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Boko Haram

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Boko Haram From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search Boko Haram People Committed to the Propagation of the Prophet's Teachings and Jihad ????? ??? ????? ?????? ??????? | Participant in the Nigerian Sharia conflict| Active| 2002–| Ideology| Islamism Islamic fundamentalism Oppose man-made law Support strict sharia law| Leaders| Mohammed Yusuf Abubakar Shekau[1] Mallam Sanni Umaru[2][3][not in citation given]Abu Qaqa - spokesman[4] Abu Zaid - spokesman[3]| Headquarters| Kanamma, Nigeria|

Area of operations| Northern Nigeria| Opponents| Nigerian State| Battles/wars| Nigerian Sharia conflict 2009 Nigerian sectarian violence| Map of Nigerian states that currently implement Shariah (in green) People Committed to the Propagation of the Prophet's Teachings and Jihad[5] (Arabic: ????? ??? ????? ?????? ??????? , Jama'atu Ahlis Sunna Lidda'awati Wal-Jihad), better known by its Hausa name Boko Haram, is a jihadist terrorist organization based in the northeast of Nigeria. 6] It is an Islamist movement which strongly opposes man-made laws. Founded by Mohammed Yusuf in 2001[7] or 2002,[8] the organisation is a Muslim sect that seeks to abolish the secular system of government and establish sharia law in the country. [9][10] The group is also known for attacking Christian churches. [11] The movement, whose name in the Hausa language, Boko Haram, translates as "Western education is sacrilege"[9] or "a sin",[12] is divided into three factions, and in 2011, was responsible for more than 450 killings in Nigeria. 9] Though the group first became known internationally following sectarian violence in Nigeria in 2009, it does not have a clear structure or evident chain of command. [13] Moreover, it is still a matter of debate whether Boko Haram has links to terror outfits outside Nigeria and its fighters have frequently clashed with Nigeria's central government. [9] Contents * 1 Etymology * 2 Ideology * 2. 1 Criticism * 3 History * 3. 1 Background * 3. 2 Origin * 3. 3 The beginning of violence * 3. 4 Reemergence * 4 Assessment * 5 Funding * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links| Etymology

The group has adopted its official name to be People Committed to the Propagation of the Prophet's Teachings and Jihad, which is the English translation of Jama'atu Ahlis Sunna Lidda'awati wal-Jihad (????? ??? ????? ?????? ??????? ). In the town of Maiduguri, where the group was formed, the residents dubbed it Boko Haram. The term "Boko Haram" comes from the Hausa word boko meaning "western education" and the Arabic word haram figuratively meaning "sin" (literally, "forbidden"). [14][15][16][17] The name, loosely translated from Hausa, means "western education is forbidden".

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The group earned this name due to its strong opposition to anything Western, which it sees as corrupting Muslims. [18] Ideology Boko Haram is an indigenous Salafist group which only turned itself into a Salafist Jihadist group in 2009. [6] It propagates that not only interaction with the Western World is forbidden, but it is also against the Muslim establishment and the government of Nigeria. [19] The group publicly extols its ideology despite the fact that its founder and former leader Muhammad Yusuf was himself a highly educated man who lived a lavish life and drove a Mercedes Benz. 14] The members of the group do not interact with the local Muslim population[20] and have carried out assassinations in the past of any one who criticises it, including Muslim clerics. [18] In a 2009 BBC interview, Muhammad Yusuf, then leader of the group, stated his belief that the concept of a spherical Earth is contrary to Islamic teaching and should be rejected, along with Darwinian evolution and the concept of rain originating from water evaporated by the sun. [21] Before his death, Yusuf reiterated the group's objective of changing the current education system and rejecting democracy. 22] Nigerian academic Hussain Zakaria told BBC News that the controversial cleric had a graduate education, spoke proficient English, lived a lavish lifestyle and drove a Mercedes-Benz. [21] In the wake of the 2009 crackdown on its members and its subsequent reemergence, the growing frequency and geographical range of attacks attributed to Boko Haram have led some political and religious leaders in the north to the conclusion that the group has now expanded beyond its original religious composition to include not only Islamic militants, but criminal elements and disgruntled politicians as well. Boko Haram has become a franchise that anyone can buy into. It's something like a Bermuda Triangle,” said Borno State Governor Kashim Shettima. [23] Criticism Dr Mu’azu Babangida Aliyu, the Niger State governor, has criticised the group saying "Islam is known to be a religion of peace and does not condone violence and crime in any form" and Boko Haram doesn't represent Islam. [24] The Sultan of Sokoto Sa'adu Abubakar, the spiritual leader of Nigerian Muslims, has called the sect "anti-Islamic" and, as reported by the website AllAfrica. om, "an embarrassment to Islam. "[25] The Coalition of Muslim Clerics in Nigeria (CMCN) have called on the Boko Haram to disarm and embrace peace. [26] The Islamic Circle of North America,[27] the Islamic Supreme Council of Canada,[28] The Muslim Council of Britain,[29] the Organization of Islamic Cooperation[30] and the Council on American Islamic Relations[31] have all condemned the group. History Background Main articles: Islam in Nigeria and Colonial Nigeria

Before colonisation and subsequent annexation into the British Empire, the Bornu Empire ruled the territory where Boko Haram is currently active. It was a sovereign sultanate run according to the principles of the Constitution of Medina, with a majority Kanuri Muslim population. The Bornu Sultanate emerged after the overthrow of the Kanem-Bornu Empire ruled by the Saifawa dynasty for over 2000 years. The Bornu Sultanate of the Kanuri is distinct from the Sokoto Caliphate of the Hausa/Fulani established in 1802 by the military conquest of Usman dan Fodio. 6] Both the Bornu Sultanate and Sokoto Caliphate came under control of the British in 1903. However, due to activities of early Christian missionaries who used Western education as a tool for evangelism, it is viewed with suspicion by the local population. [18] Increased dissatisfaction gave rise to many fundamentalists among the Kanuri and other peoples of northeast Nigeria. One of the most famous such fundamentalists was Mohammed Marwa, also known as Maitatsine, who was at the height of his notoriety during the 1970s and 1980s.

He was sent into exile by the British authorities, he refused to believe Mohammed was the Prophet and instigated riots in the country which resulted in the deaths of thousands of people. Some analysts view Boko Haram as an extension of the Maitatsine riots. [32] Origin The group was founded by Mohammed Yusuf in 2002 in the city of Maiduguri with the aim of establishing a Shari'a government in Borno State under former Governor Ali Modu Sheriff. [7][32] He established a religious complex that included a mosque and a school where many poor families from across Nigeria and from neighboring countries enrolled their children. 18] The centre had ulterior political goals and soon it was also working as a recruiting ground for future jihadis to fight the state. [18] The group includes members who come from neighbouring Chad and Niger and speak only Arabic. [33] In 2004 the complex was relocated to Yusuf's home state of Yobe in the village Kanamma near the Niger border. [22] Human Rights Watch researcher Eric Guttschuss told IRIN News that Yusuf successfully attracted followers from unemployed youth "by speaking out against police and political corruption. Abdulkarim Mohammed, a researcher on Boko Haram, added that violent uprisings in Nigeria are ultimately due to "the fallout of frustration with corruption and the attendant social malaise of poverty and unemployment. "[34] The beginning of violence Timeline of incidents| 7 September 2010| Bauchi prison break[35]| 31 December 2010| December 2010 Abuja attack[36]| 22 April 2011| Boko Haram frees 14 prisoners during a jailbreak in Yola, Adamawa State[37]| 29 May 2011| May 2011 northern Nigeria bombings[38]| 6 June 2011| The group claims responsibility for the 2011 Abuja police headquarters bombing[39][40]| 26 June 2011| Bombing attack on a beer garden in Maiduguri, leaving 25 dead and 12 injured[41][42]| 10 July 2011| Bombing at the All Christian Fellowship Church in Suleja, Niger State[43]| 11 July 2011| The University of Maiduguri temperory closes down its campus citing security concerns[44]| 12 August 2011| Prominent Muslim Cleric Liman Bana is shot dead by Boko Haram[45]| 26 August 2011| 2011 Abuja bombing[46]| November 2011| 2011 Damaturu attacks[40][47][48]| 25 December 2011| December 2011 Nigeria bombings[49]| 5–6 January 2012| January 2012 Nigeria attacks[50]| 20 January 2012| January 2012 Kano bombings[51]| 28 January 2012| Nigerian army says it killed 11 Boko Haram insurgents[52]| 8 February 2012| Boko Haram claims responsibility for a suicide bombing at the army headquarters in Kaduna. [53]| 16 February 2012| Another prison break staged in central Nigeria; 119 prisoners are released, one warder killed. 54]| 8 March 2012| During a British hostage rescue attempt to free Italian engineer Franco Lamolinara and Briton Christopher McManus, abducted in 2011 by a splinter group Boko Haram, both hostages were killed. [55]| The group conducted its operations more or less peacefully during the first seven years of its existence[6] That changed in 2009 when the Nigerian government launched an investigation into the group's activities following reports that its members were arming themselves. 56] Prior to that the government reportedly repeatedly ignored warnings about the increasingly militant character of the organisation, including that of a military officer. [56] When the government came into action, several members of the group were arrested in Bauchi, sparking deadly clashes with Nigerian security forces which led to the deaths of an estimated 700 people. During the fighting with the security forces Boko Haram fighters reportedly "used fuel-laden motorcycles" and "bows with poison arrows" to attack a police station. [57] The group's founder and then leader Mohammed Yusuf was killed during this time while in police custody. 58][59][60] After Yusuf's killing, a new leader emerged whose identity was not known at the time. [61] Reemergence After the killing of M. Yusuf, the group carried out its first terrorist attack in Borno in January 2010. It resulted in the killing of four people. [62] Since then, the violence has only escalated in terms of both frequency and intensity. In January 2012, Abubakar Shekau, a former deputy to Yusuf, appeared in a video posted on YouTube. According to Reuters, Shekau took control of the group after Yusuf's death in 2009. [1] Authorities had previously believed that Shekau died during the violence in 2009. 63] By early 2012, the group was responsible for over 900 deaths. [64] Assessment Boko Haram is considered a major potential terrorist threat affecting Nigeria and other countries, and U. S. officials believe it is potentially allied with Al Qaeda. U. S. Africa Command (AFRICOM) Commander General Carter F. Ham stated in September 2011 that three African terrorist groups - Shabab of Somalia, Al Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb across the Sahel region, and Boko Haram - "have very explicitly and publicly voiced an intent to target Westerners, and the U.

S. specifically" and that he was concerned with "the voiced intent of the three organizations to more closely collaborate and synchronize their efforts. "[65] General Ham reiterated his concern after the Christmas Day 2011 bombings of churches in Nigeria: "I remain greatly concerned about their stated intent to connect with Al Qaeda senior leadership, most likely through Al Qaeda in the lands of the Islamic Maghreb. ”[65] The US House of Representatives Subcommittee on Counterterrorism and Intelligence urged the Obama Administration and U.

S. intelligence community in November 2011 to focus on Boko Haram as a potential threat to United States territory. [66] Nigeria's National Security Adviser, General Owoye Andrew Azazi, has been working with other African governments, European and Middle Eastern governments, and the U. S. government to build cooperation against Boko Haram. He met in 2010 with then-CIA Director Leon Panetta, and in 2011 with AFRICOM Commander General Ham, and other U. S. fficials, and was in the United States when the congressional panel was preparing its report on Boko Haram. He participated in a CIA conference at about the same time. [67] After the Christmas 2011 bombings carried out by Boko Haram, President Barack Obama's office issued a statement that confirmed that the U. S. and Nigeria were cooperating at a senior level against the terrorist group. [68] Funding A spokesman of Boko Haram claimed that Kano state governor Ibrahim Shekarau and Bauchi state governor Isa Yuguda has paid them monthly. [69][70]

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