Follet, Munsterberg and Mayo are mostly known for behavioral- science approach theory. They are more focused on the human and psychological factors, which are likely to affect the workers.
A considerable philosophy of the theory illuminates employee relationship and motivation, information processing and organizational development. The three are also considered the founders of organizational psychology and behavioral approaches in the theories of management.
Follet is an American social worker, a pioneer in the organizational theory and organizational behavior. He is works as a management consultant. Her theory criticized the poor handling of employees and urge managers to be friendly. In doing so, they should grant them the liberty to collaborate, socialize and work in teams.
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Munsterberg, on the other hand, states that only workers with standard mental capability and moral standards should be hired. Moreover, increased employee motivation, job performance, and employee retention are very imperative. In other words, he encourages matching an employee merits with his or her job description. Elton Mayo, who started human relations movement is best known for Hawthorne studies which were conducted at the western electric company.
His theory is based on the soft ways for successful management. According to him, individual's work performance depends greatly on job satisfaction. He contributed significantly to behaviorism movement in the management field. However, Marx, Weber, and Taylor oppose such positions and call for employees liberations.
For instance, Marx is against the bourgeois who use other people to become rich. They are uncomfortable with the states of affairs that use other people as instruments of making wealth. Even though Marx, weber and Taylor contrast them, Follet, Munsterberg and Mayo transformed the way modern employers relate to their employees.
Q2Organizational structure defines how organizational activities are coordinated, and directing supervisions of the allocated tasks towards the achievement of organizational goals. Major types of the organizational structure include functional, divisional and matrix. Functional structure refers to the grouping of the organization departments according to purposes.
It is useful for small organizations with flexible departments which can solely rely on the skills, talents, and knowledge of employees. Divisional structure is used by large organizations which operate in different geographical areas. The organization is divided into divisions which areas separately managed towards achieving the common set goals. It is useful in the sense that its desires can be met rapidly and more specifically since each division operates independently.
Q3Everyone in a workplace possesses different personalities. The use of personality test immensely employs the use of the big five personality traits which includes openness, extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and neuroticism. In a workplace, personality traits can help in revealing strengths and weaknesses of the employees.
Moreover, it helps in determining levels of emotional intelligence among employees, a key tool for effective communication. In addition to this, personality traits help in creating awareness and enhancing excellent teamwork among employees. Finally, personality traits it helps in promoting a deeper understanding of employee capabilities based on their strengths and capabilities, thus making it easier to delegate the duties.
Q4 Perceptual distortions refer to the variations of a person's response to a stimulus from the common perception. Majorly, it occurs as a result of intellectual biases of an individual. The major causes of perceptual distortions include but not limited to stereotyping, halo effect, pre-deposition, recency effect, pre-deposition effect, primacy effect, and prejudice.
An example of perceptual distortion is that of an individual who is suffering from anorexia and holds a biased self-image. Such people see their bodies as overweighed and unsightly whereas others perceive them as the undernourished as well as underweighted.
Q5 Impression management refers to a self-presentation system which focuses on improving a person's image in the eyes of others. Typically, it refers to a process in which people attempt to influence the perception of others. Managers synonymously implement the use of impression management to present themselves to their employees, the public and to their peers as a way of impelling the insights of their appearance.
The underlying motives and basic governing factors of impression management culminates in the awareness of being a potential monitoring instrument and the kind social status. Additionally, cultural norms, personal goals, and social perspectives form other impression motives and governing factors for managers. The duo reveals the assertions, which leads to a dynamic way of presentational aspects.
Managers tend to impress their employees, peers and the public through the types of clothes they put on, which have specific designs and fashions. Politicians wear nice suits, carries an expensive suitcase and move inexpensive cars so as to impress the public as they woe for votes. Christianity is another strategy used by managers to impress peers and the public alleging that their ways are pure.
Q6 Stress refers to a hypersensitive response of the body to any kind of emotional strain. It occurs as a result of personal conflict between the job workload or demands and the little amount of time an employee has to meet these demands, hence lack of control.
The common demands that may lead to stress in the workplace include poor organization of the work, poor work design, poor working conditions, poor management and lack of supervisory support. Moreover, job monotony and excessive workload are also sources of stress in a workstation.
The general responses to stress that can be experienced are majorly classified into physical, Emotional responses. Physical stress occurs in the general body and includes pains, aches and other diseases that may be caused by stress. Physical stress is accompanied by frequent headaches, chest problems, back pain and aching stomach.
It is also characterized by insufficient sleep and high blood pressure. On the other hand, Emotional responses are experiences involving feelings and thoughts during stressful circumstances. Such responses include depression and anxiety, withdrawing socially and becoming more forgetful. Anger, lack of focus and becoming more restless are other emotional responses to stress.
Excessive stress is fatal and prevention measures should be put in place. In order to deal with stress, one should first trace the origin and know the causes of stress and develop healthy responses to curb the situation. Relaxing the mind and having sufficient sleep are important techniques suppressing stress. Avoid being lonely, talk to other people and seek for their help.
Finally, talking to the supervisor about the stressing issue can help solve the situation. This can be perfected by improving working conditions.
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