a. Ecologists may study populations and communities of organisms.
b. Ecology may involve the use of models and computers.
c. Ecology is a discipline that is independent from natural selection and
d. Ecology spans increasingly comprehensive levels of organization, form
individuals to ecosystems.
e. Ecology is the study of the interactions between biotic and abiotic
aspects of the environment
a. aggressive behavior
b. releaser pheromones
c. search image
e. visual communication
a community to resist change or of the ability of a community to recover to its original
state after change?
e. competitive exclusion
removed. The species removed was likely a(n)
a. community facilitator
b. keystone predator
d. resource partitioner
e. mutualistic organism
a. genetic drift
b. a further reduction in population size
d. a loss of genetic variability
e. all of the above are characteristics of an extinction vortex that the population may enter
a. nitrogen cycle
b. hydrologic cycle
c. carbon cycle
d. phosphorus cycle
e. energy cycle
terms would best describe this plant-herbivore interaction?
a. an insect that resembles a twig.
b. a butterfly that resembles a leaf.
c. a nonpoisonous snake that looks like a coral snake.
d. a fawn with fur coloring that camouflages it in the forest environment.
e. a snapping turtle that uses tits tongue to mimic a worm, thus attracting fish.
a. desert annual flowers.
a. a disturbed habitat
b. small offspring
c. parental care of offspring
d. numerous offspring
e. little homeostatic capability
a. increased agricultural productivity
b. new energy sources
c. increased life expectancy
d. more food form the oceans
e. decreased human birth
a. The growth rate will not change.
b. The growth rate will approach zero.
c. The population will show an allele effect.
d. The population will increase exponentially.
e. The carrying capacity of the environment will increase.
a. suitable habitat
b. food size and availability
c. temperature limitations
d. water availability
e. competition form other species
two interacting species?
a. predation-one benefits, one loses
b. parasitism—one benefits, one loses
c. commensalism—both benefit
d. mutualism—both benefit
e. competition—both lose
c. primary consumers
d. tertiary consumers
e. secondary consumer
b. producers and decomposers.
c. producers, primary consumers and decomposers.
d. producers, primary consumers, secondary consumers, and decomposers.
e. producers, primary consumers, secondary consumers, top carnivores and
essentially the same: they have a broad base and a narrow top. The primary reason for
this pattern is that
a. secondary consumers and top carnivores require less energy than producers.
b. at each step, energy is lost from the system as a result of keeping the organism
c. as materials pass through ecosystems, some of them are lost to the
d. biomagnification of toxic materials limits the secondary consumers and top
e. Top carnivores and secondary consumers have a more general diet than primary
a. technology has increased our carrying capacity and, thus, density dependent
factors have not slowed reproduction.
b. the death rate has greatly decreased since the Industrial Revolution.
c. the age structure of many countries is highly skewed toward younger ages.
d. infant mortality has decreased.
e. All of the above are true.
most to least inclusive?
a. community, ecosystem, individual, population
b. ecosystem, community, population, individual
c. individual, population, community, ecosystem
d. individual, community, population, ecosystem
e. individual, community, ecosystem, population
organization of biological communities?
a. precipitation , wind, temperature
b. nutrient availability, soil pH, light intensity
c. predation, competition, disease
d. A and B only
e. A, B, and C
a. often fail to colonize the new area.
b. may become common enough to become pests.
c. can disrupt the balance of the natural species with which they become associated.
d. Both B and Care correct.
e. A, B, and C are correct.
a. wind and water current patterns
b. species diversity
c. community succession
e. day length and rainfall
of plants and animals?
d. rocks and soils
a. will always result in an increase in the number of species in a given biome
b. can change the species composition within biological communities
c. will result ultimately in sustainable production of increased amounts of wood for human
d. is necessary for the protection of threatened and endangered forest species
e. only C and D are correct
a. tropical forest
b. coral reef
d. temperate forest
a. A cat kills a mouse to obtain food.
b. A male sheep fights with another male because it helps it to improve its social position
and find a mate.
c. A female bird lays its eggs because the amount of daylight is decreasing slightly each
d. A goose squats and freezes motionless because that helps it to escape a predator.
e. A cockroach runs into a crack in the wall and avoids being steeped on.
orange and black butterflies. This is NOT and example of
a. associative learning.
b. operant conditioning.
c. innate behavior.
d. trial and error learning.
e. adaptive behavior.
and drink the cream from the top.
e. All of the above can be correct.
from another male by functioning as:
a. A pheromone
b. A sign stimulus
c. A fixed action pattern
d. A search image
e. An imprint stimulus
a. A defective behavioral gene
b. Trial and error learning
c. Misdirected response to a sign stimulus
d. Natural behavioral variation in the mayfly population
e. Insecticide poisoning
a. Some aspects of courtship behavior may have evolved from agonistic interactions.
b. Courtship interactions ensure that the participating individuals are non-threatening and
of the proper species, sex, and physiological condition for mating.
c. The degree to which evolution affects mating relationships depends on the degree of
parental and postnatal input the parents are required to make.
d. The mating relationship in most mammals is monogamous, to ensure the reproductive
success of the pair.
e. Polygamous relationships most often involve a single male and many females, but in
some species this is reversed.
success of the pair
theory that maintains that:
a. Aggression between sexes promotes the survival of the fittest individuals.
b. Genes enhance survival of copies of themselves by directing organisms to assist others who share those genes.
c. Companionship is advantageous to animals because in the future they can help each
d. Critical thinking abilities are normal traits for animals and they have arisen, like other
traits, through natural selection.
e. Natural selection has generally favored the evolution of exaggerated aggressive and
submissive behaviors to resolve conflict without grave harm to participants.
associated with which of the following?
b. Patterns of high humidity
c. The random distribution of seeds
d. Antagonistic interactions among individuals in the population
e. The concentration of resources within the population’s range
environment is called its:
b. Logistic growth
c. Biotic potential
e. Ecological niche
colonized by herbaceous species which, over time, were replaced largely by shrubs,
then by forest trees. Assuming the growth of the shrubs and trees was enhanced by the
soil – holding properties of the herbaceous plants, which of the following processes
best describe the progression from herbaceous plants to forest trees?
a. Primary succession; facilitation
b. Primary succession; inhibition
c. Primary succession; toleration
d. Secondary succession, facilitation
e. Secondary succession, inhibition
within an ecosystem with limited resources?
a. Each species lives in a slightly different habitat
b. Each species occupies a different niche
c. Each species inhabits a different biome
d. Each species makes up a different population
e. Each species functions at a different trophic level