polar areas and warmer, less dense water floats on top.
North Atlantic Deep Water
(NADW), the biggest water mass in the oceans, forms in the North Atlantic and runs down the coast of Canada, eastward into the Atlantic, and south past the tip of South America.
antarctic bottom water
(AABW), is the densest water mass in the oceans. It forms when cold, salty water sinks in the seas surrounding Antarctica, carrying oxygen and nutrients with it, and flows northward along the sea floor underneath the North Atlantic Deep Water, displacing the waters above it and helping to propel the Thermohaline Circulation
bend to the right
As a result of the Coriolis effect, water currents in the Northern Hemisphere _____.
The North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) is a climate cycle that occurs over several decades
Which one of the following factors does NOT favor increased infiltration?
The quantity of heat a liquid must absorb for 1 gram to be converted from a liquid to a gas
The term ________ applies to any situation in which groundwater under pressure rises on its own above the level of the aquifer.
This term refers to rock strata or sediments that readily transmit groundwater
prevent flood and erosion, filter out heavy metals ,protect wildlife habitats, act as a sponge for nutrients and water
Any water drawn from below the water table is:
Caves most commonly form in areas rich in:
The continuous movement of water from the oceans to the atmosphere, from the atmosphere to the land, and from the land back to the sea is known as
A measure of a material’s ability to transmit groundwater through interconnected pore spaces is known as its ________.
With increased demands for freshwater from agriculture and population increases, a major threat the aquifers face is
In the United States, more groundwater is used for this purpose than for any other.
Evaporation and Transpiration
Which two aspects of the hydrologic cycle are responsible for water vapor in the atmosphere?
A measure of a rock’s ability to store water
The four South Florida counties draw most of their freshwater from the
salt water intrusion
excessive removal of fresh water is permitting salt water to move backwards into aquifers
The process by which water in the gas form (water vapor) changes to liquid water is referred to as __________.
More water evaporates from the oceans than is returned to the oceans by precipitation
Over land, precipitation equals runoff.
The single most important agent sculpting Earth’s surface is __________ erosion.
Which one of the following rivers has the greatest average discharge?
The release of water vapor to the atmosphere by plants is called __________.
The largest river in North America in terms of discharge is the __________ River.
We know that the oceans contain most of Earth’s water. Which one of the following ranks second?
Sea level drops when water is stored in expanding glaciers.
The area that contributes water to a stream is its __________.
Below Ground (22.22), Glaciers/ice (77.28), Atmospheric Water(.03), Water bodies (.47), fresh water (2.78)
found in the oceans (97.41% saltwater
Less than _____ of water on earth is usable
of usable water is underground
About ____ of all precipitation returns immediately to the atmosphere via evaporation and transpiration.
lakes with moderate level of nutrients such as phosphorus and nitrogen
the excess water that spreads onto the land adjacent to the river is called a
Water from aquifers naturally percolates up to the surface as
a confined aquifer that cannot be recharged unless the impermeable layer has an opening at the land’s surface that can serve
When Water from precipitation percolates through the soil and works its way into an aquifer
The uppermost level at which the water in a given area fully saturates the rock or soil and is considered to be the surface of the groundwater in an area
are surrounded by a layer of impermeable rock and clay which impedes water to flow
May aquifers are porous rock covered by soil where water and easily flow in and out. These are
is the phenomenon of a substance being held together by hydrogen bonds. It refers to the attraction of substances of the same kind to each other, like one water molecule to another, as opposed to adhesion in which substances of different kinds bond to each other.
These impermeable rock layers hinder or prevent groundwater movement and are called
sources of groundwater recharge
rain water and snowmelt
water that leaks through the bottom of some lakes and rivers
leaking water-supply systems (pipelines and canals)
irrigation of crops with more water than the plants can use.
The single greatest use of groundwater in the United States is for
80% – 90% efficient
above- or below-ground pipes or tubes deliver water directly to the roots of individual plants.
70% – 80% efficient
water is usually pumped from underground and sprayed from mobile boom with sprinklers
50% – 60% efficient
water from an aqueduct or a nearby river is pumped to flood a field.