What is a restriction enzyme?
Restriction enzymes cut DNA molecules at specific nucleotide sequences.
How does the restriction enzyme work?
They act as “molecular scissors” and they cut DNA. they restrict, or decrease, the effect of the virus on the bacterial cell.
Where do restriction enzymes come from?
various types of bacteria
What is gel electrophoresis?
Gel electrophoresis is used to separate DNA fragments by size.
What is a restriction map?
Pattern of DNA bands on a gel
What does a restriction map show?
the length of DNA fragments between restriction sites
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What is PCR and how does it work?
Polymerase Chain Reaction.
PCR makes copies of DNA segments. It uses polymerases to copy DNA segments.
What are the steps of PCR?
1. Separating (DNA is separated into single strands)
2. Binding (2 Primers bind the DNA)
3. Copying (new strands of DNA are built)
What does PCR produce?
new strands of DNA
each PCR cycle doubles the number of DNA molecules
What is a primer?
short segments of DNA that initiate replication by DNA polymerase
What is a DNA fingerprint?
a representation of parts of an individual’s DNA that can be used to identify a person at the molecular level. Shows differences in the number of repeats of certain DNA sequences.
How is a DNA fingerprint made?
It is a type of restriction map. A sample of DNA is cut with a restriction enzyme and then run through a gel and then the pattern of bands on the gel is analyzed.
What are the uses of a DNA fingerprint?
What is a clone?
a genetically identical copy of a gene or of an organism
What are some examples of nature’s clones?
1. plants cloning themselves from roots
2. bacteria producing identical copies of themselves through binary fission
3. human identical twins
What is recombinant DNA?
DNA that contains genes from more than one organism
What is genetic engineering?
when an organism’s DNA is changed to give it new traits
What is the purpose of genetic engineering?
to produce organisms with new traits
Why do scientists use Bacteria in genetic engineering?
because they have tiny rings of DNA called plasmids
What is a plasmid?
closed loops of DNA that are separate from the bacterial chromosome and that replicate of their own within the cell
Plants that contain recombinant DNA are referred to as what?
What is Proteomics?
the study and comparison of proteins
What is DNA Microarrays?
tools that allow scientists to study many genes and their expression at once
What is Bioinformatics?
the use of computer databases to organize and analyze biological data
What is Genetic screening?
the process of testing DNA to determine a person’s risk of having or passing on a genetic disorder
What does Genetic screening include?
involves the testing of DNA
What is Gene Therapy?
replaces defective, faulty, or missing genes, or adds new genes, to treat a disease
What are some problems with Gene Therapy?
the correct gene has to be added to the correct cells, the gene’s expression has to be regulated, may have a bad effect on other genes
Why is genetic engineering possible?
the genetic code is shared by all organisms
What is a Gene Knockout?
when the function of a gene has been disrupted or turned off to study gene function
What is Genomics?
the study of genomes