Biology 1 Cell Test Study Guide

Cell Theory
1) All organisms are composed of one or cells
2) The Cell is the basic unit of structure and function in an organism
3)All cells come from pre-existing cells
Theodor Schwann
Helped develop “The Cell Theory”
Also, “all ANIMALS are made of cells”
Rudolf Virchow
Helped develop “The Cell Theory”
his theory-All cells arise from pre-existing cells by cell division
Mathias Schleiden
helped develop “the cell theory”
All plants are made of cells
Anton von Leeuwenhoek
Helped develop “the cell theory”
1st to see LIVE CELLS under a microscope
Endosymbiotic Theory
Mitochondria and Chloroplasts were once free living prokaryotes that fused with another cell and set up symbiotic relationships! (relationships that benefit each other)
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Proof of Endosymbiotic Theory
1) Double membrane structure
2) Prokaryotic DNA (their own genetic code)
3)Prokaryotic ribosome (produce protein)
4) CAN survive outside cell
Structural Proteins
Help give the cell support and shape
Receptor Proteins
Proteins embedded in membrane that receives chemical signals from the environment or other cells to trigger a response. (communicate with environment)
Transport Proteins
Transport molecules across cell membranes through FACILLITATED DIFFUSION
Hydrophobic
Tail of the lipids repelled by water
Hydrophillic
Polar head of lipids attrackted to water
Nucleus
“Control Center” Metabloism and Division(reproduction)
Nucleolus
Structure within Animal Cells that helps Production of RIBOSOMES in nucleus
Lysosome
Membrane enclosed sac of digestive enzymes
SUCIDE SACS -digestion of food within cell
Mitrochondria
POWERHOUSE- Performs respiration /ENERGY to cell
Chloroplast
Food for Plant cells made here (photosynthesis)
contains Chlorophyll
Unique to Chloroplast and Mitchondria regarding DNA
Originally they were smaller prokaryotic cells engulfed by larger prokaryotic cells. Proof is they have their own DNA (Endosymbiotic Theory- lives with larger cell to benefit each other) that they use to produce proteins and enzymes.
Leucoplast
In plant cells – STORAGE
Endoplasmic Reticulum
Transportation through cell (as well as surface for chemical reactions)
Rough= ribosomes for protein, Smooth=lipids
Golgi
Packages and secretes products of the cell.
(packages into vesicles for transportation)
Ribosome
Site of Protein Synthesis (where Protein is Made)
Vacuole
Fluid filled organelles enclosed by a membrane
Contains stored food and wastes (plants large vacuole for water)
Centriole
Microtubule in Animal cells that AIDS IN CELL DIVISION
Cell Wall
Gives the cell its SHAPE and SUPPORT, NOT in animal cells
Cilia
Sort hairlike structures with the capacity for movement
Flagella
Longer but few hairlike structure used for movement
Cytoplasm
Jellylike/Watery material which contains many of the materials involved in cell metabolism
Cytoskeleton
Cell Shape, Strength and Movement in cell organelles. In Eukaryotic cells. Fills up the cytoplasm
Chromosomes
Rod-shaped bodies that carry Genetic Information
Chromatin
DNA Material located within the nucleus of a cell
Stem Cells
unique cells of the body in that they are unspecialized and have the ability to develop into several different types of cells.
Cilia
Hairlike Structures with the capacity for movement
SHORT
Flagella
LONG hairlike structure used for movement
Pseudopodia
Cytoplasmic Extensions for feeding and movement
(specialized cells in Kingdom Protista)
Contractile Vacuole
Used to combat Osmosis. A specialized vacuole of eukaryote cells, that fills with water from the cytoplasm and then discharges this externally by the opening of a permanent narrow neck.
Features that allow Paramecium to move
bodies are covered with Cilia that beat in 1 direction like oars spiraling through the water with an invisable axis
Features that allow Amoeba to move
by tenacle-like structures of psedupodia
Features allow Euglena to move
Flagellas long whip-like attachment to the side helps it propel through water
Eyespot
Helps detect sunlight needed for photosynthesis in the Euglena
Cell Wall of Fungi
made up of Chitin (cellulose)
Cell Wall of Plants
determines the shape of the cell. Much like the human skeleton
Hyphae
In fungi= Elongated , slender fungal cell
Red Blood Cells
formed in the bone marrow have a short lifespan of only 100 – 120 days, within which they perform the crucial role of transporting oxygen to various parts of the body.
White Blood Cells
Resist and fight infection!
“B” Cells
Mature in Bone Marrow
Make antibodies
Memory Cells
“T” Cells
Produced in Thymus
Helper T
Activate B cells
Killer T
Destroy Pathogens
Immune Response
Involves mainly “T” cells and leads to the destruction of cells that are infected with VIRUS!
Macronucleus in Paramecium
is the centre of all metabolic activities of the organism.
Micronucleus in Paramecium
is a storage site for the genetic material of the organism.
Prokaryotic
DNA
Ribosome
Unicellular
Eukaryotic
DNA
Ribosome
Nucleus
Complex Organelles
Unicellular or Multicellular
Semi-permmeable Cell Membrane
Because it allows some molecules to pass through while preventing others. **based on size and charge!!
Structures of Cell Membrane
Phospholipid Layer with embedded proteins
hydrophillic
hydrophobic
Proteins used as receptors
Hierarchy of Cell Organization
Cells : Basic unit of life TO
Tissues: Collection of cells TO
Organs: Performs functions and helps tissues TO
Organ System: Carry out important functions TO
Organism: Highest level
Cells communicate
Receptor Proteins_ proteins embedded in membrane that receive chemical signals from the environment or other cells to trigger response.
Hormones: chemical signals that can travel great distances to attach to receptor proteins
Endocrine System
series of glands that release chemicals/hormones into the bloodstream. Chemicals act as messengers to relay info>
Immune System
Defense against diseases and infection
Pathogen
Foreign substance, disease causing
Antigen
Protein on surface of cell
Erythrocytes
Red Blood Cells
Leukocytes
White Blood Cells
Primary defenders of the immune system
Phagocytes
Cells that engulf pathogens
Lymphocytes
B cells and T cells
Hooke
Looked at dead cork coined term “CELLS” looked like cells in a monastery!
Organelle
Small structures within a cell that have specific function “tiny organism”
Micronucleus
Used for reproduction