BIOL CH. 22

________ is descent with modification.
evolution
________ viewed species as fixed, and arranged them on scala naturae or _____ _____ __ _____.
Aristotle Great Chain of Being
_______ ________ believed pre Darwin views and was the founder of taxonomy.
Carolus Linnaeus
_______ are remains or traces of organisms from the past, usually found in sedementary rock, which appears in layers or strata.
fossils
__________ is the study of fossils.
paleontology
_____ ______ developed paleontology.
Georges Cuvier
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_____________ was a view advocated by Cuvier in which each boundary between strata represents a catastrophe (diety would replenish earth).
catastrophism
_____ ______ and _______ ____ percieved earths surface changes as a result from slow continuous actions still operating today, advocated uniformitarianism (mechanisms of change are constant over time).
James Hutton Charles Lyell
_______ hypothesized that species evolve through use and disuse of body parts and the inheritance of acquired characteristics and felt there was an ainnate drive toward higher levels of complexity.
Lamarck
______ _______ _______ sent a manuscript to Darwin with a theory of natural selection similar to Darwins.
Alfred Russell Wallace
Evolution occurs in _________ descent but also through _______ transfer of genes.
branching, lateral
__________ _________ is human modification of other species over many generations by selecting and breeding individuals that possess desired traits.
artificial selection
________ ________ is in the same genus as ________ ____ and includes cabbage, cauliflower, kale etc as subspecies.
brassica oleracea brassica rapa
Darwins observations.
members of a population often vary greatly in their traits, some traits are inherited from parents to offspring, all species capable of producing more offspring than environment can support, owing to lack of food or other resources, many of these offspring do not survive.
Darwins inferences.
individuals whose inherited traits give them a higher probability of surviving and reproducing in a given environment tend to leave more offspring than other individuals, this unequal ability at individuals to survive and reproduce will lead to the accumulation of favorable traits in the population over generations.
______ ______ influenced Darwin and noted the potential for human population to increase faster than food supplies and other resources.
Thomas Malthus
_______ ________ means that individuals with certain heritable traits survive and reproduce at a higher rate than other individuals
natural selection
____ or ____________-_________ _______________ ______ quickly evolved to overcome penicillin and methicillin.
MRSA methicillin-resistant straphylococcus aureus
__________ _________ are anatomical resemblances representing variations on a structural theme present in a common ancestor.
homologous structures
________ is similarity resulting from common ancestry
homology
__________ _____ consist of a diagram and is a hypotheses about relationships among different groups.
evolutionary trees
_______ ________ is evolution at similar, or analogous features in distantly related gorups.
convergent evolution
_________ ______ arise when groups independently adapt to similar environments in similar ways.
analogous traits
___________ is a geographic distribution of species.
biogeography
_______ ______ are speicies on islands that are often closely related to species on the nearst mainland or island (unique to defined geographic location)
endemic species
a ______ accounts for many observations and data and attempts to explain and integrate a great variety of phenomena.
theory