Biology Review: Ecology

All of the following statements about ecology are correct EXCEPT:
a. Ecologists may study populations and communities of organisms.
b. Ecology may involve the use of models and computers.
c. Ecology is a discipline that is independent from natural selection and
evolutionary history.
d. Ecology spans increasingly comprehensive levels of organization, form
individuals to ecosystems.
e. Ecology is the study of the interactions between biotic and abiotic
aspects of the environment
c. Ecology is a discipline that is independent from natural selection and
evolutionary history.
All of the following may be associated with mating behavior EXCEPT?
a. aggressive behavior
b. releaser pheromones
c. search image
d. territoriality
e. visual communication
c. search image
Which of the following is considered by ecologists as a measure either of the ability of
a community to resist change or of the ability of a community to recover to its original
state after change?
a. stability
b. succession
c. partitioning
d. productivity
e. competitive exclusion
a. stability
In a tide pool, 15 species of invertebrates were reduced to eight after one species was
removed. The species removed was likely a(n)
a. community facilitator
b. keystone predator
c. herbivore
d. resource partitioner
e. mutualistic organism
b. keystone predator
Which of the following may occur when a population drops below its minimum viable
population size?
a. genetic drift
b. a further reduction in population size
c. inbreeding
d. a loss of genetic variability
e. all of the above are characteristics of an extinction vortex that the population may enter
e. all of the above are characteristics of an extinction vortex that the population may enter
In which cycle are bacterial important for processes other than decomposition?
a. nitrogen cycle
b. hydrologic cycle
c. carbon cycle
d. phosphorus cycle
e. energy cycle
a. nitrogen cycle
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Evidence shows that some grasses benefit from being grazed. Which of the following
terms would best describe this plant-herbivore interaction?
a. mutualism
b. commensalism
c. parasitism
d. competition
e. predation
a. mutualism
An example of Batesian mimicry is
a. an insect that resembles a twig.
b. a butterfly that resembles a leaf.
c. a nonpoisonous snake that looks like a coral snake.
d. a fawn with fur coloring that camouflages it in the forest environment.
e. a snapping turtle that uses tits tongue to mimic a worm, thus attracting fish.
c. a nonpoisonous snake that looks like a coral snake.
Which of the following is the best example of K-selected species?
a. desert annual flowers.
b. humans.
c. salmon.
d. spiders.
e. mosquitoes
b. humans.
A species that is relatively r-selected might have all of the following characteristics
EXCEPT:
a. a disturbed habitat
b. small offspring
c. parental care of offspring
d. numerous offspring
e. little homeostatic capability
c. parental care of offspring
How would the dispersion of humans in the United States best be described?
a. dense
b. clumped
c. random
d. intrinsic
e. uniform
b. clumped
Which of the following would be most helpful in solving the world’s environmental
problems?
a. increased agricultural productivity
b. new energy sources
c. increased life expectancy
d. more food form the oceans
e. decreased human birth
e. decreased human birth
As N approaches K for a certain population, which of the following is predicted by the
logistic equation?
a. The growth rate will not change.
b. The growth rate will approach zero.
c. The population will show an allele effect.
d. The population will increase exponentially.
e. The carrying capacity of the environment will increase.
b. The growth rate will approach zero
Which of the following could cause a realized niche to differ from a fundamental niche?
a. suitable habitat
b. food size and availability
c. temperature limitations
d. water availability
e. competition form other species
e. competition form other species
Which of the following types of interactions INCORRECTLY paired to its effects on the
two interacting species?
a. predation-one benefits, one loses
b. parasitism—one benefits, one loses
c. commensalism—both benefit
d. mutualism—both benefit
e. competition—both lose
b. parasitism—one benefits, one loses
In general, the total biomass is a terrestrial ecosystem will be greatest for which trophic
level?
a. producers
b. herbivores
c. primary consumers
d. tertiary consumers
e. secondary consumer
a. producers
To recycle nutrients, the minimum an ecosystem must have is
a. producers.
b. producers and decomposers.
c. producers, primary consumers and decomposers.
d. producers, primary consumers, secondary consumers, and decomposers.
e. producers, primary consumers, secondary consumers, top carnivores and
decomposers.
b. producers and decomposers.
For most terrestrial ecosystems, pyramids of numbers, biomass and energy are
essentially the same: they have a broad base and a narrow top. The primary reason for
this pattern is that
a. secondary consumers and top carnivores require less energy than producers.
b. at each step, energy is lost from the system as a result of keeping the organism
alive.
c. as materials pass through ecosystems, some of them are lost to the
environment.
d. biomagnification of toxic materials limits the secondary consumers and top
carnivores.
e. Top carnivores and secondary consumers have a more general diet than primary
producers.
b. at each step, energy is lost from the system as a result of keeping the organism
alive.
The human population is growing at such an alarmingly fast rate because
a. technology has increased our carrying capacity and, thus, density dependent
factors have not slowed reproduction.
b. the death rate has greatly decreased since the Industrial Revolution.
c. the age structure of many countries is highly skewed toward younger ages.
d. infant mortality has decreased.
e. All of the above are true.
e. All of the above are true
Which of the following levels of organization is arranged in the correct sequence from
most to least inclusive?
a. community, ecosystem, individual, population
b. ecosystem, community, population, individual
c. individual, population, community, ecosystem
d. individual, community, population, ecosystem
e. individual, community, ecosystem, population
b. ecosystem, community, population, individual
Which of the following are important biotic factors that can affect the structure and
organization of biological communities?
a. precipitation , wind, temperature
b. nutrient availability, soil pH, light intensity
c. predation, competition, disease
d. A and B only
e. A, B, and C
c. predation, competition, disease
Introduced species:
a. often fail to colonize the new area.
b. may become common enough to become pests.
c. can disrupt the balance of the natural species with which they become associated.
d. Both B and Care correct.
e. A, B, and C are correct.
e. A, B, and C are correct.
Probably the most important factor(s) affecting the distribution of biomes is(are)
a. wind and water current patterns
b. species diversity
c. community succession
d. climate
e. day length and rainfall
d. climate
Which of the following abiotic factors has the greatest influence on the metabolic rates
of plants and animals?
a. water
b. wind
c. temperature
d. rocks and soils
e. disturbances
c. temperature
Fire suppression by humans:
a. will always result in an increase in the number of species in a given biome
b. can change the species composition within biological communities
c. will result ultimately in sustainable production of increased amounts of wood for human
use
d. is necessary for the protection of threatened and endangered forest species
e. only C and D are correct
b. can change the species composition within biological communities
In which community would organisms most likely have evolved to respond to different
photoperiods?
a. tropical forest
b. coral reef
c. savanna
d. temperate forest
e. abyssal
d. temperate forest
Which of the following is a behavioral pattern that results from a proximate cause?
a. A cat kills a mouse to obtain food.
b. A male sheep fights with another male because it helps it to improve its social position
and find a mate.
c. A female bird lays its eggs because the amount of daylight is decreasing slightly each
day.
d. A goose squats and freezes motionless because that helps it to escape a predator.
e. A cockroach runs into a crack in the wall and avoids being steeped on.
c. A female bird lays its eggs because the amount of daylight is decreasing slightly each
day.
After eating a monarch butterfly and regurgitation, a bird will subsequently avoid
orange and black butterflies. This is NOT and example of
a. associative learning.
b. operant conditioning.
c. innate behavior.
d. trial and error learning.
e. adaptive behavior.
c. innate behavior.
Chickadees learned to peck through the paper tops of milk bottles left on doorsteps
and drink the cream from the top.
operant conditioning
Male insects attempt to mate with orchids but eventually stop responding to them.
habituation
A returning salmon goes back to its own home stream to spawn.
imprinting
A stickleback fish will attack a model fish as long as the model has red color.
sign stimulus
Animal communication involves what type of sensory information?
a. visual
b. auditory
c. chemical
d. tactile
e. All of the above can be correct.
e. All of the above can be correct.
In the territorial behavior of the stickleback fish, the red belly of one male elicits attack
from another male by functioning as:
a. A pheromone
b. A sign stimulus
c. A fixed action pattern
d. A search image
e. An imprint stimulus
b. A sign stimulus
Mayflies laying eggs on roads instead of in water involves which of the following?
a. A defective behavioral gene
b. Trial and error learning
c. Misdirected response to a sign stimulus
d. Natural behavioral variation in the mayfly population
e. Insecticide poisoning
c. Misdirected response to a sign stimulus
All of the following statements about mating behavior are correct except:
a. Some aspects of courtship behavior may have evolved from agonistic interactions.
b. Courtship interactions ensure that the participating individuals are non-threatening and
of the proper species, sex, and physiological condition for mating.
c. The degree to which evolution affects mating relationships depends on the degree of
parental and postnatal input the parents are required to make.
d. The mating relationship in most mammals is monogamous, to ensure the reproductive
success of the pair.
e. Polygamous relationships most often involve a single male and many females, but in
some species this is reversed.
d. The mating relationship in most mammals is monogamous, to ensure the reproductive
success of the pair
The presence of altruistic behavior in animals is most likely due to kin selection, a
theory that maintains that:
a. Aggression between sexes promotes the survival of the fittest individuals.
b. Genes enhance survival of copies of themselves by directing organisms to assist others who share those genes.
c. Companionship is advantageous to animals because in the future they can help each
other.
d. Critical thinking abilities are normal traits for animals and they have arisen, like other
traits, through natural selection.
e. Natural selection has generally favored the evolution of exaggerated aggressive and
submissive behaviors to resolve conflict without grave harm to participants.
b. Genes enhance survival of copies of themselves by directing organisms to assist others who share those genes.
Uniform spacing patterns in plants such as the creosote bush are most often
associated with which of the following?
a. Chance
b. Patterns of high humidity
c. The random distribution of seeds
d. Antagonistic interactions among individuals in the population
e. The concentration of resources within the population’s range
d. Antagonistic interactions among individuals in the population
The sum total of an organism’s interaction with the biotic and abiotic resources of its
environment is called its:
a. Habitat
b. Logistic growth
c. Biotic potential
d. Microclimax
e. Ecological niche
e. Ecological niche
Following clear cutting of a deciduous forest several hundred years ago, the land was
colonized by herbaceous species which, over time, were replaced largely by shrubs,
then by forest trees. Assuming the growth of the shrubs and trees was enhanced by the
soil – holding properties of the herbaceous plants, which of the following processes
best describe the progression from herbaceous plants to forest trees?
a. Primary succession; facilitation
b. Primary succession; inhibition
c. Primary succession; toleration
d. Secondary succession, facilitation
e. Secondary succession, inhibition
d. Secondary succession, facilitation
Which of the following best explains why many different species can live together
within an ecosystem with limited resources?
a. Each species lives in a slightly different habitat
b. Each species occupies a different niche
c. Each species inhabits a different biome
d. Each species makes up a different population
e. Each species functions at a different trophic level
b. Each species occupies a different niche
Logistic growth of a population is represented by dN/dt
rN(K-N)/K
Exponential growth of a population is represented by dN/dt
rN