Lapland; Royal Society of Scientists
where Linnaeus collected plants on a gift of $50 from ____________ (organization)
form of taxonomy created by Linnaeus
Binomial Nomenclature meaning?
Number of stamen and pistils (sexual parts of flower)
Originally Linnaeus created the sorting system for botanists based on what in plants?
University of Uppsala; Holland
Where did Linnaeus teach? Where did he live for most of his life?
the flower part that contains the pollen
What is the stamen?
a yellow powder; male reproductive cells
What is pollen?
the female part of flower
What is the pistil?
the study of plants
What is botany?
a Dichotomous Key
What is used to sort creatures into their taxon? (Use of either or characteristics)
grouping of objects based on similarities
Definition of Classification
study of grouping of organisms
What is Taxonomy?
Who is the first to classify organisms? (He classified into plants or animals)
What is the language used for the names in binomial nomenclature?
Either or characteristics: appearance, behaviour, molecular structure (DNA), and evolutionary relationships
What characteristics are used to classify organisms?
Eukaryotes have nuclei and have membrane bound organelles.
Difference between a prokaryote and a eukaryote?
Domain: Eukarya – eukaryotes that are not animals, plants, or fungi. Eukaryotic but lack of complex organ systems. Usually live in moist environments
Basic definition of Protista
Domain: Eukarya – consumers that decompose dead organic material and do not move. Heterotrophic and absorb nutrients from dead organic decaying matter.
Basic definition of Fungi
Domain: Eukarya – multicellular consumers (heterotrophic) that do not have cell walls and tissues are organized into organ systems.
Basic definition of Animalia
Domain: Archae – unicellular prokaryotic organisms that live in extreme environments.
Basic definition of Archae
Domain: Eubacteria – unicellular prokaryotic organisms. AKA- modern bacteria
Basic definition of Eubacteria
Domain: Eukarya – multicellular eukaryotes that perform photosynthesis. They have cellulose and tissues organized into organs and organ systems.
Basic definition of Plantae
One way to organize organisms based on evolutionary relationships
What is a cladogram?
a Common Ancestor
All life form supposedly stems from…
What major group came before animals?
What group are mammals from?
a non-living pathogen made of a strand of DNA/RNA surrounded by a protein coat
What is Virus?
An infectious particle
What is a pathogen?
No, they must rely on a host to reproduce
Are viruses living? Why?
the protein shell of a virus
What is a capsid?
Injecting DNA/RNA into host cell. The cell is taken over and is forced to create parts of virus and put them together.
How do viruses reproduce?
What are viruses that only infect bacteria called?
A virus infection where the genetic material of the virus fuses with the genetic material of the host cell and is reproduced along with the cell’s genetic material. Often times the genetic material of the virus with activate and lead the cell into a lyctic infection.
What is a lysogenic infection?
A virus infection that causes the host cell to lyse (or burst) in order to release viruses’ progeny. Cell is taken over and forced to create reproductions of the virus. Once the cell has created progeny it bursts and progeny are released.
What is a lyctic infection?
Where RNA is transcribed into DNA and enter lysogenic infection. HIV
What is a retrovirus? Example?
Prion is an infectuous particle that is comprised of a protein. Always fatal because body has no reaction to protein.
What is a prion? What “type” of infection does it cause?
Substance that stimulates body’s immune response against invasion by microbes. A weakened version of strain to help familiarize immune system with strain so when strain is actually introduced, immune system will be able to recognize.
What is a vaccine? How does it work?
What organ does rabies target?
viruses can only connect with certain receptors on host cell.
How are viruses’ stay host specific?
Antony con Leeunwenhoek; using microscope he invented
Who was bacteria discovered by?
Bacteria have how many cells?
When cells assign different jobs or roles among themselves and change into different cell types. (Does not occur in prokaryotes)
What is differentiation?
RNA that infect plants
What are viroids?
Helical – cylinder shape, affects plants only.
Shapes of viruses: Helical
Shapes of bacteria: Coccus?
Shapes of bacteria: Bacillus?
spiral shape (rare)
Shapes of bacteria: Spirillum?
Polyhedral – “phelomorphic”, geometric shape (triangles connected together into polyhedral shape), ex- common cold
Shapes of viruses: Polyhedral
Enveloped – Spherical shape, often have spikes, ex- flu
Shapes of viruses: Enveloped
Binal – “spaceship”, affect bacteria only
Shapes of viruses: Binal
need oxygen to survive
Bacteria type: strict aerobes
die in presence of oxygen
Bacteria type: strict anaerobes
don’t use oxygen, but can survive in it
Bacteria type: aerotolerant
use oxygen when present but can live anaerobically when oxygen is absent
Bacteria type: facultative anaerobes
extremophiles that live in extreme conditions (bacteria)
modern day bacteria with peptidoglycan in their cell walls
a polymer present in the cell walls of Eubacteria
What is peptidoglycan?
stains purple if peptidoglycan is present (Eubacteria), stains red/pink if only thin layer of peptidoglycan (Archae)
What does the Gram Stain identify?
circular chromosome is copied then split without spindle apparatus. Bacteria
What is binary fission? What type of organism reproduces this way?
How do bacteria exchange genes?
invade and attack cells or make toxins that are carried throughout organism
How do bacterium cause disease?
antibiotics (cannot be overdosed or bacteria gain resistance)
What is used to treat bacteria?
Break down cell walls of bacteria, then white blood cells can eat bacteria
How do antibiotics work?
They enter through scabs and cuts and trick host into leaving it alone
How do viruses infect host?
antibiotics don’t work because no cell wall and capsids change rapidly. Some can be cured with vaccine, some must “run their course” and some have no cure.
How are viruses treated?
live in extremely salty water
Groups within Archae: What is Halophile?
live without oxygen (and produce methane)
Groups within Archae: What is Methanophile?
live in extremely hot acidic water
Groups within Archae: What is Thermophile?
How big are viruses?
Common cold, influenza, HIV
Diseases by viruses?
Diseases by bacteria?
Bacteria move with …
any organism that is not a plant, animal, or fungi is put here
Protists are called the “junk drawer” because…
The 3 categories of protists are based on how they…
unicellular, heterotrophic or parasitic
Types of protists: Animal-like
move by psuedopodia (temporary extension of cytoplasm)
Types of protists: Animal-like: Rhizopods and Foraminofera or Sarcodina
move by Cilia for movement and feeding
Types of protists: Animal-like:Ciliates
disease causing, usually immobile
Types of protists: Animal-like: Sporozoans
move by flagella (one or more) at some point in their life. Flagella is extension of cytoplasm
Types of protists: Animal-like: Zooflagellates
unicellular, multicellular, or colonial; grouped by photosynthetic pigments. Reproduce by mitosis or alternation of generations
Types of protists: Plant-like
unicellular, flagella, pellicle (flexible covering on cell surface like cell wall), chlorophyll a or b
Types of protists: Plant-like: Euglenoids
unicellular, 2 flagella, some bioluminescant
Types of protists: Plant-like: Dinoflagellates
unicellular, algae with cell wall of silica, release O2 by photosynthesis, made of two parts that fit over each other, symmetrical
Types of protists: Plant-like: Diatoms
Red Algae: red pigment, grow at deep depths, absorb blue pigment
Green Algae: multicellular, early ancestors to land plants
Brown Algae (phaeophyta): multicellular, grow very large, sushi/kelp
Types of protists: Plant-like: Algae
Contractile vacuole: pump water throughout cell
Macronucleus: controls cell’s structure and activities
Micronucleus: contain chromosomes
Oral groove: mouth
Food vacuole: digest food particles that are swept into oral groove
Parts of protists
Decomposers, at some point in their life are mobile
Types of protists: Fungus-like
single mass of cytoplasm with many nuclei; move with psuedopodia; absorb material as move along
Types of protists: Fungus-like: Plasmodial
many cells coming together, thousands of cells (fuse?) into one giant cell; small amoeba like cells
Types of protists: Fungus-like: Cellular slime mold
branching strands; decomposers or parasitic; potato famine
Types of protists: Fungus-like: water molds
heterotrophic, break down dead organic material
How do fungi gain nutrients?
help create drugs, antibiotics, and foods (beer, yogurt, bread, etc)
How do fungi help economically?
Fungi are genetically and chemically close to animals
Why are fungi diseases hard to treat?
True or False: Fungi invaded land before first vertebrates
What are the cell walls of fungi made of?
They are made of hyphae (long strands where cytoplasm flow freely). A mycellium is an underground group of hyphae. The flowering body is the part of fungus above ground, it is the reproductive body of the fungus.
What is the general anatomy of fungi?
They grow the hyphae through the material. Digestive enzymes break down material and allow hyphae to absorb.
How do fungi decompose dead organic material?
Zygomycota (bread molds), Chytridiomycota/Deuteromycota (primitive fungi/imperfect), Ascomycota (sac fungi), and Basidiomycota (club fungi). By mode of reproduction.
What are the four divisions of fungi? How are they divided?
False, they are the oldest
True or False: Chytrids are the youngest fungi.
True or False: Fungus is believed to have started in water.
because they have an ascus (sac) that holds the spores for reproduction
Why are Ascomycota called Sac Fungi?
Ascomycota is commonly known as…
Zygomycota is commonly known as…
Chytridmycota is commonly known as…
Basdiomycota is commonly known as….
Chytrids’ gametes are different because they have…
penicillum, yeasts, morels truffles
What are some examples of Ascomycota?
A symbiotic relationship between the roots of a plant and a fungi.
What is Mycorrhizae?
The fungi fix nitrogen into nitrates and ammonia for plant to use.
What happens in a Mycorrhizae?
mushrooms, shelf fungi, puffballs
What are some examples of Basdiomycota?
A symbiotic relationship or mutualistic relationship of a fungus and an algae. The fungus provides shelter for algae. Algae provides nutrition for fungi. (They are indicators of good air quality)
What are lichens?
If the mode of reproduction is not known, the fungus is put in this group.
Explain the fungal group Deuteromycota.
Budding and Simple Fission (Be able to explain the two)
What are the 2 forms of asexual division for fungi?
Gametes are produced and must fuse together to create diploid cell. Diploid cell must go through meiosis (genetic variation) to create haploid mycellium. (Often times gametes are spores)
Explain sexual reproduction in fungi briefly.
It allows the fungus to spread throughout an area/disperse across a region.
Why are spores important to fungi?
What phylum in Animalia are sponges part of?
asymmetrical, few radial
Symmetry in Porifera?
No tissues or organs. No appendages. Sessile mostly. Internal skeleton of Silica. Filter feeders by water circulation through pores.
Basic characteristics of Porifera.
What phylum in Animalia are jellyfish, hydra, and coral part of?
Radial Symmetry. Incomplete digestive tract. Polyp body type: sessile, medusa body (jellyfish). Loose tissue layers. Stinging cells for offense and defense. Secrete silica around body.
Basic characteristics of Cnidaria.
What does Cnidaria mean?
What phylum in Animalia is the first to show bilateral symmetry?
What phylum in Animalia are tapeworms part of?
Biliateral symmetry. Incomplete digestive tract. Primitive nervous system. Ribbon like body often.
Basic characteristics of Platyhelminthes.
What phylum are unsegmented roundworms part of?
Bilateral. Parasitic and free living. Complete digestive tract. No true segmentation in body. Soil nematodes.
Basic characteristics of Nematoda.
What does mollusca mean?
What phylum are clams and snails part of?
Complete digestive tract. Enclosed in thin material secreted. Shells are either 1, 2, or 8 parts. Nervous system with nerve cord.
Basic characteristics of Mollusca.
What phylum are segmented worms and leeches part of?
What does annelida mean?
ringlike segments. Bilateral. Move by use of fluid filled hydrostatic skeleton. Complete digestive tract. Free living, some ectoparasitic.
Basic characteristics of Annelida.
What phylum are crustaceans and most bugs part of?
Biggest most diverse phylum. Body is segmented and exoskeleton of chitin.
Basic characteristics of Arthopoda.
Crustacea, Arachnida, and Insecta
What are the three classes under Arthropoda. (Know basic characteristics of each).
Phylum- Arthropoda. Bilateral. True millipedes. Have many many legs. Chilopoda and Diplopoda
What are the basic characteristics of the subphylum Myriapoda?
have claws on first segment and poison glands. Each segment has one pair of legs
Arthropoda: Myriapoda: Chilopoda
“double legs”. Most prey on vegetation. Each segment has two pairs of legs
Arthropoda: Myriapoda: Diplopoda
What phylum do starfish and sand dollars belong to?
Radial symmetry in adults, bilateral in larvae. Some are sessile, some have arms for crawling. No head or brain. Skin with tiny projections
Basic characteristics of Echniodermata.
Chondrichthyes (sharks, rays, cartilage skeleton fish), Osteichthyes (bony fish), Amphibia (frogs), Reptilia (lizards, snakes), Mammalia (humans, kangaroos), Aves (birds).
Name the subphylums of Cordata.
Heterotrophs, sexual reproduction, bilateral symmetry, complete digestive tract.
Basic characteristics of Cordata.
True. Both do photosynthesis, use starch for storage, and have walls of cellulose.
True or False: Plants are believe to have evolved from green algae.
Retaining moisture, transporting resources, growing upright, reproducing without water.
What challenges did early land plants face?
They developed cuticle covering to keep moisture in and stomata for gas exchange.
How did early land plants overcome the challenge of retaining moisture?
They developed a vascular system
How did early land plants overcome the challenge of transporting resources?
used lignin to support tissues
How did early land plants overcome the challenge of growing upright?
developed pollen grains and seeds
How did early land plants overcome the challenge of reproducing without water?
Allow plant to distribute resources leading to larger growth.
What are the benefits of vascular tissue?
The reproductive structure of gymnospores.
What is a cone?
The reproductive structure of flowering plants (amniosperms most)
What is a flower?
The mature ovary of a flower
What is a fruit?
When pollen meets the female reproductive parts of the same plant species.
What is pollination?
1 Cotyledon. Parallel veins. flower part multiples of 3, scattered vascular tissue.
2 Cotyledons. Net like veins. flower part multiples of 4/5. ringed vascular tissue
An embryonic leaf inside a seed.
What is a cotyledgon?
flowering plants that mature, produce flowers, and die in one year. Corn
What is annual life span?
flowering plants that mature produce flowers and die in two years. carrots
What is biennial life span?
Parenchyma: thin an flexible.
Collenchyma: cells that have walls
Sclerenchyma: cells that have thick rigid walls and support plant after death
What are the 3 types of cells in plant tissues? Describe them.
Covers outside of plant for protection. Made of parenchyma.
Inside tissues of plant for support and structure. Made of all 3. Hold chloroplast
transports water and minerals to all parts of plant. Made of xylem and ploem.
Transports water and dissolved materials.
Transports products of photosynthesis and food.
Growth of shoot system (apical meristem) growth of new stems and structures.
What is primary growth in plants?
Growth laterally. Or widening of stems shoots, and roots
What is secondary growth in plants?
Water based, no vascular tissue. Mosses, liverwarts and hornwarts
Water based, has vascular tissue. Mosses, ferns and clubs
Seedless Vascular Plants
Seeds in cone. Has vascular tissue. Usually conifers, gingkos and cycads.
Seeds in fruit, usually produce flowers and nectar. Attract animals to help spread seeds. Most flowering plants: african violet.
Cells that aid in opening and closing of stomata.
Outermost layer of cells in plant.