Bio Ch. 34 , 35

Rachel Carson’s book, Silent Spring, deals with the
environmental effects of pesticides
In many dense forests, plants living near the ground level engage in intense competition for
sunlight
Which of the following environmental factors usually has the greatest direct effect on an organism’s rate of water loss by evaporation?
wind
The reason that the pronghorn antelope is not found outside North America is most likely that
it has never dispersed beyond this region
In terms of global air circulation, the tropics are a region where air
rises and cools, dropping rain
The greatest annual input and least season variation in solar radiation occurs in the
tropics
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If you travel from west to east through Ecuador, you will pass through tundra, taiga, temperate forest, and tropical forest. Which of the following climatic factors remains constant on such a trip?
day length
Most of the world’s deserts are located at latitudes where
cold, dry air moving toward the poles descends
When people speak of the “rain shadow” of the California Coast Range, they are referring to the
scarcity of rain on the eastern flank and adjacent lowlands compared to the western flank
A sperm whale in the middle of the Atlantic Ocean is in which oceanic zone?
pelagic
Which ocean zone describes the interface between ocean and land?
intertidal
Fresh water and seawater mix in a(n)
estuary
Why is the runoff from fertilized agricultural field, even if free of pesticides, often harmful to the ecosystems of temperate lakes?
The runoff causes heavy algae growth, which eventually die and decompose, causing oxygen depletion
Which of the following statements about biomes, the major terrestrial ecosystems covering the Earth is true?
Fire is very important in some biomes
Which of the following statements about tropical forests is true?
The forest structure consists of distinct layers that provide many different habitats
The dominant herbivores in savannas are
insects
Which of the following options correctly pairs a biome and its characteristics?
tundra=very cold winters; only the upper layer of the soil thaws during the summer
Which of the following statements about deserts and the organisms that live there is true?
Many desert animals are nocturnal
Which of the following is characteristic of the chapparal biome?
many plants and seeds that need fire to germinate
The factor(s) that help to perpetuate temperate grasslands, such as the American prairies, and prevent them from becoming woodlands include
periodic drought and fires
Which of the following statements about temperate broadleaf forests is true?
Oak, hickory, birch, beech, and maple are common trees in temperate broadleaf forests
Which of the following statements about coniferous forests is true?
Coniferous forests may experience considerable precipitation, but usually in the form of snow
Which of the following tundra features would be found at the top of the Andes mountains in Ecuador?
fierce winds and frigid nights
Which of the following factors is fundamentally responsible for the character of arctic tundra soils?
permafrost
Living things that live in the polar ice biome include
mosses, lichens, seals, and polar bears
Which of the following has the greatest impact on the global water cycle?
human destruction of forests
Answers to questions about the immediate mechanisms for a behavior are called
proximate causes
The evolutionary explanations for behavior are called the
ultimate causes
When a nipple is placed in a newborn baby’s mouth, the infant will immediately begin to suckle. This is an example of
innate behavior
Which of the following is an example of a fixed action pattern?
the way a graylag goose retrieves an egg that has rolled out of the nest
When building a nest, a female Fisher’s lovebird cuts long strips of vegetation and carries them to the nest one at a time in her beak. The female peach-faced lovebird cuts short strips and carries them to the nest tucked under her back feathers. Hybrid female offspring cut immediate-sized strips and attempt to tuck them under back feathers before carrying them in their beak. What does this demonstrate about behavior?
There is a genetic basis to behavior
Cross-fostering experiments with Norway rat pups showed that in their response to stress
environment was the critical factor, not genetics
The modification of behavior based upon specific experiences defines
learning
When you successfully study with the stereo on the background, you are demonstrating
habituation
Which of the following behaviors would be unlikely to involve imprinting?
A migrating mother gazelle leaves her calf hidden in grass while she feeds and always returns to the correct patch of grass
A grayling butterfly will normally fly toward the sun. This is an example of
taxis
The most extensive study of cognitive maps has involved animals that
migrate
Squirrels on a bird feeder seem to be able to figure our how to steal seeds no matter what people do to prevent it. Yesterday, Jeremy hung out a new bird feeder design, and sure enough, by the end of the day squirrels found a way to get to the seeds. The squirrels most likely figured out how to get the seeds through
trial-and-error learning
A big difference between social learning and imprinting is that
social learning is not limited to a sensitive period
You lose track of your friend in a store and start looking for her. Which of the following things that you could do represents the use of a search image?
You think about what color clothing she wore and look for that color
An insectivorous bird has the choice of eating (1) meadow beetles, which are abundant and large but expose the bird to hawk predation; (2) under-a-rock beetles, which are large and fatty but hard to obtain; and (3) under-a-leaf beetles, which are easy to obtain but small. The bird has nestlings to feed. As an optimal forager, it will
eat all three kinds of beetles, balancing the energy spent and the risks incurred against the energy gained
The sending of, reception of, and response to signals constitute animal
communication
Organisms that are nocturnal are more likely to communicate using
smell and sound
Based on von Frisch’s work on honeybee communication, which of the following types of information will be communicated to other workers by a honeybee’s “dance” ?
The direction of the nectar source
Which of the following is communicated by courtship displays?
The individuals are of the same species and of the opposite sex
The need for intense parental care of offspring favors mating systems that are
monogamous
Endocrine disruptors on reproductive behavior affect behavior by
mimicking a hormone or enhancing hormone activity
Territories are typically used for activities such as
feeding, mating, and rearing young
Agnostic behavior
is typically used to determine access to food, mates, or territories
Pecking order in chickens is an example of
dominance hierarchy
Which of the following situations could represent kin selection in action?
You help your brother pay for his children’s college tuition, even though he may not be able to pay you back
From a sociobiological perspective, altruism is a behavior that
has the potential to enhance the altruist’s fitness at a later point in time