biology chapter 6

TRUE OR FALSE
The study of biology includes things that were once living and those alive today.
true
TRUE OR FALSE
It is important to study the genetic makeup of other organisms because information in their genetic makeup may hold information about our own.
true
TRUE OR FALSE
An amoeba is unicellular; therefore, it is an organism.
true
TRUE OR FALSE
A single entity has been discovered that shows many of the characteristics of living things including growth, organization, and the ability to maintain homeostasis. However, because it does not reproduce, it is not considered a living thing.
false
TRUE OR FALSE
A single entity has been discovered that shows many of the characteristics of living things including growth, organization, and the ability to maintain homeostasis. However, because it does not reproduce, it is not considered a living thing.
false
TRUE OR FALSE
Phrenology was a pseudoscience because it was not based on observation.
false
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TRUE OR FALSE
Peer review allows others in the field to assess a scientist’s investigations and results.
true
TRUE OR FALSE
An inference comes before an observation.
false
TRUE OR FALSE
After observing tadpoles swimming in the water, you could infer that all amphibians have gills.
false
TRUE OR FALSE
Jake has hypothesized that if you add aspirin to the water when watering plants, the plants will have more blooms. To verify his hypothesis, Jake should use the same of amount of water and aspirin for each of the plants in the experimental group.
true
TRUE OR FALSE
An element is a pure substance that cannot be broken down into other substances by physical or chemical means.
true
TRUE OR FALSE
If a neutral atom contains 18 protons, it also contains 18 electrons.
true
TRUE OR FALSE
Going across one period in the periodic table of the elements, all the elements in that period have the same number of protons.
false
TRUE OR FALSE
An ionic bond is formed when two atoms share electrons.
false
TRUE OR FALSE
Van der Waals forces are attractive forces between molecules.
true
TRUE OR FALSE
Atoms in an ionic bond always attract the electrons equally.
false
TRUE OR FALSE
A chemical reaction is the process by which atoms or groups of atoms in substances are reorganized into different substances.
true
TRUE OR FALSE
When an endothermic chemical reaction takes place, heat is released into the environment.
false
TRUE OR FALSE
A catalyst increases the rate of a reaction by increasing the net energy change of the reaction.
false
TRUE OR FALSE
A substrate binds to an enzyme’s active site.
true
TRUE OR FALSE
In a molecule of water, the electrons are more strongly attracted to the hydrogen nuclei than to the oxygen nucleus. Therefore electrons spend more time near the hydrogen nuclei and there is an unequal sharing of electrons.
false
TRUE OR FALSE
As the H+ concentration of a solution in water increases, the OH- concentration decreases.
true
TRUE OR FALSE
In an experiment, the control group is used to test the effect of the independent variable.
true
TRUE OR FALSE
The interactions of organisms is a topic learned in biology.
true
TRUE OR FALSE
Someone involved in the study of biology might study insects.
true
TRUE OR FALSE
A hypothesis can be described as a possible proof.
false
TRUE OR FALSE
Science is based on subjective observations.
true
TRUE OR FALSE
Pseudoscience is based on observations and facts.
false
TRUE OR FALSE
Orlando infers that when he steps on an anthill, the ants come out. He observes that the ants do this out of fear.
Orlando’s statements correctly describe examples of an inference and observation.
false
MULTIPLE CHOICE
Which of the following are likely topics in a biology course?

a.Why does the Texas horned lizard squirt blood out of its eyes?

b.How is a banded pipefish able to hide in its environment of seaweeds?

c.What chemicals cause plant stems to lengthen or flowers to bloom?

d.All of these.

d
MULTIPLE CHOICE
Living things do all of the following except

a.make adjustments to nonliving factors around them.

b.maintain a steady internal environment.

c.respond to other organisms.

d.pass an identical genetic code to their offspring for many generations.

d
MULTIPLE CHOICE
Technology has allowed humans to produce more food and reduce the chance of starvation. Which of the following is the most significant result of this technology?

a.The technology increased population growth, creating the need for additional food.

b.The technology caused salts to be deposited in soils.

c.The technology caused the false belief that the problem was solved forever.

d.All of these.

a
MULTIPLE CHOICE
Because it is often difficult to gather numerical data, ____ information is collected.

a.quantitative

b.descriptive

c.scientific

d.ethical

b
MULTIPLE CHOICE
Which of the following would most likely be the major focus of a biologist?

a.bacteria found in hot springs

b.the composition of water in hot springs

c.the temperature of hot springs

d.the location of hot springs

a
MULTIPLE CHOICE
Which topic falls under the study of biology?

a.the chemicals in fuel

b.the makeup of the atmosphere

c.rocks found in a riverbed

d.the digestive system of an earthworm

d
MULTIPLE CHOICE
Which is not a topic of biology?

a.the relationship between fungi and trees

b.the distribution of sand on an ocean
floor

c.the chemicals at work in the stomach

d.the speed at which a hummingbird flies

b
MULTIPLE CHOICE
Which might you study in a biology course?

a.communication across telephone wires

b.communication over fiber optics

c.communication by satellite

d.communication among birds

d
MULTIPLE CHOICE
What is a possible benefit of studying plants in the rain forest?

a.The plants may hold medicines to treat human diseases.

b.The plants may produce needed carbon dioxide.

c.The plants may be cut down and sold in floral shops.

d.The plants may make toxins for human consumption.

a
MULTIPLE CHOICE
Which describes a major benefit that bioengineering technology has provided to society?

a.Its applications include the development of new plastics for airplanes.

b.Its applications include the development of pacemakers and artificial limbs.

c.Its applications include larger capacity for handheld music devices.

d.Its applications include more energy-efficient fossil fuels.

b
MULTIPLE CHOICE
Which is not something a scientist would study?

a.astrology

c.biology

b.botany

d.anatomy

a
MULTIPLE CHOICE
Which best describes the purpose of science?

a.to explain the nature of things

b.to propose solutions to political issues

c.to solve the ethical problems of society

d.to debate the meaning of life

a
MULTIPLE CHOICE
A person studying a topic is presented with new information that conflicts with previous findings. What would a scientist do in this situation?

a.ignore the new information

b.argue against the new information

c.evaluate the new information

d.keep the new information to himself

c
MULTIPLE CHOICE
In the peer-review process for a report of the results of a study on the ecology of honeybees, who would be an appropriate reviewer?

a.a politician that knew about bees

b.a biologist studying insects

c.a university president

d.a physicist that keeps bees

b
MULTIPLE CHOICE
What is the basis of the metric measurement system?

a.Its measures are based on divisions that are powers of ten.

b.It is based on European measurement standards.

c.It is the only scientific measurement system.

d.It is based on the wavelength of krypton-86 radiation.

a
MULTIPLE CHOICE
Which best explains the importance of understanding science?

a.It allows us to perform experiments on a variety of living things.

b.It allows us to determine which endangered species are worth saving.

c.It allows us to be educated in issues important in today’s world.

d.It allows us to understand different ways of measuring things.

c
MULTIPLE CHOICE
Which of the following is an observation?

a.You record the air temperature every day for a week.

b.You propose that a cold front is approaching.

c.You hypothesize that the temperature will increase tomorrow.

d.You conclude that the season is changing.

a
MULTIPLE CHOICE
Which is an inference?

a.You measure a plant’s height every day for a week.

b.You give a plant the same amount of water every day.

c.Every day for a week, you collect data on a plant’s movement.

d.After watching a plant for a week, you determine it needs more sunlight.

d
MULTIPLE CHOICE
Which best describes the difference between an observation and an inference?

a.You can record an observation; an inference is an idea.

b.You make an inference before you make observations.

c.An observation is a conclusion; an inference is a hypothesis.

d.An observation is based on evidence, an inference is not.

a
MULTIPLE CHOICE
Tasha is testing the effect of blue-colored light on the growth of tomato plants. Which is the independent variable in this experiment?

a.light color

c.amount of light

b.light intensity

d.temperature of light

a
MULTIPLE CHOICE
A researcher is interested in the effects of nitrate and phosphate on plant growth and sets up an experiment in which groups of five plants are given 1, 2, and 3 grams of nitrate and 1, 2, and 3 grams of phosphate in all combinations over a period of one month. The researcher measures plant height and weight at the end of the experiment. What is missing in this experimental design?

a.a control

b.an independent variable

c.a dependent variable

d.a constant

a
MULTIPLE CHOICE
A person studying a particular field has published her findings. The findings are not testable by others. This person is most likely studying which field?

a.astrology

b.biology

c.chemistry

d.physics

a
MULTIPLE CHOICE
Which is the most likely inference Luisa might make after watching the wildlife around her birdfeeder?

a.Ten birds come every morning to feed at her bird feeder.

b.Birds and squirrels compete for the same food sources.

c.Different birds come to the bird feeder each day.

d.Squirrels run very quickly up and down trees.

b
MULTIPLE CHOICE
Which of the following best describes a benefit of studying biology.

a.One is able to experiment on a variety of animals.

b.One is able to intelligently debate issues such as cloning.

c.One is able to preserve the animals that are extinct.

d.One is able to understand the causes of changes in weather.

b
MULTIPLE CHOICE
Which of the following correctly sequences the steps of the scientific method?

a.question, observe, explain, design and conduct experiment, collect and analyze data, report findings

b.observe, question, make a testable explanation, experiment, collect and analyze data, state findings

c.form a hypothesis, observe, investigate a testable question, collect and analyze data, state results

d.design and conduct an investigation based on a testable question, form a hypothesis, collect data, state findings

b
MULTIPLE CHOICE
Which is most likely not a beneficial contribution made by biologists?

a.Biologists improve the soil used for agriculture.

b.Biologists improve the life expectancy of humans.

c.Biologists improve the durability of non-stick coatings.

d.Biologists improve the nutritional content of food.

c
MULTIPLE CHOICE
____ represents a formula for a chemical compound.

a.H

c.P

b.C

d. H2O

d
MULTIPLE CHOICE
The total number of atoms in a molecule of sucrose, C12H22O11, is ____.

a.11

c.22

b.12

d.45

d
MULTIPLE CHOICE
An atom of fluorine has nine electrons. Its second energy level has ____.

a.two electrons

b.eight electrons

c.seven electrons

d.nine electrons

c
MULTIPLE CHOICE
Which is the negatively charged particle located outside the nucleus of an atom?

a.electron

c.silicon

b.neutron

d.proton

a
MULTIPLE CHOICE
Which particle in the nucleus of an atom has a neutral charge?

a.carbon

b.electron

c.neutron

d.proton

c
MULTIPLE CHOICE
If an atom has 7 electrons, how many are located in the second energy level?

a.2

b.3

c.5

d.7

c
MULTIPLE CHOICE
In the periodic table of the elements, elements in Group 1 have how many outer electrons?

a.0

b.1

c.4

d.8

b
MULTIPLE CHOICE
One isotope of carbon differs from another in which way?

a.atomic number

b.number of electrons

c.number of neutrons

d.number of protons

a
MULTIPLE CHOICE
Which substance has at least one ionic bond?

a.CH4

b.H2O

c.NaCl

d.O2

c
MULTIPLE CHOICE
A molecule of water (H2O) has which bonds?

a.1 covalent bond

b.1 ionic bond

c.2 covalent bonds

d.2 ionic bonds

b
MULTIPLE CHOICE
A single covalent bond forms when two atoms do which of these?

a.when they share one electron

b.when they share two electrons

c.when one gives an electron to the other

d.when one gives two electrons to the other

b
MULTIPLE CHOICE
Which is an example of a chemical reaction?

a.ice melting

b.iron rusting

c.sugar dissolving in water

d.water evaporating

b
MULTIPLE CHOICE
When paper burns in a fire, what is one reactant?

a.fire

b.carbon dioxide

c.oxygen

d.water

c
MULTIPLE CHOICE
When an iron nail rusts, what is one product?

a.iron

b.iron oxide

c.oxygen

d.water

b
MULTIPLE CHOICE
Two substances are combined and heat is produced. Does this provide evidence that a chemical reaction took place?

a.No, because heat is not a chemical.

b.No, because this would be a physical change.

c.Yes, because energy is absorbed.

d.Yes, because energy is released.

d
MULTIPLE CHOICE
Which is the best description of activation energy?

a.Heat added to initiate a reaction.

b.Heat released as the reaction proceeds

c.Heat stored within the reactant molecules.

d.Heat stored within the product molecules.

a
MULTIPLE CHOICE
A spontaneous chemical reaction occurs more rapidly when the reactants are held at 35ºC rather than 25ºC. Why would this be the case?

a.The activation energy would be lower.

b.The activation energy would be higher.

c.The net energy release would be lower.

d.The net energy release would be greater.

a
MULTIPLE CHOICE
How does an enzyme influence a biological reaction?

a.It increases the net energy difference between reactants and products.

b.It decreases the activation energy necessary to initiate the chemical change.

c.It increases the kinetic energy of reactants, thereby increasing their tendency to collide.

d.It decreases the kinetic energy of reactants, enabling them to undergo chemical change more easily.

b
MULTIPLE CHOICE
A student set up four test tubes containing starch solution in which to perform starch digestion. Supplies included amylase (enzyme that digests starch) and an incubator. In which tube listed would starch digestion proceed most quickly?

a.Tube 1: No amylase, room temperature (25ºC)

b.Tube 2: No amylase, body temperature (37ºC)

c.Tube 3: Amylase present, room temperature (25ºC)

d.Tube 4: Amylase present, body temperature (37ºC)

d
MULTIPLE CHOICE
A hydrogen bond can form between a hydrogen atom of one molecule and which atom of another molecule?

a.carbon

b.hydrogen

c.oxygen

d.sodium

c
MULTIPLE CHOICE
Capillary action is the result of adhesion. Which aspect of water is responsible for this?

a.hydrogen bonds between water and another substance

b.polar covalent bonds that join molecules of water to other substances

c.nonpolar covalent bonds that enable water to dissolve other substances

d.ionic bonds that enable electrons to flow through water and into another substance

a
MULTIPLE CHOICE
Which property is responsible for the fact that water and oil do not mix?

a.density

b.mass

c.phase

d.polarity

d
MULTIPLE CHOICE
Which is the best example of a solution?

a.blood

b.milk

c.paint

d.seawater

d
MULTIPLE CHOICE
Which beverage is the best example of a colloid?

a.black coffee

b.root beer

c.milk

d.tea

c
MULTIPLE CHOICE
When added to water, how does an acid affect the pH and H+ concentration?

a.Both pH and H+ decrease.

b.Both pH and H+ increase.

c.The pH decreases while the H+ increases.

d.The pH increases while the H+ decreases.

c
MULTIPLE CHOICE
A single carbon atom can form a maximum of how many single covalent bonds?

a.2

b.4

c.6

d.8

b
MULTIPLE CHOICE
Which element is found in proteins but not carbohydrates or lipids?

a.C

b.H

c.N

d.O

c
MULTIPLE CHOICE
In humans and other multi-cellular organisms, which substance plays a central role as an energy source?

a.carbohydrate

b.fat

c.protein

d.water

a
MULTIPLE CHOICE
Glycogen, used to store energy in the liver and muscle tissue, is an example of which type of molecule?

a.carbohydrate

b.protein

c.saturated fatty acid

d.steroid

a
MULTIPLE CHOICE
Amino acids are the building blocks of which macromolecules?

a.carbohydrate

b.DNA

c.lipid

d.protein

d
MULTIPLE CHOICE
An organism’s genetic information is stored in which type of macromolecules?

a.DNA

b.carbohydrate

c.lipid

d.protein

a