Biology Chapter 9 Study Guides

List two alternative futures for cells when they reach their size limitations.
1. die
2. divide
stage in which the cell divides into two daughter cells with identical nuclei
b. cytokinesis
substage of interphase immediately after a cell divides
C. G1
substage of interphase in which the cell copies its DNA in preparation for cell division
A. S phase
stage in which the cell’s nuclear material divides and separates
F. mitosis
main stage in which the cell grows, carries out normal functions, and duplicates its DNA
E. interphase
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substage in which the cell prepares for nuclear division and a protein that makes microtubules for cell division is synthesized
D. G2
The nuclear membrane disintegrates during prophase.
true
Microtubules move chromatids to the poles of the cell during anaphase.
true
Chromosomes reach the poles of the cell during metaphase.
false
The cell’s chromatin condenses into chromosomes during prophase.
true
The nuclear envelope re-forms during anaphase.
false
Chromosomes attach to spindle fibers and line up along the equator of the cell during metaphase.
true
The nucleus reappears during prophase.
false
Centrioles migrate to the poles of the cell during telophase.
false
Chromatids are pulled apart during anaphase.
true
The first stage of mitosis is telophase.
false
The chromosomes de-condense or unwind during telophase.
true
The shortest stage of mitosis is metaphase.
true
Label the diagram of the stages of mitosis using lines 13-16.
13. metaphase
14. anaphase
15. telophase
16. prophase
Label the diagrams above using lines 17-20.
17. sister chromatids
18. centromere
19. spindle fibers
20. centrioles
Discuss the role of microfilaments in cytokinesis.
Microfilaments are used in animals to accomplish cytokinesis by constricting or pinching the cytoplasm.
Summarize cell division in prokaryotes.
1. goes through binary fission
2. when prokaryotic DNA is duplicated, both copies attach to the plasma membrane
3. As plasma membrane grows the attached DNA molecules are pulled apart.
4. Cell completes fission and the results: 2 new cells
Cancer is the uncontrolled growth and division of ..
cells
Cancer is the uncontrolled growth and division of cells that is often prevented by cell-cycle checkpoints that monitor for..
DNA damage or spindle fiber failure
Cancer is the uncontrolled growth and division of cells that is often prevented by cell-cycle checkpoints that monitor for DNA damage or spindle fiber failure and stop the ..
cell cycle before cytokinesis
Cancer is the uncontrolled growth and division of cells that is caused by un-repaired..
genetic changes
Cancer is the uncontrolled growth and division of cells that is caused by exposure to..
carcinogens
Cancer is the uncontrolled growth and division of cells that is caused by exposure to carcinogens such as …
tobacco, excessive x rays, or the Sun’s ultraviolet rays
Interphase
longest part of the cell cycle, G1, S, G2
G1
cell grows and performs normal function
Synthesis (S)
building DNA (replicating)
G2
cell prepares for mitosis
Mitosis
nucleus and nuclear material divide
cytokinesis
cells cytoplasm divides, creating new cell