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Blood Test

How to Quickly and Easily Understand Your Blood Tests Without A Medical Degree The Simplified Patient Reference Guide By Ronald J.Grisanti D.C.

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Limits of Liability/Disclaimer of Warranty The author, Ronald Grisanti and publisher, Busatti Corporation have made their best effort to produce a high quality, informative and helpful book. The author and Publisher make no representation or warranties with respect to the accuracy, applicability, fitness or completeness of the contents of this program.

They accept no liability of any kind for any losses or damages caused or alleged to be caused directly or indirectly, from using the information contained in this book. This book is not intended for use as a source of any legal or medical advice. The Publisher wants to stress that the information contained herein may be subject to varying international, federal, state and/or local laws or regulations. The purchaser or reader of this publication assumes responsibility for the use of these materials and information.

All information is intended for your general knowledge only and is not a substitute for medical advice or treatment for specific medical conditions. You should seek prompt medical care for any specific health issues and consult your physician before starting a new fitness regimen. How to Quickly and Easily Understand Your Blood Tests Without A Medical Degree Copyright © 2004 Busatti Corporation All right reserved worldwide Busatti Corporation and Ronald Grisanti own all right, title, and interest in this publication.

No part of this book may be reproduced, distributed, or transmitted in any form, in whole or in part, or by any means, mechanical or electronic, including photocopying and recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, or transmitted by email, without permission in writing from the Publisher. 2 About the Author Dr. Ronald Grisanti is a practicing chiropractic physician since 1981. In addition to earning his doctorate in chiropractic medicine, Dr.

Grisanti is a Board Certified Chiropractic Orthopedist and Board Certified Sports Physician. He is presently completing his Master’s Degree in Nutrition from the University of Bridgeport. In addition, Dr. Grisanti has had extensive training in Functional Diagnostic Medicine and frequently consults with patients suffering with difficult to diagnose health problems like fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome, diabetes, hypertension, depression, anxiety, acid reflux and other challenging health conditions.

His admirable success record has earned him the title, “Your Medical Detective. ” Dr. Grisanti has discovered that many health problems can be successful treated once the underlying cause has been found. He is known for his tenacity and strong will to find the root cause of a patient’s health problem. In 2001, with his ever-growing love for research, Dr. Grisanti launched his weekly medical report titled, “The Grisanti Report” and has written over 400 articles on a host of medical conditions.

His weekly reports have gained worldwide attention and are now read in over 40 countries around the world. His list of subscribers has grown into the thousands. Just recently, Dr. Grisanti launched his exclusive membership site called YourMedicalDetective. com. Dr. Grisanti invites you to take a tour of his new site. Go to www. YourMedicalDetective. com 3 This site gives you exclusive, in-depth information and tools to help you and your doctor track down the real cause of your health challenges and solve them. Dr.

Grisanti would like to thank you for purchasing his digital book titled “How to Quickly and Easily Understand Your Blood Tests Without A Medical Degree. ” I believe you will benefit from a book that finally makes sense out of your blood chemistry results. Take care and enjoy the book. 4 Table of Contents Glucose Sodium Potassium Magnesium Chloride Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN) Creatinine BUN/Creatinine Ratio Uric Acid Phosphorus Calcium Albumin Calcium Albumin Ratio Globulin A/G Ratio Alkaline Phosphorus SGOT/AST and SGPT/ALT

GGT LDH Total Protein Iron Ferritin Triglycerides Cholesterol LDL Cholesterol HDL Cholesterol Cholesterol/HDL Ratio CO2 White Blood Cell Count Neutrophils Monocytes Lymphocytes Eosinophils Basophils Red Blood Cells Hemoglobin Hematocrit Platelets Reticulocyte Count MCV MCH T3 T4 T7 T3 Update TSH Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR) 5 Comprehensive Blood Test Guide Don’t you just hate when you get your blood test back and you have absolutely no idea what all those numbers mean on a standard chemistry profile?

Well now you can use this book to help you understand your test a bit better. GLUCOSE Glucose: This is the chief source of energy for all living organisms. A level greater than 105 in someone who has fasted for 12 hours suggests a diabetic tendency. If this level is elevated even in a non-fasting setting one must be concerned that there is a risk for developing diabetes. This is an incredibly powerful test and can predict diabetes ten years or more before one develops the strict definition of diabetes which is levels greater than 120.

Common Causes of Glucose Increase: Diabetes, poor carbohydrate utilization, syndrome X Less Common Causes of Glucose Increase: Cerebral lesions, uremia, pregnancy, intracranial pressure, cushing’s disease, hyperthyroidism, chronic nephritis, infections, first 24 hours after a severe burn, pancreatitis, cerebral lesions, uremia, early hyperpituitarism Common Causes of Glucose Decrease: Fasting Hypoglycemia Clinical Note: LDH will frequently be decreased or in the low normal with Fasting Hypoglycemia, however, LDH will almost ALWAYS be decreased with Reactive Hypoglycemia Less Common Causes of Glucose Decrease: liver damage, pancreatic adenoma, addison’s disease (adrenal insufficiency), starvation, late hypopituitarism Carcinoma of islet tissue Clinical Adult Range: 70-115 mg/dL Optimal Adult Range: 85-100 mg/dL Red Flag Range 250 mg/dL Clinical Notes: Order Glycohemoglobin (HGB A1C) with serum glucose values above 160 and to monitor diabetics under therapy Nutrition Tip: Thiamine Deficiency has been linked to increase in glucose levels 6 SODIUM Sodium: This element plays an important role in salt and water balance in your body. A low level in the blood can be caused by too much water intake, heart failure, or kidney failure. A low level can also be caused by loss of sodium in diarrhea, fluid or vomiting. A high level can be caused by too much intake of salt or by not enough intake of water.

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Clinical Adult Range: 135-145 Optimal Adult Range: 140-144 Red Flag Range 155 mmol/L Common Causes of Sodium Increase: Nephritis (kidney problems), dehydration, hypercorticoadrenalism (increased adrenal function) Clinical Notes: Water Softeners have been linked to cause an increase in sodium Common Causes of Sodium Decrease: Reduced kidney filtration, diarrhea, Addison’s disease, adrenal hypo-function POTASSIUM Potassium: This element is found primarily inside the cells of the body. Low levels in the blood may indicate severe diarrhea, alcoholism, or excessive use of water pills. Low potassium levels can cause muscle weakness and heart problems. Clinical Adult Range: 3. 5-5. 0 Optimal Adult Range: 4. 0-4. 6 Red Flag Range 6. mmol/L Common Causes of Potassium Increase: Adrenal hypo-function, cortisol resistance, acidosis, ongoing tissue destruction Common Causes of Potassium Decrease: Diarrhea, diuretic use, kidney problems, adrenal hyperfunction Less Common Causes of Potassium Decrease: Anemia, overdosage of testosterone, hereditary periodic paralysis, hypertension Nutrition Tip: Excessive licorice consumption has been linked to lower potassium levels 7 MAGNESIUM Magnesium: This important element is found in the arteries, heart, bone, muscles, nerves, teeth. Clinical Adult Range: 1. 7-2. 4 Optimal Adult Range: 2. 2-2. 6 Red Flag Range 1. 6 mg/dL Common Causes of Creatinine Increase: Kidney Problems, Gout Clinical Note: If Creatinine is 1. or higher in a male over the age of 40, Prostate Hypertrophy MUST be ruled out Less Common Causes of Creatinine Increase: Renal Hypertension, uncontrolled diabetes, congestive heart failure, urinary tract infection, dehydration Clinical Note: Suspect early nephritis ( kidney disease) if creatinine is between 2-4 mg/dL. Suspect severe nephritis is creatinine is between 4-35 mg/dL Common Causes of Creatinine Decrease: Amyotonia congenita BUN/CREATININE RATIO BUN/Creatinine Ratio: increased values may indicate catabolic states, dehydration, circulatory failure leading to fall in renal blood flow, congestive heart failure, acute and chronic renal (kidney) failure, urinary tract obstruction, prostatic enlargement, high protein diet.

Decreased values may indicate overhydration, low protein/high carbohydrate diet, pregnancy Clinical Adult Range: 6-10 Optimal Adult Range: 10-16 Red Flag Range 30 Common Causes of BUN/Creatinine Ratio Increase: Kidney problems Less Common Causes of BUN/Creatinine Ratio Increase: Catabolic states, prostatic hypertrophy, high protein diet, dehydration, shock Common Causes of BUN/Creatinine Ratio Decrease: Low protein/high carbohydrate diet, pregnancy 10 URIC ACID Uric Acid: Uric acid is the end product purine metabolism. High levels are seen in gout, infections, high protein diets, and kidney disease. Low levels generally indicate protein and molybdenum (trace mineral) deficiency, liver damage or an overly acid kidney. Clinical Female Range: 2. 4-6. 0 mg/dL Clinical Male Range: 3. 4-7. 0 mg/dL Optimal Female Range: 3. 0-5. 5 mg/dL Optimal Male Adult Range: 3. 5-5. 9 mg/dL Red Flag Range 9. mg/dL Common Causes of Uric Acid Increase: Gout, kidney problems, arteriosclerosis, arthritis Less Common Causes of Uric Acid Increase: Metallic poisoning (mercury, lead), intestinal obstruction, leukemia, polycythemia, malignant tumors, drug diuretics Common Causes of Uric Acid Decrease: Chronic B-12 or folate anemia, pregnancy Less Common Causes of Uric Acid Increase: Salicylate and atrophine therapy Nutrition Tip: If the uric acid is low with a normal MCV and MCH, a molybdenum deficiency may be present PHOSPHORUS Phosphorus: Phosphorus is closely associated with calcium in bone development. Therefore most of the phosphate in the body is found in the bones. But the phosphorus level in the blood is very important for muscle and nerve function. Very low levels of phosphorus in the blood can be associated with starvation or malnutrition and this can lead to muscle weakness. High levels in the blood are usually associated with kidney disease.

However the blood must be drawn carefully as improper handling may falsely increase the reading. Clinical Adult Range: 2. 5-4. 5 Optimal Adult Range: 3. 2-3. 9 Red Flag Range 5. 0 mg/dL Common Causes of Phosphorus Increase: Parathyroid dysfunction, kidney dysfunction, excessive phosphoric acid in soft drinks. Important Fact: Children will have an increase in Phosphorus due to normal bone growth. In addition, people with fractures will usually reveal an increase. Less Common Causes of Phosphorus Increase: Bone tumors, edema, ovarian hyper-function, diabetes, excess intake of vitamin D Common Causes of Phosphorus Decrease: Parathyroid Hyper-function, osteomalacia, rickets 11

Less Common Causes of Phosphorus Decrease: Diabetes, liver dysfunction, protein malnutrition, neurofibromatosis, myxedema Nutrition Tip: Phosphorus is frequently decreased with diets high in refined sugars Clinical Note: Suspect Vitamin D deficiency with low levels of calcium, phosphorus and increased levels of alkaline phosphorus Clinical Note: Phosphorus is a general indicator of digestive function. Consider hypochlorhydria when phosphorus is below 3. 0 and total serum globulin is greater than 3. 0 or less than 2. 4 CALCIUM Calcium: Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body. It is involved in bone metabolism, protein absorption, fat transfer, muscular contraction, transmission of nerve impulses, blood clotting, and heart function.

It is highly sensitive to elements such as magnesium, iron, and phosphorous as well as hormonal activity, vitamin D levels, CO2 levels and many drugs. Diet, or even the presence of calcium in the diet has a lot to do with “calcium balance” – how much calcium you take in and how much you lose from your body. Clinical Adult Range: 8. 5-10. 8 Optimal Adult Range: 9. 7-10. 1 Red Flag Range 12. 0 mg/dL Common Causes of Calcium Increase: Hyperparathyroidism Less Common Causes of Calcium Increase: Tumor of the thyroid, hypervitaminosis (excess Vitamin D), multiple myeloma, neurfibromatosis, osteoporosis, ovarian hypo-function, adrenal hypo-function Clinical Note: Serum protein influences calcium levels.

Calcium goes up with increased protein and goes down with decreased protein Common Causes of Calcium Decrease: Hypoparathyroidism, pregnancy, hypochlorhydria, kidney dysfunction Less Common Causes of Calcium Decrease: Vitamin D deficiency, diarrhea, celiac disease, protein malnutrition, chemical/heavy metal toxicity, HPA-axis dysfunction Clinical Fact: Poor intestinal fat absorption may be suspected with low levels of calcium, bilirubin and phosphorus Nutrition Note: Pancreatic enzyme deficiency may be suspected with low levels of calcium, triglycerides and increased levels of LDH 12 Clinical Note: Circadin rhythm abnormality should be a primary consideration with calcium levels either above or below normal ALBUMIN Albumin: The most abundant protein in the blood, it is made in the liver and is an antioxidant that protects your tissues from free radicals. It binds waste products, toxins and dangerous drugs that might damage the body.

Is also is a major buffer in the body and plays a role in controlling the precise amount of water in our tissues. It serves to transport vitamins, minerals and hormones. Lower levels are seen in poor diets, diarrhea, fever, infections, liver disease, kidney disease, third-degree burns, edemas or hypocalcemia. Clinical Adult Range: 3. 0-5. 5 Optimal Adult Range: 4. 0-4. 4 Red Flag Range 90U/L Common Causes of GGT Increase: Biliary obstruction, alcoholism, cholangitis/cholecystitis (bile duct and gall bladder inflammation) Clinical Note: If GGT is greater than 150 U/L with a serum bilirubin of over 2. 8 mg/dL, strongly suspect biliary obstruction. Seek immediate medical attention Clinical Note: If GGT values are five times igher than the clinical range suspect pancreatitis Less Common Causes of GGT Increase: Brucellosis, hepatitis, mononucleosis, bacterial and viral infection, malignancy, congestive heart failure biliary. Nutrition Note: Low levels of GGT may indicate a B-6 deficiency. Additional Clinical Notes: Food allergy/sensitivity is a very common finding with biliary dysfunction LDH Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH): LDH is an enzyme found in all tissues in the body. A high level in the blood can result from a number of different diseases such as hepatitis, anemia etc. Also, slightly elevated levels in the blood are common and usually do not indicate disease. The most common sources of LDH are the heart, liver, muscles, and red blood cells.

Clinical Adult Range: 60-225U/L Optimal Adult Range: 140-200U/L Red Flag Range ;250U/L Common Causes of LDH Increase: Liver/biliary dysfunction, pulmonary embolism, myocardial infarction, tissue inflammation, tissue destruction, malignancy anywhere in the body, several types of anemias Clinical Note: LDH will frequently increase with low thyroid function Clinical Note: LDH is frequently increased with birth control usage 16 Nutrition Note: Decrease LDH may indicate reactive hypoglycemia. (Check glucose) TOTAL PROTEIN Total Protein: This is a measure of the total amount of protein in your blood. Total protein is the combination of albumin and total globulin and is affected by the albumin and total globulin. A low or high total protein does not indicate a specific disease, but it does indicate that some additional tests may be required to determine if there is a problem. Clinical Adult Range: 6. 0-8. 5g/dL Optimal Adult Range: 7. 1-7. 6g/dL Red Flag Range 8. g/dL Common Causes of Protein Increase: Dehydration, “early” carcinoma, multiple myeloma (should be correlated with serum protein electrophoresis) Less Common Causes of Protein Increase: malignancy, diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis Common Causes of Protein Decrease: Protein malnutrition, digestive inflammation (colitis, gastritis) Less Common Causes of Protein Decrease: hypothyroidism, leukemia, adrenal hyper-function, congestive heart failure Nutrition Note: If protein and calcium are found to be on the low side of the optimal range suspect poor protein absorption. Additional Nutrition Notes: Decreased protein, cholesterol and SGPT may indicate fatty liver congestion IRON Iron: The body must have iron to make hemoglobin and to help transfer oxygen to the muscle. If the body is low in iron, all body cells, particularly muscles in adults and brain cells in children, do not function up to par. If this test is low you should consider getting a Ferritin test, especially if you are a female who still has menstrual cycles.

Clinical Adult Range: 40-150ug/ml Optimal Adult Range: 50-100ug/ml Red Flag Range 200ug/ml Common Causes of Iron Increase: Hemochromomatosis, liver dysfunction, iron therapy, pernicious and hemolytic anemia Less Common Causes of Iron Increase: cooking with iron utensils 17 Common Causes of Iron Decrease: Pathologic bleeding (especially in geriatric population), iron deficiency anemia Less Common Causes of Protein Decrease: chronic infections, kidney and liver problems Nutrition Note: Increased iron with decreased hemocrit (HCT) suggests intrinsic factor deficiency Clinical Notes: An iron evaluation is not complete without ordering Ferritin (see below) FERRITIN Ferritin: This test is considered the “gold standard” in documenting iron deficiency anemia.

Low levels below 25 indicate a need for iron. High levels may an inflammatory disorder, infections, rheumatoid arthritis, chronic kidney disease Clinical Male Adult Range: 33-236ng/mL Clinical Female Adult Range (before menopause): 11-122ng/mL Clinical Female Adult Range (after menopause): 12-263ng/mL Optimal Male Adult Range: 20-200ng/mL Optimal Female Adult Range (before menopause): 10-110ng/mL Optimal Female Adult Range(after menopause): 20-200ng/mL Red Flag Range 500ng/mL Common Causes of Ferritin Increase: Iron overload, hemochromatosis Less Common Causes of Ferritin Increase: inflammation, liver disease, rheumatoid arthritis Common Causes of Ferritin Decrease: Iron deficiency nemia Less Common Causes of Ferritin Decrease: Free radical pathology Clinical Notes: Serum ferritin greater than 1000 suspect hemochromatosis Clinical Notes: Iron overload and/or hemochromatosis are silent and can result in cirrhosis of the liver, bacterial infections, dementia, arteriosclerosis, diabetes and stroke Nutrition Note: Doctors specializing in chelation have found a correlation with increased iron and arteriosclerosis. TRIGLYCERIDES Triglycerides: These are fats used as fuel by the body, and as an energy source for metabolism. Increased levels are almost always a sign of too much carbohydrate intake and hyperlipidism. Decreased levels are seen in hyperthyroidism, malnutrition and malabsorption. 18

Clinical Adult Range: 50-150mg/dL Optimal Adult Range: 70-110mg/dL Red Flag Range 350mg/dL Common Causes of Triglycerides Increase: Hyperlipidism, diabetes, alcoholism Less Common Causes of Triglycerides Increase: Hypothyroidism, early stages of fatty liver Common Causes of Triglycerides Decrease: chemical/heavy metal overload, liver dysfunction, hyper thyroid function Clinical Notes: Resistive exercise training has been found to be effective in lowering elevated triglycerides CHOLESTEROL Cholesterol: Group of fats vital to cell membranes, nerve fibers and bile salts, and a necessary precursor for the sex hormones. High levels indicate diet high in carbohydrates/sugars.

Low levels indicate low fat diet, malabsorption, anemia, liver disorders, carbohydrate sensitivity. Cholesterol values below 140 are considered one of the four OMINOUS signs. Clinical Adult Range: 120-200mg/dL Optimal Adult Range: 150-180mg/dL Red Flag Range 400mg/dL Common Causes of Cholesterol Increase: Early stages of diabetes, fatty liver, arteriosclerosis, hypothyroidism Less Common Causes of Cholesterol Increase: biliary obstruction, multiple sclerosis, pregnancy Common Causes of Cholesterol Decrease: Liver dysfunction, chemical/heavy metal overload, hyperthyroidism, viral hepatitis, free radical pathology Nutrition Note: Increased cholesterol levels have been found to be lowered y the amino acid methionine Clinical Notes: Cholesterol level below 130 is considered an Ominous sign Clinical Notes: If cholesterol is above 220 with a SGPT below 10 suspect liver congestion/fatty liver LDL CHOLESTEROL LDL Cholesterol: LDL is the cholesterol rich remnants of the lipid transport vehicle VLDL (very-low density lipoproteins) there have been many studies to correlate the association between high levels of LDL and arterial arteriosclerosis. 19 Clinical Adult Range: 50mg/dL Clinical Adult Female Range: ;55mg/dL Optimal Adult Male Range: ;55mg/dL Optimal Adult Male Range: ;60mg/dL Red Flag Range 3. 0) may indicate intestinal parasites LYMPHOCYTES

Lymphocytes: elevated in acute and chronic infections. Decreased in viral infection and immune deficiency Clinical Adult Range: 20-40 percent of total WBC Optimal Adult Range: 25-40 percent of total WBC Red Flag Range 55 percent of total WBC 22 Common Causes of Lymphocytes Increase: Chronic viral or bacterial infection, Childhood diseases (measles, mumps, chicken-pox, rubella, etc. ), HIV, Hepatitis Less Common Causes of Lymphocytes Increase: Chemical/heavy metal toxicity Common Causes of Lymphocytes Decrease: Active infections Clinical Notes: Suspect a viral infections when the lymphocytes increase to a point that either equal or exceeds the neutrophil level EOSINOPHILS

Eosinophils: Elevated in allergic conditions, skin diseases, parasitic diseases Clinical Adult Range: 0-7 percent of total WBC Optimal Adult Range: 0-3 percent of total WBC Red Flag Range 55 percent of total WBC Common Causes of Eosinophils Increase: Allergic condition (asthma), food sensitivities, parasitic infection Less Common Causes of Eosinophils Increase: Chemical/heavy metal toxicity, Hodgkin’s disease, ovarian and bone tumors BASOPHILS Basophils: Elevated in Infections Clinical Adult Range: 0-2 percent of total WBC Optimal Adult Range: 0-1 percent of total WBC Red Flag Range 2. 0% Common Causes of Reticulocyte Count Increase: Internal bleeding Common Causes of Reticulocyte Count Decrease: Vitamin b-12, B-6 and folic acid anemia MCV

Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV) The MCV indicates the volume occupied by the average red blood cell Clinical Adult Range: 81. 0-99. 0cu. microns Optimal Adult Range: 82. 0-89. 9cu. microns Red Flag Range 95. 0cu. microns Common Causes of MCV Count Increase: Vitamin B-12/Folic Acid Anemia Common Causes of MCV Count Decrease: Iron anemia, internal bleeding Clinical Notes: If the MCV is ;89. 9 and the MCH is ;31. 9, suspect Vitamin B-12 or folic anemia. This should be confirmed with a serum or urinary methylmalonic (vitamin B-12) and a serum or urinary homocysteine (folic acid and vitamin B-6) Clinical Notes: If iron, ferritin are normal and MCV, MCH, Hemoglobin and Hematocrit are all decreased, suspect a toxic metal body burden MCH

Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin (MCH) The MCV indicates the volume occupied by the average red blood cell Clinical Adult Range: 26. 0-33. 0micro-micro grams Optimal Adult Range: 27. 0-31. 9micro-micro grams Red Flag Range 34. 0micro-micro grams Common Causes of MCV Count Increase: Vitamin B-12/Folic Acid Anemia Common Causes of MCV Count Decrease: Iron anemia, internal bleeding 26 Clinical Notes: If the MCV is ;89. 9 and the MCH is ;31. 9, suspect Vitamin B-12 or folic anemia. This should be confirmed with a serum or urinary methylmalonic (vitamin B-12) and a serum or urinary homocysteine (folic acid and vitamin B-6) Clinical Notes: If iron, ferritin are normal and MCV, MCH, Hemoglobin and Hematocrit are all decreased, suspect a toxic metal body burden T3

T3 (Tri-Iodothyronine): T-3 is a thyroid hormone produced mainly from the peripheral conversion of thyroxine (T-4) Clinical Adult Range: 22-33% Optimal Adult Range: 26-30% Common Causes of T3 Increase: Hyperthyroidism Common Causes of T3 Decrease: Hypothyroidism T4 T-4 (Tetra-Iodothyronine): T-4 is the major hormone secreted by the thyroid gland. Clinical Adult Range: 4. 0-12. 0mcg/dL Optimal Adult Range: 7. 0-8. 5mcg/dL Common Causes of T4 Increase: Hyperthyroidism Common Causes of T3 Decrease: Hypothyroidism, anterior pituitary hypofunction T7 T7 (FTI-Free Thyroxine Index) FTI is an estimate, calculated from T-4 and T-3 uptake. Clinical Adult Range: 4. 0-12. 0mcg/dL Optimal Adult Range: 7. 0-8. 5mcg/dL Common Causes of T7 Increase: See T-3 uptake Common Causes of T3 Decrease: See T-3 uptake T-3 UPTAKE T-3 Uptake T-3 uptake measures the unsaturated binding sites on the thyroid bindng proteins 27

Clinical Adult Range: 22-36% Optimal Adult Range: 27-37% Red Flag Range 39 percent of uptake Common Causes of T-3 Uptake Increase: Thyroid hyperfunction Less Common Causes of T-3 Uptake Increase: Kidney dysfunction, salicylates toxicity and protein malnutrition Common Causes of T3 Decrease: Thyroid hypo-function TSH TSH (Thyroid Stimulating Hormone): is used to confirm or rule out suspected hypothyroidism when T3, T4, T7 are essentially normal and clinical signs suggest hypothyroidism Clinical Adult Range: 0. 4-4. 4mlU/L Optimal Adult Range: 2. 0-4. 0mlU/L Red Flag Range 10. 0mlU/L Common Causes of TSH Increase: Thyroid hypofunction Less Common Causes of TSH Increase: liver dysfunction Common Causes of TSH Decrease: Thyroid hyper-function, anterior hypofunction Clinical Notes: The axillary temperature (underarm) will frequently be

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