Bio 1 Lab Practical (BK College)

Scientific Method
1. Ask Question (testable) 2. Background research 3. Make hypothesis 4. Prediction (if/ then statement) 5. Experiment 6.Analysis/Conclusion 7. Communicate Results
Hypothesis
Proposed explanation
Independent Variable
Variable that changes/varies, X-axis
Dependent Variable
Variable that is measured or counted, “depends” on independent, Y-axis
Control Variable
Variables kept constant
Level of Treatment
Value set for the independent variables
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Prediction
If a, then b
Allometric Growth
Parts of an organism grow at different rates (ie. humans)
Isometric Growth
Parts of an organism grow at constant rates (ie. lizards)
Table
Used to present results with many data points
Figure
Graphs, diagrams, drawings, and photographs – visual summary of results comparing independent and dependent variables
Line Graph
Shows changes in quantity and emphasizes rise and fall over a range
Bar Graph
Used for discontinuous groups or nonnumerical categories
Prokaryotes
Cells that lack nuclei and membrane-bound organelles
Eukaryotes
More evolved cells with a membrane bound nucleus and organelles
Ocular Lense
Lense where you put your eyes, 10X
Objective Lense
Lenses on the revolving nosepiece, 4X, 10X and 40X
Nosepiece
Round disc that contains objective lenses
Stage
Flat piece where you put slides, moves up and down
Stage Adjustment
Adjusts stage to center slide
Coarse focus
Large knob
Fine focus
Small knob
Interpupillary Distance
Distance between eyepieces
Iris diaphram lever
Below stage, controls contrast
Light
Source of light
Low Power
4X
High Power
400X
Field of View
The circle of light that one sees in the microscope
Depth of Field
Thickness of the specimen that may be seen in focus at one time
Wet Mount
Drop of viable cells are placed on a microscope slide and covered with a cover slip.
Unicellular
Single-celled with all living functions handled by that one cell ex. Amoeba, Trichonympha
Amoeba
Unicellular, starfish-like with nucleus and contractile vacuole
Trichonympha
Unicellular with flagella in termite guts, mouselike w/ wood particles and nucleus
Aggregates
Random, temporary clusters of cells ex. Protococcus
Protococcus
Terrestrial, green alga that forms loose aggregates on the bark of trees, simple clumps of green cells w/ a cell wall
Colonial
Clusters composed of consistent and predictable number of cells ex. Scandesmus
Scandesmus
Aquatic alga that usually occurs in simple colonies of four cells connected by an outer cell wall with spines, (green with squiggles)
Multicellular
Organisms with two or more types of cells with specialized structure and function Ex. Elodea
Elodea
Aquatic, freshwater plant, green, rows of cells, with large central vacuole
Human cheek cells
Epithelial cells, thin, flattened squamous with large nucleus
Mitosis
Cell division, results in two identical diploid daughter cells: Interphase (G1, S, G2), Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase, Cytokinesis
Meiosis
Sexual Cell Division, produces haploid gametes, 2 stages I & II
Prophase I
Crossing over of homologous chromosomes and recombination occurs, tetrad forms
Metaphase I
Each tetrad lines up at metaphase plate, independent assortment
Anaphase I
Homologous chromosomes separate
Telophase I
Two haploid daughter cells form from cytokinesis
Prophase II
Centrosomes migrate to opposite sides
Metaphase II
Sister chromatids line up at metaphase plate
Anaphase II
Sister chromatids separate
Telophase II
Four haploid daughter cells form from cytokinesis
Protists
Very diverse group of clades, mostly unicellular, some multi-cellular
Alveolates
Protist clade with membrane-bound sac-like structures, ex. Paramecium, Dinoflagellates
Stramenopiles
Protist clade with hairy flagellum, ex. diatoms, brown algae
Rhodophyta
Protist clade containing brown/red algae, ex. Ectocarpus
Chlorphyta
Protist clade that include the multicellular green algae, ex. spirogyra
Heterotroph
Ingests or absorbs food ex. humans, fungus
Autotroph
Organism that makes its own food through photosynthesis (chlorophyll) ex. diatoms, algae, elodea
Mixtroph
Organism that is both heterotrophic and autotrophic ex. Cyanobacteria, phytoplankton
Zygomycota
Phylum of fungi that include bread molds ex. Pilobolus
Hyphae
Fungi are made up of these threadlike, filaments
Mycelium
Body of fungus
Sporangia
Tall stalk in fungi and plants in which meiosis occurs and haploid spores develop.
Gametangia
Protective extensions where gametes are produced in sexual reproduction of fungi
Ascomycota
“Sac Fungi,” Phylum of fungi that inlcude edible mushrooms and produce ascospores, ex. penicillium
Basidomycota
“Club Fungi,” Phylum of fungi that includes edible mushrooms, contain basidiocarp, ex. Corprinus mushroom
Basidiocarp
Reproductive structure of Basidomycota fungi
Gills
Folds under the cap of a mushroom where the basidiocarps are located, spore production
Lichens
Symbiotic associations between fungi and usually algae forming a body that can consistently recognized.
Foliose
Type of lichen with a leafy thallus
Crustose
Type of lichen with a crustlike thallus
Fruticose
Type of lichen with branching, cylindrical thallus
Chi Square Test
Statistical test that compares expected results to observed results, “goodness of fit”
Confidence Interval
Measures how confident we are that our results are not random chance
Degrees of Freedom
Number of categories minus 1
Bryophytes
Non-vascular, seeless plants, simple mosses, ex. Mosses, liverworts and hornworts