Bio 105 Hope College

emergent properties
properties that do not occur at lower levels because they result from the INTERACTION of the entities at the lower levels of organization. Examples: population growth, flocking behavior, and consciousness
Collective properties
those that result simply from addictive properties of the system at lower levels of organization.
Abiotic Factors
are the non-living parts of an organism’s habitat, impact the distribution and abundance of organisms.
Tropical Deciduous
Rainfall 130-280cm a year, hot year round, distinct dry season-2-3 months long, rainy season, trees lose leaves, open canopy, diverse animals, soil is fertile. Examples: India. Animal life: monkeys, antelopes, wild pigs, and tigers.
Tropical Rain Forest
Rainfall>320cm per year, hot year round, soils nutrient poor, dense canopy, diverse animal and plant life. Examples North South America, Central America, Western and Central Africa, SE Asia
Temperate Deciduous Forest
Rainfall between 75-200cm, Temps fall below freezing but not bellow -12C, low species diversity, mammals hibernate, and birds migrate. Examples: Eastern U.S., Western Europe, animal species: squirrels, wolves bobcats, foxes, bears, and mountain lions.
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Temperate Grassland (prairie)
Rainfall 25-100cm, Temps fall to -10C summers 30C, different moisture gradients. Examples: Bison, pronghorn, wild horses, kangaroos, in N American, Russia, Argentina, and S Africa
Cold Desert
Rainfall less than 25cm/yr, Temps can be high in the summer, and around freezing in winter, not many plant species, and many burrowing species. Examples: Rodents, foxes, coyotes, Central Asia, North America , and East Argentina.
Temperate Coniferous Forest (Taiga)
Rainfall 30-100cm (often snow), Temp very cold, heavily furred animals. Examples: North America, and Russia, Evergreens conifers.
Tropical grassland (Savannah)
Rainfall between 50-130cm/yr, temp avg 24-29C, Poor soil, grasses with prevalent fires. Examples: Africa, North Aus, Antelope, zebra, wildebeest, cheetah, lion, leopard, hyena.
Tundra
>25cm rainfall per yr, permafrost (layer of permanently frozen soil), summer temps- 3-12C, Winters -32C, No trees, close to ground vegetation, low plant diversity, and heavily insulated animals. Examples: Mostly Northern Hemisphere, migratory birds.
Temperate Rain Forest
Rainfall >200cm/yr, temps do not fall bellow freezing but never exceed 27C, large evergreen trees. Examples: NW and SW America, mule deer, elk, squirrels, birds, reptiles, and amphibians.
Hot Desert
Rainfall less than 30cm/yr, temp very variable below freezing at night to 50C in the day. Examples: Sahara, plants: succulents, annuals, desert shrubs, animals: reptiles, birds, rodents, lizards, and snakes.
Population Level Ecology
3 general categories:
1) Clumped (or Aggregated) Ex: Wooly aphids
2) Uniform (or hyper-dispersed) Ex: Squirrels
3) Random (randomly distributed resources)
Carrying Capacity
The max number of individuals that can be supported by the environment.
r selected
lots of reproduction w/ the hope of a few surviving.
k selected
A few offspring at a time, lots of parental care. Ex: elephants and plants.
Semelparity
Breed once (some trees)
Iteroparity
seasonal and continuous, Examples (term is meant for breeding)
Population change over time
Change Population/ Change Time= Births- Deaths
Nt= No * e^rt(or)((b-d)*t) N=population