BIO 1404: Ch 15, 16, 17, & 18

Which of the following can regulate protein expression in a cell?
A. mRNA degredation
B. Protein degredation
C. RNA processing
All of the above
Alternative RNA splicing allows for:
Different mRNA molecules are produced from the same primary transcript
An operon may consist of which of the following:
A. Promoter
B. Genes
C. Regulatory gene
A & B: A promotor and genes
What is a protein produced by a regulatory gene?
A repressor
For a repressible operon to be transcribed, which of the following must occur?
RNA polymerase must bind to the promoter and the repressor must be absent
Enhancers are ___ control elements
Distal
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Steroid receptors produce their effects by:
Binding to intracellular receptors and promoting transcription
Genomic imprinting, DNA methylation, and histoacetylation are all examples of:
Epigenic phenomena
Catabolite activator protein (CAP) is activated by:
cAMP
“In situ” hybridization can be used to:
See mRNA expressed in different parts of an organism
Which of the following controls pattern formation?
A. Biocoid
B. Homeotic genes
C. Introns
B. Homeotic genes
The target host of a virus is determined by:
Proteins on the surface of the virus and on the surface of the host
Which of the following are sources of developmental information:
A. Cytoplasmic determinants
B. Induction by nearby cells through signaling molecules
C. Albumin concentration
A & B: Cytoplasmic determinants and induction by nearby cells through signaling molecules
Which virus has a genome that encodes for reverse transcriptase?
Retrovirus
A stem cell can divide into:
A. A stem cell and a precursor cell
B. Two stem cells
C. Two precursor cells
All of the above
The bicoid gene expressed in Drosophila proves information about:
The anterior-posterior axis
A proto-oncogene:
Normally codes for proteins involved in cell growth and division
The membrane envelope of an influenza virus arises from:
The plasma membrane
A mutation that affects a fundamental developmental process is called an:
Embryonic lethal mutation
Another term for programmed cell death is:
Apoptosis
The first cloned cat, Carbon Copy, was a calico, but she looked significantly different from her female parent. Why?
X inactivation in the embryo is random and produces different patterns
Describe the lysogenic cycle of lambda phage.
The phage genome replicates along with the host genome
The fact that plants can be cloned from somatic cells demonstrates that:
Differentiated cells retain all the genes of the zygote
The cancer-causing forms of the Ras protein are involved in which of the following processes?
A. Relaying a signal from a growth factor receptor
B. Cell-cell adhesion
C. DNA replication
D. Cell division
E. DNA repair
A. Relaying a signal from a growth factor receptor
A microarray known as a GeneChip, with most of the human protein-coding genetic sequences, has been developed to aid in the study of human cancer by first comparing two to three subsets of cancer subtypes. What kind of information might be gleaned from this GeneChip to aid in cancer prevention?
Data that could alert patients to what kind of cancer they were likely to acquire
Two potential devices that eukaryotic cells use to regulate transcription are:
DNA methylation and histone acetylation
Which types of viruses include capsids?
The three major types: spherical, helical, polyhedral, and complex viruses.
Which types of viruses include glycoproteins?
Polyhedral and spherical
Which of the following accounts for someone who has had a herpesvirus-mediated cold sore or genital cold sore getting flare-ups for the rest of his or her life?
A. Re-infection by a closely related herpesvirus of a different strain
B. Co-infection with an unrelated virus that causes the same symptoms
C. Copies of the herpesvirus genome permanently maintained in host nuclei
D. Re-infection by the same herpesvirus strain
E. Copies of the herpesvirus genome permanently maintained in host cell cytoplasm
C. Copies of the herpesvirus genome permanently maintained in host nuclei
The tryptophan operon is a repressible operon that is:
Turned off whenever tryptophan is added to the growth medium
Why do RNA viruses appear to have higher rates of mutation?
Replication of their genomes does not involve proofreading and repair mechanisms
What is considered to be the first evidence of differentiation in the cells of an embryo?
The occurrence of mRNAs for the production of tissue-specific proteins
Emerging viruses arise by:
A. The spread of existing viruses to new host species
B. The spread of existing viruses more widely within their host species
C. Mutation of existing viruses
All of the above
What is the function of reverse transcriptase in retrovirus?
It uses viral RNA as a template for DNA synthesis
Forms of the Ras protein found in tumors usually cause which of the following?
A. Cell division to cease
B. DNA replication to be hyperactive
C. DNA replication to stop
D. Growth factor signaling to be hyperactive
E. Cell-to-cell adhesion to be nonfunctional
D. Growth factor signaling to be hyperactive
Why might the cricket genome have 11 times as many base pairs as that of Drosophila?
Crickets must have more noncoding DNA
Gene expression might be altered at the level of post-transcriptional processing in eukaryotes rather than prokaryotes because of what?
Eukaryotic exons may be spliced in alternative patterns
Transcription of the structural genes in an inducible operon starts when?
When the pathway’s substrate is present
You are observing the activity of methylated DNA. You would expect it to have what effect on transcription?
To have turned off or slowed down the process of transcription
Which of the following characteristics, structures, or processes is common to both bacteria and viruses?
A. Independent existence
B. Genetic material composed of nucleic acid
C. Cell division
D. Metabolism
E. Ribosomes
B. Genetic material composed of nucleic acid
Which viruses have single-stranded RNA that acts as a template for DNA synthesis?
Retroviruses
Mutations in which of the following genes lead to transformations in the identity of entire body parts?
A. Morphogens
B. Inducers
C. Egg-polarity genes
D. Segmentation genes
E. Homeotic genes
E. Homeotic genes
What causes an increase in CAP?
A decrease in glucose and an increase in cAMP
The lactose operon is the most likely to be transcribed when:
The cyclic AMP and lactose levels are both high within the cell
Muscle cells differ from nerve cells mainly because they:
Express different genes
The functioning of enhancers is an example of what?
Transcriptional control of gene expression
Which one of the following techniques involves reverse transcriptase, PCR amplification, and gel electrophoresis?
A. “in situ” hybridization
B. DNA microarray assays
C. Nucleic acid hybridization
D. RT-PCR
E. RNA interference
D. RT-PCR
What are oncogenes?
They code for proteins associated with cell growth
How could you represent gene density?
Genes per base pairs; humans have ~20,000 genes in 2,900 Mb
How was Dolly the sheep cloned?
The fusion of an adult cell’s nucleus with an enucleated sheep egg, followed by incubation in a surrogate
A multigene family is composed of:
Genes whose sequences are very similar and that probably arose by duplication
What is the most probable fate of a newly emerging virus that causes high mortality in its host?
The newly emerging virus will die out rather quickly or will mutate to be far less lethal
In a genome-wide expression study using a DNA microarray assay, each well is used to detect the:
Expression of a specific gene by a cell
One of the characteristics of retrotransposons is that:
They code for an enzyme that synthesizes DNA using an RNA template
In humans, why do the embryonic and fetal forms of hemoglobin have a higher affinity for oxygen than adults do?
Because of nonidentical genes that produce different versions of globins during development
What is the most likely explanation for the differences in the human and chimpanzee genomes?
The common ancestor of humans and chimpanzees had 24 pairs of chromosomes, and at some point in the human lineage, two chromosomes fused end to end, providing some selective advantage
Which of the following can be effective in preventing the onset of viral infection in humans?
A. Taking antibiotics
B. Taking vitamins
C. Getting vaccinated
D. Applying antiseptics
E. Taking nucleoside analogs that inhibit transcription
C. Getting vaccinated
The phenomenon in which RNA molecules in a cell are destroyed if they have a sequence complementary to an introduced double-stranded RNA is called:
RNA interference
When does exon shuffling occur?
During meiotic recombination
When new viruses are being assembled, what mediates the assembly?
Nothing; they self-assemble
The comparison between the number of human genes and those of other animal species has led to many conclusions, including that:
The number of proteins expressed be the human genome is far more than the number of its genes
Homeotic genes contain a homeobox sequence that is highly conserved among very diverse species. The homeobox is the code for that domain of a protein that binds to DNA in a regulatory developmental process. What would you expect about the expression of homeotic genes?
Homeotic genes are selectively expressed over developmental time
What is the whole-genome shotgun technique for sequencing a genome?
Cloning fragments from many copies of an entire chromosome, sequencing the fragments, and then ordering the sequences
Which of the following is a characteristic of the lytic cycle?
A. Viral DNA is incorporated into the host genome
B. The virus-host relationship usually lasts for generation
C. Many bacterial cells containing viral DNA are produced
D. The viral genome replicates without destroying the host
E. A large number of phages are released at a time
E. A large number of phages are released at a time
What is bioinformatics?
The application of computational methods to the storage and analysis of biological data